FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Marionette" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Marionette

A marionette is a type of puppet with strings controlled by a puppeteer from above. [1] Marionettes are operated with the puppeteer hidden or revealed to an audience in different forms of theatres or entertainment venues. They have also been used most effectively in films and on television. Puppeteer David Currell states, "A puppet is not an actor and a puppet theatre is not human theatre in miniature, because when an actor 'represents', a puppet 'is'." [2] Oscar Wilde wrote about puppetry, "There are many advantages in puppets. They never argue. They have no crude views about art. They have no private lives." [3] Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ...

Contents

Origins

Ancient times

Puppetry is an ancient form of performance. Some historians claim that they pre-date actors in theatre. There is evidence that they were used in Egypt as early as 2000 BC when string-operated figures of wood were manipulated to perform the action of kneading bread, and other string controlled objects. Wire controlled, articulated puppets made of clay and ivory have been found in Egyptian tombs. Marionette puppetry was used to display rituals and ceremonies using these string-operated figurines. A puppeteer is a person who manipulates a puppet or marionette, either by the use of strings, wires or their hands, for a stage production or film. ...


The Greeks left few physical examples of puppets. History reveals through literature that puppetry was important. The Greek word usually translated as "puppets" is neurospasta, which literally means "string-pulling", from nervus, meaning either sinew, tendon, muscle, string, or wire, and span, to pull. Aristotle referenced pulling strings to control heads, hands and eyes, shoulders and legs. Archimedes is known to have worked with marionettes. Plato's work is full of references to puppeteering. The 'Iliad' and the 'Odyssey' were presented using puppetry. Archimedes of Syracuse (Greek: c. ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ...


In ancient Greece and Rome clay dolls (and a few of ivory), dated from around 500 BC, were found in children's tombs. These dolls had articulated arms and legs, some of which had an iron rod extending up from the tops of their heads. This rod was used to manipulate the doll from above, exactly as is done today in Sicily puppetry. A few of these dolls had strings in place of the rods. Some authorities believe these ancient figures were mere toys and not puppets due to their small size. Perhaps their use as marionettes is suspect. [4]. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


The Indian word sutradhar(a) refers to the show-manager of theatrical performances (or a puppet-player), and also means literally "string-puller" or "string-holder".


Middle Ages and Renaissance

Italy is considered by many to be the early home of the marionette thanks to the influence of Roman puppetry. Xenophon and Plutarch refer to them. [5] The Christian church used marionettes to perform morality plays. [6] It is believed that the word marionette actually originates from the little figures of the Virgin Mary, hence the word 'marionette' or 'Mary doll'. [7] Comedy snuck into the plays as time went by and ultimately led to an edict banning puppetry from the church. Puppeteers responded by setting up stages outside cathedrals and became ever more ribald and slapstick. Out of this grew the Italian comedy called Commedia dell'Arte. Puppets were used at times in this form of theatre. Sometimes Shakespeare's plays were performed using marionettes instead of actors. [8] Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Morality plays (15th-16th c. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... Karel Dujardins set his closely-observed scene of a traveling troupes makeshift stage against idealized ruins in the Roman Campagna: dated 1657 (Louvre Museum) Commedia dellarte (Italian: play of professional artists also interpreted as comedy of humors), also known as Extemporal Comedy, was a popular form of improvisational...


Sicilian Marionettes

The sides of donkey carts are decorated with intricate, painted scenes from the Frankish romantic poems, such as The Song of Roland; these same tales are enacted in traditional puppet theatres featuring hand-made marionettes of wood, this art is called Opira dî pupi (Opera of the puppets) in Sicilian. The opera of the puppets and the Sicilian tradition of cantastorî (sing stories) are rooted in the Provençal troubadour tradition in Sicily during the reign of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in the first half of the 13th century. A great place to see this marionette art is the puppet theatres of Palermo, Sicily. Eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... See: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194-1250, king 1211/12-1250, emperor since 1220) Frederick II of Austria (?-1246, duke of Austria 1230-1246) Frederick II of Sicily (1272-1337) - who called himself Frederick III - see the article for details. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... For other uses, see Palermo (disambiguation). ...


Marionette Operas

The Queen of the Night from a production of Mozart's 'The Magic Flute' by the Salzburg Marionette Theatre
The Queen of the Night from a production of Mozart's 'The Magic Flute' by the Salzburg Marionette Theatre

In the eighteenth century, operas were specifically composed for marionettes. Gluck, Haydn, de Falla and Respighi all composed adult operas for marionettes. Today in Salzburg in Austria, the Salzburg Marionette Theatre still continues the tradition of presenting full length opera using marionettes in their own purpose built theatre. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 2. ... Night-blooming cereus, Reina de la noche or Queen of the night are names of many cacti - among others: Night-blooming cereus (Selenicereus grandiflorus) (genuine queen of the night) Arizona queen of the night Night blooming cereus (Epiphyllum oxypetalum) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... Christoph Willibald Gluck (July 2, 1714 – November 15, 1787) was a German composer. ... (Franz) Joseph Haydn (in German, Josef; he never used the Franz) (March 31, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the classical period. ... Manuel de Falla y Matheu (November 23, 1876 – November 14, 1946) was a Spanish composer of classical music. ... Ottorino Respighi (born in Bologna on July 9, 1879, died in Rome on April 18, 1936) was an Italian composer and musicologist. ...   (Austro-Bavarian: SÃ¥izburg) is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg. ... Salzburg Marionette Theatre was established in 1913 and is one of the oldest continuing marionette theatres in the world. ...


Marionettes in modern times

Marionettes have sometimes been referred to as "puppets". Puppeteers refer to them as marionettes as there are other forms of puppetry such as finger, glove, rod and shadow puppetry. [9] The Salzburg Marionette Theatre was founded in 1913 and is world famous. It performs mainly operas such as Die Fledermaus and The Magic Flute and a small number of ballets such as The Nutcracker. The Salzburg Marionette Theatre productions are aimed for adults although children are of course welcome. There is also a marionette theatre at Schoenbrunn Palace in Vienna. Marionette theatre also had a very long history in entertainment in Prague, and elsewhere in the Czech Republic. An important organisation is the National Marionette Theatre in Prague. Its repertoire mainly features a marionette production of Mozart's famous Don Giovanni. The production has period costumes and an beautifully designed eighteenth century setting. There are numerous other companies including, Buchty a Loutky ("Cakes and Puppets") founded by Marek Becka. Rocky IX and Tibet are just two works in the repertoire. The Department of Puppetry and Alternative Theatre at the Prague Theatre Academy offers tertiary studies at undergraduate and graduate level. Shorter courses [10] are available working with master puppeteer and professional marionette builder, Miroslav Trejtnar. [11] (Photos of marionettes made are located here [12]) In Australia in the 1960s, Peter Scriven founded the Marionette Theatre Company of Australia and had beautiful marionette productions such as The Tintookies, Little Fella Bindi [13], The Explorers and The Water Babies. Today there are courses at tertiary level at the Victorian College of the Arts, University of Melbourne. Bil Baird did wonderful work revitalising marionette theatre and puppetry in the United States. He and his wife, Cora Eisenberg had their own marionette theatre in New York. Other countries have made unique contributions and offer courses for adults in puppetry. Salzburg Marionette Theatre was established in 1913 and is one of the oldest continuing marionette theatres in the world. ... Scene from the 1984 version. ... Die Zauberflöte, K. 620, (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... (left to right) Sergei Legat, as the Nutcracker, an unidentified child as a gingerbread soldier, and Lydia Rubtsova as Marianna in Vsevolozhskys costumes for the Ivanov/Petipa/Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker, St. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Mirsolav Trejtnar, born 5 April 1962 in Rychnov n. ... The Water-Babies, A Fairy Tale for a Land Baby is a childrens novel by Charles Kingsley. ... The Victorian College of the Arts (VCA) is an educational institution in Melbourne, which offers courses and training in fine art, dance, drama, film and television, music and production. ... The University of Melbourne, is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. ... William Britton Baird (August 15, 1904 - March 18, 1987), professional name Bil Baird, but often referred to as Bill Baird, was an American puppeteer of the mid- and late 20th century. ...

Pinocchio puppets in their stages of construction in a puppet shop window in Florence.
Pinocchio puppets in their stages of construction in a puppet shop window in Florence.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2613x1870, 611 KB) Pinocchio dolls in diverse stages of construcion in a shop window of Florence, Italy The filename should be . ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2613x1870, 611 KB) Pinocchio dolls in diverse stages of construcion in a shop window of Florence, Italy The filename should be . ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ...

Television and Film

With the rise in popularity of television and film, marionettes found a rise in popularity especially in children's programming. The story of Pinocchio and its Disney adaptation (Pinocchio released in 1940 is a story about a marionette. In 1947 Howdy Doody introduced marionettes to Saturday morning television. For other uses, see Pinocchio (disambiguation). ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Pinocchio is the second animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... Howdy Doody was a childrens television program (with a decidedly frontier/western theme, although other themes also colored the show) that aired on NBC from 1947 through 1960. ...

Thunderbirds TV series
(Australian DVD cover) Jeff Tracy's sons (left to right) Gordon, Alan, Scott, Virgil, John (Aquanaut, Astronauts & Pilots)

In the 1950s, Bil Baird and Cora Eisenberg presented a great number of marionette shows for television, and were also responsible for the delightful Lonely Goatherd sequence from the classic film The Sound of Music. Bill Baird also wrote a classic book on his work. [14] In Australia, a program called Mr.Squiggle, using a marionette central character of the same name, ran for many years. Another program for children using puppetry was the Magic Circle Club featuring puppets Cassius Cuckoo and Leonardo de Funbird . Image File history File links Thunderbirds-marionettes. ... Image File history File links Thunderbirds-marionettes. ... William Britton Baird (August 15, 1904 - March 18, 1987), professional name Bil Baird, but often referred to as Bill Baird, was an American puppeteer of the mid- and late 20th century. ... The Lonely Goatherd is a song from the musical The Sound Of Music. ... For other uses, see The Sound of Music (disambiguation). ... The Magic Circle Club was a televison show that aired in Australia on the ATV 10 Network from 1965 to 1967. ...


Image:Andypandy.jpg Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


In 1950 in the United Kingdom, a well loved marionette program for children, Andy Pandy came bursting on to the screen and entertained young and old. Later in the 1960s,Gerry Anderson with his wife, Sylvia Anderson and colleagues made a number of hit series, Fireball XL5, Stingray and Thunderbirds, which pioneered a technique combining marionettes and electronics. This allowed for radio control moving of the mouth of a marionettes. The technique is patented and called "supermarionation". The programs have been shown all around the world and are now widely distributed on DVD. Anderson also made two films, Thunderbirds Are Go and Thunderbird 6. [15] Team America: World Police is a 2004 movie made by South Park creators Matt Stone and Trey Parker which uses the same style of supermarionation as Thunderbirds. Matt Stone and Trey Parker dubbed their version "Supercrappymation" due to the fact they intentionally left the strings visible, among other reasons. Andy Pandy was a British childrens television series, the original incarnation of which premiered on BBC TV on 11 July 1950, as part of the For the Children strand (later Watch with Mother). ... Gerry Anderson (MBE), born 14 April 1929, is a British producer, director and writer, famous for his futuristic television programmes, particularly those involving specially modified marionettes, a process called Supermarionation. His first television production was the 1957 Roberta Leigh childrens series The Adventures of Twizzle. ... Sylvia Anderson (née Thamm) (born 25 March 1937) is a British voice artist and producer, most notable for her collaborations with her ex-husband Gerry Anderson. ... Fireball XL5 was a science fiction-themed childrens television show produced in Britain in 1962 by the husband and wife team of Gerry and Sylvia Anderson through their company APF in association with ATV for ITC Entertainment. ... For other uses, see Stingray (disambiguation). ... Thunderbird refers to several things: The Thunderbird is a mythical creature common to Native American religion. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Supermarionation (standing for super marionette animation) is a puppetry technique devised by the British production company AP Films and used extensively in its numerous action-adventure series, the most famous of which is undoubtedly Thunderbirds. ... Thunderbirds Are GO (DVD cover) Thunderbirds Are GO! was the first feature film to be made from the highly successful Supermarionation series Thunderbirds. ... Thunderbird 6 was a British science fiction-adventure motion picture released in 1968. ... Team America: World Police Team America: World Police is a 2004 movie by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, the creators of the Comedy Central television program South Park. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Matthew Richard Stone (born May 26, 1971) is an Emmy-winning American animator, film director, screenwriter, actor and voice actor. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Supermarionation (standing for super marionette animation) is a puppetry technique devised by the British production company AP Films and used extensively in its numerous action-adventure series, the most famous of which is undoubtedly Thunderbirds. ... Thunderbird refers to several things: The Thunderbird is a mythical creature common to Native American religion. ... Matthew Richard Stone (born May 26, 1971) is an Emmy-winning American animator, film director, screenwriter, actor and voice actor. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Puppets have also been used widely in animated films. Czech animator, Jiri Trnka, was particularly famous for her work. Pixar also uses its own proprietary software called Marionette to create its animations. Jiří Trnka (24 February 1912 Plzeň - 30 December 1969) was Czech puppet maker, illustrator, and motion-picture animator, renowned for his puppet animations. ... Pixars studio lot in Emeryville Pixar Animation Studios is an American computer animation studio based in Emeryville, California (USA) notable for its seven Academy Awards. ...


Styles of marionettes

Sicilian marionettes

Sicilian marionettes are among the simplest marionettes to operate. They are usually carved out of wood and have a sturdy rod which extends up through the body into the head. This rod, and one string attached to the hand, controls the manipulation of the puppet.

Marionette in Prague
Marionette in Prague

Download high resolution version (800x781, 91 KB)Marionettiste in Prague on Charles Bridge. ... Download high resolution version (800x781, 91 KB)Marionettiste in Prague on Charles Bridge. ...

Czech Marionettes

Czech rod marionettes are similar to Sicilian ones though they are more complex. They are hand carved, usually using lime wood. The marionettes have the central rod like the Sicilian marionette but also have strings for the arms and legs. Sometimes they also string to control a mouth or movable ears. These require more skilled manipulation. Czechs also have marionettes that have no central rod and strings that are attached to the head, shoulders and back. These are the most difficult marionettes to manipulate due to the absence of the central rod.


References

  1. ^ Puppetry Today by Helen Binyon, p.11
  2. ^ An Introduction to Puppets and Puppetmaking by David Currell, p.6
  3. ^ http://www.marionetten.at/about_e.html
  4. ^ http://www.sagecraft.com/puppetry/definitions/historical/chapter1.html
  5. ^ Puppetry Today by Helen Binyon, p.11
  6. ^ ibid
  7. ^ Marionettes: A Hobby for Everyone by Mabel & Les Beaton
  8. ^ Marionettes Onstage! by Leonard Suib and Muriel Broadman, p.ix
  9. ^ The Complete Book of Puppetry by George Latshaw
  10. ^ http://puppetsinprague.kidpraha.cz/index.htm
  11. ^ http://puppetsinprague.kidpraha.cz/people.htm
  12. ^ http://puppetsinprague.kidpraha.cz/photogallery.htm
  13. ^ http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/collection/database/?irn=163386&search=sad&images=&c=1&s=
  14. ^ The Art of the Puppet by Bil Baird
  15. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/anderson/thunderbirds/page1.shtml

Books

  • Baird, Bil (1966). The Art of the Puppet. Plays. ISBN 10 0823800679. 
  • Binyon, Helen (1966). Puppetry Today. London: Studio Vista Limited. 
  • Beaton, Mabel; Les Beaton (1948). Marionettes: A Hobby for Everyone. 
  • Robinson, Stuart; Patricia Robertson (1967). Exploring Puppetry. London: Mills & Boon Limited. 
  • Suib, Leonard; Muriel Broadman (1975). Marionettes Onstage!. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers. ISBN 0 06 014166 2. 
  • Currell, David (1992). An Introduction to Puppets and Puppetmaking. London: New Burlington Books, Quintet Publishing Limited. ISBN 1 85348 389 3. 
  • Latshaw, George (2000). The Complete Book of Puppetry. London: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-048640-952-8. 
  • Sinclair, Anita (1995). The Puppetry Handbook. Richmond, Victoria, Australia: Richard Lee Publishing. ISBN 0 646 39063 5. 

William Britton Baird (August 15, 1904 - March 18, 1987), professional name Bil Baird, but often referred to as Bill Baird, was an American puppeteer of the mid- and late 20th century. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stuart Robertson: Singer/songwriter and pianist best know for his albums The Futhest Shelter (2005) and World Figured Out (2007). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Magnetic Scrolls was a British computer game developer during the mid 1980s and early 1990s. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...

See also

Bunraku (Japanese: 文楽), also known as Ningyō jōruri (人形浄瑠璃), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater, founded in Osaka in 1684. ... Mr. ... Digital puppetry is the manipulation and performance of digitally animated 2D or 3D figures and objects in a virtual environment that are rendered in real-time by computers. ...

External links

  • Virtual museum of the puppet and of the marionette
  • Online gallery and resource of marionettes from the Czech Republic
  • See a video on how marionettes are made
  • [1] - Salburg Marionette Theatre
  • [2] - BBC website for "Thunderbirds"
  • Puppetry International
  • [3] - short term courses in Puppetry in Prague

  Results from FactBites:
 
marionette - definition of marionette in Encyclopedia (160 words)
A marionette is a type of puppet moved by strings, as in a puppet show.
Marionettes are considered by many to be very entertaining for both adults and children.
In the 1960s TV producer Gerry Anderson and his colleagues pioneered a technique combining marionettes with electronic components, typically to control facial features, which they dubbed "supermarionation".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m