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Encyclopedia > Mariology

Mariology is the area of Christian theology concerned with Mary, the Mother of Jesus. It not only deals with her life but her veneration mainly through Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Assyrian Church of the East and Anglicanism, and her aspect in modern and ancient Christianity. Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Greek... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity here refers...


St. Irenaeus of Lyon called Mary the "second Eve" because through Mary and her willing acceptance of God's choice, God undid the harm that was done through Eve's choice to eat the forbidden fruit. Irenaeus (Greek: Εἰρηναῖος), (b. ...


The Third Ecumenical Council debated whether she should be referred to as Theotokos or Christotokos. Theotokos means "God-bearer" or "Mother of God"; its use implies that Jesus, to whom Mary gave birth, is God. Nestorians preferred Christotokos meaning "Christ-bearer" or "Mother of the Messiah" not because they denied Jesus' divinity, but because they believed that God the Son or Logos existed before time and before Mary, and that Jesus took divinity from God the Father and humanity from his mother, so calling her "Mother of God" was confusing and potentially heretical. Others at the council believed that denying the Theotokos title would carry with it the implication that Jesus was not divine. Ultimately, the council affirmed the use of the term "Theotokos" and by doing so affirmed Jesus' undivided divinity and humanity. Thus, while the debate was over the proper title for Mary, it was also a Christological question about the nature of Jesus Christ, a question which would return at the Fourth Ecumenical Council. Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Anglican theological teaching affirms the "Mother of God" title, while some other Christians give no such title to her. The Council of Ephesus was held in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Christology is that part of Christian theology that studies and defines who Jesus Christ is. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8-November 1, 451 A.D at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor. ...


Most Christians believe that Mary was a virgin when she gave birth to Jesus, called the doctrine of the Virgin Birth. They disagree over whether she remained a virgin as the written Scripture names four brothers of Jesus, notably James the Just, and states that Jesus also had sisters; Joseph "kept [Mary] a virgin until she gave birth to Jesus". Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox view these siblings as relatives, but not children of Mary, using arguments about Aramaic language. Roman Catholic dogma asserts the perpetual virginity of Mary (as does Islam[citation needed] and most Eastern Orthodox theologians), and since the writing of the apocryphal Protevangelium of James, various beliefs have circulated concerning Mary's conception, which eventually led to the dogma, formally established in the 19th century, of the Immaculate Conception in the Roman Catholic Church, which exempts her from original sin. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Saint James the Just (יעקב Holder of the heel; supplanter; Standard Hebrew Yaʿaqov, Tiberian Hebrew Yaʿăqōḇ, Greek Iάκωβος), also called James Adelphotheos, James, 1st Bishop of Jerusalem, or James, the Brother of the Lord[1] and sometimes identified with James the Less, (died AD 62) was an important figure... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The perpetual virginity of Mary is a doctrine of faith of Roman and Eastern Orthodox Catholic Christianity, as well of Islam, stating that Mary, the mother of Jesus, remained an actual virgin, implying both virginal disposition and physical integrity, before, during, and after the birth of Jesus, and thus is... In the process of determining the Biblical canon, a large number of works were excluded from the New Testament. ... The Gospel of James is an apocryphal gospel also sometimes known as the Infancy Gospel of James or the Protevangelium of James probably written about 150 AD. The document presents itself as written by James: I, James, wrote this history in Jerusalem. ... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... According to Christian tradition, original sin is the general condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born (Psalm 51:5). ...


Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox teaching also extends to the end of Mary's life ending with the Assumption of Mary (formally established as dogma in 1950) and the Dormition of the Theotokos respectively. The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ... Dormition of the Virgin redirects here. ...


Some Protestants accuse Roman Catholics of having developed an un-Christian adoration and worship of Mary, described as Marianism or Mariolatry, and of inventing non-scriptual doctrines which give Mary a semi-divine status by seeking to duplicate in the life of Mary events similar to those in the life of Jesus. They also attack titles such as Queen of Heaven, Our Mother in Heaven, Queen of the World, or Mediatrix. Roman Catholics respond by stating that Mary was human and so is not worshipped, but is special before other saints, and therefore worthy of particular veneration. Roman Catholics also point to the numerous saints throughout history who have attested to the central role of Mary in God's plan of salvation, including St. Bernard of Clairvaux, St. Dominic, St. John of Damascus, St. Bonaventure, and above all St. Louis de Montfort, whose "True Devotion to Mary" synthesizes many of the earlier saints' writings and teachings on Mary. Blessed Virgin Mary A traditional Catholic picture displayed sometimes in homes. ... Queen of Heaven is a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Roman Catholicism. ... Bernard of Clairvaux, illustrated in A Short History of Monks and Monasteries by Alfred Wesley Wishart, 1900 Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (Fontaines, near Dijon, 1090 – August 21, 1153 in Clairvaux) was a French abbot and theologian who was the main voice of conservatism during the intellectual revival of Western... St Dominic presiding over an auto de fe, Spanish, 1475 Saint Dominic (born at Calaruega, Spain, around 1170; died August 6, 1221, at Bologna, Italy) founded the Dominican Order. ... John of Damascus (Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus) (c. ... Saint Bonaventura, John of Fidanza, Franciscan theologian, was born in 1221 at Bagnarea in Tuscany. ... Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, French priest and Catholic saint, born in 31 January 1673 at Montfort and died at Saint Laurent sur Sevre on 28 April 1716. ...


One well-known academic institution for Mariological studies is Marianum (Viale Trenta aprile-6, 00153-Rome, Italy). This Pontifical Catholic institute for Mariological studies was founded by Pope Pius XII in the year 1950. At Marianum, one can get a Master's degree in Mariology (2-year academic program) and one can also get a doctorate in Mariology. This Mariological facility has a library with more than 85,000 volumes on Mariology and a number of magazines and journals of theological and Mariological concern.


References

  • de Montfort, St. Louis-Marie Grignion. True Devotion to Mary. translated by Mark L. Jacobson, Aventine Press, 2007.

 
 

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