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Encyclopedia > Marine aquarium

A marine aquarium is an aquarium that keeps marine plants and animals in a contained environment. Marine aquaria are further subdivided by hobbyists into fish only (FO), fish only with live rock (FOWLR), and reef aquaria. Marine fishkeeping is different from its freshwater counterpart because of the fundamental differences in the constitution of saltwater and the resulting differences in the adaptation of its inhabitants. A stable marine aquarium also requires more equipment than freshwater systems, and the aquarium inhabitants are often more expensive to acquire. “Aquaria” redirects here. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Live rock is rock taken from the ocean which is usually encrusted with Coralline and inhabited by marine organisms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Marine aquarium. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ...

Marine Aquarium - photograph by John Catsoulis
Marine Aquarium - photograph by John Catsoulis
Marine reef aquarium at the London aquarium
Marine reef aquarium at the London aquarium
Nano Reef Aquarium maintained at home
Nano Reef Aquarium maintained at home

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 372 KB) Summary Marine Aquarium - photograph by John Catsoulis, jtc@embedded. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1632x1224, 372 KB) Summary Marine Aquarium - photograph by John Catsoulis, jtc@embedded. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1006 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marine aquarium Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1006 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marine aquarium Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 494 pixelsFull resolution (815 × 503 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) John Tan http://myfishyroomates. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 494 pixelsFull resolution (815 × 503 pixel, file size: 138 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) John Tan http://myfishyroomates. ...

Marine fishkeeping history

The very first saltwater tanks were glass jars where the Romans kept anemones outside but were very short lived. The first personal saltwater fishkeeping began on a wider scale in the 1950s, starting with the basic rectangular glass aquariums (usually 20 gallon), still popular today. Bleached coral along with a substrate of coarse crushed coral was the norm. Algae, including beneficial such as coralline, were viewed negatively and generally removed. The clean, sterile tank was viewed as the healthiest. Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... The substrate of an aquarium refers to the material used on the tank bottom. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ... Genera 39 genera Coralline algae are red algae in the Family Corallinaceae characteriuzed by a thallus covered with calcareous deposits. ...


During the beginning days of marine aquaria, saltwater was initially collected at local beaches. Natural saltwater contains many unwanted organisms, along with the occasional unwanted pollutant. Aquarium literature of the time suggests that the most commonly kept marine fish of the day were the percula clownfish, sergeant major damselfish, small, brackish pufferfish and scats, jeweled blennies, and blue damsels. Aquariums were equipped with large air compressors, and were heavily aerated and filtered (primarily with undergravel filters, a norm for some time). Aquarium is also the name of the Russian band, which is also spelled Akvarium A 335,000 gallon (1. ... Binomial name Amphiprion percula (Lacepède, 1802) The percula clownfish (Amphiprion percula) is a popular aquarium fish, even more so after it rose to stardom in Finding Nemo. ... Genera Amblyrhynchotes Arothron Auriglobus Canthigaster Carinotetraodon Chelonodon Colomesus Contusus Ephippion Feroxodon Fugu Gastrophysus Javichthys Lagocephalus Liosaccus Marilyna Monotretus Omegaphora Pelagocephalus Polyspina Reicheltia Sphoeroides Takifugu Tetractenos Tetraodon Torquigener Tylerius Xenopterus For species see Genera articles. ... Genera The scats are a small family, Scatophagidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. ... Genera Many; see text Combtooth blennies are blennioids; perciform marine fish of the family Blenniidae. ... Cocoa damselfish (Stegastes variabilis) Damselfish refers to members of the family Pomacentridae, except those of the two genera Amphiprion and Premnasmost, most usually Chromis chromis. ... Compressor has several meanings: A gas compressor is a mechanical device that takes in a gas and increases its pressure by squeezing a volume of it into a smaller volume. ... The term filter may refer to: A device to separate mixtures. ...


Later in the hobby, air driven, counter-current protein skimmers were invented and revolutionized in Germany along with the Eheim pump company. Perhaps the largest revolution in fishkeeping was a more reliable submersible electric heater, invented by Eugen Jäger. Even today, Jäger is still a major company in aquarium heating. A protein skimmer or foam fractionator is a device used mostly in saltwater aquaria to remove organic compounds from the water before they break down into nitrogenous waste. ... EHEIM GmbH & Co. ... EHEIM GmbH & Co. ...


Various initial aquarists attempted to find the chemical properties of sea water and mix in necessary trace elements to create synthetic salt mixes. Perhaps the first and undoubtedly the largest synthetic sea salt company was Instant Ocean. This revolutionized marine fishkeeping in landlocked areas instead of restricting it to areas near sources of seawater. A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Microminerals (also known as trace elements) are micronutrients that are chemical elements. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ...


Various advancements in filtration included the trickle and hang-on filters, both allowing a more natural equilibrium to the aquarium environment. The advancement of fluorescent lighting technologies into higher outputs along with metal halide lighting established the reef tank, making it a possible to keep corals and invertebrates without natural sunlight. Trickle was the 2000 release from British electronic duo Olive. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... Metal halide lamps, a member of the high-intensity discharge (HID) family of lamps, produce high light output for their size, making them a compact, powerful, and efficient light source. ... A reef tank or reef aquarium is considered to be one of the most difficult aquarium setups to create and maintain. ... Invertebrate is a term that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ...


More efficient chemical testing and more advanced knowledge allowed aquarists to have an idea about the chemical conditions and properties of aquariums. The biological establishment and understanding of maintaining an artificial ocean environment brought more successful and widespread marine fishkeeping. In the 1980s, the multitude of aquarium publications had greatly increased, and general chemical and biological knowledge was more widespread.


Modern fishkeeping

Marine aquarium components

The major components are an aquarium, usually made from glass or acrylic, filtration equipment, lighting, and an aquarium heater. Marine aquariums can range in volume from less than 80 litres, (< 20 US gal) to over 1200 litres (300 US gal). Small volumes are more difficult to maintain due to the more rapid changes in water chemistry. The majority of saltwater aquariums are between 160 and 400 litres (40 and 100 US gal). “Aquaria” redirects here. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... Structure of methyl methacrylate, the monomer that makes up PMMA Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or poly(methyl 2-methylpropenoate) is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate. ... an air-driven corner filter Aquarium filters are critical components of both freshwater and marine aquaria. ... A typical glass-tube immersion style aquarium heater An aquarium heater is a device used in the fishkeeping hobby to warm the temperature of water in aquariums. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ...


Types of marine aquarium

Marine aquarists typically divide saltwater aquariums into those housing fish only, fish with live rock and those primarily designed to house corals and other invertebrates (also known as Reef aquariums). Live rock is rock taken from the ocean which is usually encrusted with Coralline and inhabited by marine organisms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Marine aquarium. ...


Live rock

Main article: Live rock

Live rock is rock that has been in the ocean, composed of limestone and decomposing coral skeleton, usually around a coral reef such as those around Fiji, and is usually covered with beneficial algae, coralline and tiny invertebrates and bacteria that are desirable in the aquarium. Some examples of the microfauna commonly found on live rock are crab, snail, feather dusters, brittle stars, starfish, limpets, abalones, and an occasional sea urchins, anemones, coral, and sea sponge. Bristleworms are also common, most of which, while unattractive, are not harmful and are useful scavengers; some species can be pests, however. The addition of live rock is one of the best ways to ensure a healthy aquarium, as the rock provides a buffer to maintain high pH (8.0-8.3), alkalinity, and acid-neutralizing capacity. Alkalinity is often known by a rather confusing term, "carbonate hardness", or KH. This is usually measured in "degrees" (dKH) or meq/L. Live rock is rock taken from the ocean which is usually encrusted with Coralline and inhabited by marine organisms. ... Live rock is rock taken from the ocean which is usually encrusted with Coralline and inhabited by marine organisms. ... Phthirus pubis Pubic lice (Phthirus pubis), also known as crabs , are one of the many varieties of lice (singular louse) specialized to live on different areas of different animals. ... Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan Class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ... Orders Oegophiurida Ophiurida Phrynophiurida Brittle stars are echinoderms, closely related to sea stars. ... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ... Suborders See text. ... Species Many, see species section. ... Slate pencil urchin (cidaroid) Group of black, long-spined Caribbean sea urchins, Diadema antillarum (Philippi) Sea urchin roe. ... Families Many, see text. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Orders Amphinomida Capitellida Chaetopterida Cirratulida Cossurida Ctenodrillidae Eunicida Flabelligerida Magelonida Myzostomida Nerillida Opheliida Orbiniida Orweniida Phyllodocida Pisionidae Polygordiida Protodrilida Psammodrilidae Sabellida Spionida Spintheridae Sternaspida Terebellida The Polychaeta or Polychaetes are a class of annelid worms, generally marine, with a pair of fleshy protrusions on each body segment called parapodia that... Sea surface alkalinity (from the GLODAP climatology) Alkalinity or AT is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate. ... Carbonate hardness is the measure of the carbonate (CO32-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions contained in a solution, usually water. ...


The microfauna found on live rock are detrivores and herbivores (as they eat algae and fish waste), and provide fish with a natural, attractive shelter. Live rock usually arrives from online dealers as "uncured", and must be quarantined in a separate tank while undergoing the curing process, which involves the inevitable die-off of some of the rock's inhabitants and the subsequent production of undesirable ammonia and nitrite. Live rock that is already cured is available at most pet stores that cater to saltwater. Live sand is similar to live rock and is equally desirable. A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ...


Filtration

Main article: Filter (aquarium)

In general, marine aquariums have more complex filtration requirements than most freshwater aquariums. The various components frequently include Wet and dry filters and Protein skimmers. Protein skimmers devices that removes organic compounds prior to their degradation are also very useful in marine aquariums. Protein skimming is also used in the popular Berlin method that relies on live rock, and periodic partial water changes to degrade and remove waste products. The Berlin method relies on large amounts of live rock being included in the aquarium. The rule of thumb is 1/2 - 1 lb. per 1 US gallon (0.2 - 0.4 kg per 4 liters). Some marine aquariums also include a refugium. Refugiums are small containers, or aquariums hidden behind or beneath the main aquarium and connected to it via a water pump. Refugiums have recently become quite popular among reef aquarists. Refugiums serve several purposes: adding water volume, providing a fish-free site for biological filtration in live rock and/or the sandbed. Fish-free refugiums are host to populations of copepods, amphipods, isopods and other zooplankton. an air-driven corner filter Aquarium filters are critical components of both freshwater and marine aquaria. ... A freshwater aquarium is an indoor receptacle or public facility that keeps and maintains a single or a collection of freshwater aquatic organisms, plants and animals for decorative, pet-keeping or research purposes. ... an air-driven corner filter Aquarium filters are critical components of both freshwater and marine aquaria. ... A protein skimmer or foam fractionator is a device used mostly in saltwater aquaria to remove organic compounds from the water before they break down into nitrogenous waste. ... The Berlin Method of biological filtration is method for keeping an aquarium, typically a saltwater aquarium, clean. ... A rule of thumb is an easily learned and easily applied procedure for approximately calculating or recalling some value, or for making some determination. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat. ... Families about 200 partial list Alpheidae Ampeliscidae Amphilochidae Ampithoidae Anisogammaridae Aoridae Artesiidae Bogideillidae Bosminidae Caprellidae Corophiidae Crangonyctidae Eusiridae Gammaridae Hadziidae Haustoriidae Iphimediidae Ischyroceridae Leucothoidae Liljeborgiidae Lysianassidae Melitidae Phoxocephalidae Sebidae Talitridae Amphipoda (amphipods) include about 4600 different species of small, shrimp_like crustaceans. ... SubOrders Anthuridea Asellota Calabozoida Epicaridea Flabellifera Microcerberidea Oniscidea Phreatoicidea Valvifera Isopods are one of the most diverse orders of Crustaceans, with many species living in all environments, and are common in shallow marine waters. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ...


Lighting

A DIY Metal Halide Pendant Lamp
A DIY Metal Halide Pendant Lamp

Regular cyclical lighting is used in aquariums to simulate day and night. This is beneficial for fish and invertebrates since it establishes a routine, enables them to sleep, and makes them feel more secure. The lighting used varies depending on the inhabitants of the aquarium. Typically, the type of lighting for aquariums with fish only is regarded as unimportant. In aquariums containing invertbrates, however, where algal growth (of both free-living and symbiotic algae) is desired more intense lighting is required. There are many types of lights available: Common types include fluorescent, VHO fluorescent (Very High Output), compact fluorescent, LED and metal halide. Actinic lights produce a deep blue spectrum designed to simulate the dominant wavelength of light a few metres below the ocean's surface. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... Compact fluorescent light bulb A compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL bulb) is a type of fluorescent lamp which screws into a regular light bulb socket, or plugs into a small lighting fixture. ... External links LEd Category: TeX ... Metal halide lamps are similar to mercury vapor lamps, but instead of just mercury, they also contain all metals in the halide group of the periodic table (Hence the name). ...


When considering lighting for an aquarium, there are generally 2 factors to consider. a) Wattage/Power b) color temperature. Depending on the type of lighting i.e. flourescents, MH etc, the wattage of light emitted varies: 18 W, 36 W, 150 W 250 W etc. Wattage is equivalent to power and determines how brightly the light will shine. The deeper and bigger the aquarium the higher wattage you'd need. Color Temperature refers to the spectrum of light being emitted by the lamp and they're measured in degree Kelvin (K). Again in lay mans' terms, this refers to the type of light. Light from the sun has a color temperature of approximately 6500 K and they're perfect for growing plants in refugiums. 10,000 K light appears white and will give good coloration to fishes and corals. Moving up the spectrum there is 14,000 and 20,000 K bulbs that produce a bluish tint that mimics the lighting conditions under the sea creating a great environment for livestock in the aquarium.


Heating

Most marine aquarium inhabitants are endemic to tropical reefs and waters in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Red Sea. Marine aquarium temperatures should mimic the natural environment of the inhabitants and are most commonly maintained at 24-28 degrees Celsius (75-82 °F). In regions where the ambient temperature is less than the desired temperature of the aquarium this generally necessitates the use of aquarium heater. In some areas ambient temperature is greater than the desired temperature and refrigeration devices, known as chillers are used to cool aquarium water. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... A typical glass-tube immersion style aquarium heater An aquarium heater is a device used in the fishkeeping hobby to warm the temperature of water in aquariums. ... Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, and rejecting it elsewhere for the primary purpose of lowering the temperature of the enclosed space or substance and then maintaining that lower temperature. ...


Water testing

Marine aquarists commonly test the water in the aquarium for a variety of chemical indicators of water quality, these include:


Specific gravity, a measure of water denisty, is normally maintained between 1.020 and 1.024 in aquariums with fish only, and 1.023 and 1.026 for aquariums containing invertebrates. Salinity should therefore be between 28-32 PPT. Salinity is directly related to specific gravity and both can be tested with an inexpensive hydrometer or a refractometer. Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ... A hydrometer is an instrument used for determining the specific gravity of liquids. ... A refractometer is an optical instrument that is used to determine the refractive index of a substance or some physical property of a substance that is directly related to its refractive index. ...


pH should be maintained between 8.1 and 8.3 (can be raised with a commercially available buffer or through calcium-rich substrata); Carbonate hardness (KH) should be between 8 and 12 degrees. A calibrated calcium reactor can assist in maintaining both pH and carbonate hardness. Using purified water from a reverse osmosis / deionization (RO/DI) unit can prevent KH and pH fluctuation. The correct title of this article is . ... Carbonate hardness is the measure of the carbonate (CO32-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions contained in a solution, usually water. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The nitrogen cycle refers to the conversion of toxic ammonia, to nitrite and finally nitrate. While fish waste (urine and feces), and decaying matter release ammonia, the majority of ammonia (approximately 60%) in both marine and freshwater aquariums is excreted directly into the water from a fishes' gills. Biological (bacterial) nitrification converts the ammonia into nitrite ions, NO2-, and then to nitrate ions, NO3-. Nitrate is readily taken up and assimilated by algae and hermatypic corals. Some nitrate can be converted by an anaerobic bacterial process to free nitrogen, but this process is very difficult to maintain. Most nitrate, which is less toxic to fishes and most invertebrates accumulates in the water until it is physically removed by a water change. Ammonia and nitrite should be tested regularly; any detectable levels (i.e., over 0 ppm) are indicative of a problem. Nitrate should not exceed 20ppm in reef tanks, or 40 ppm in fish-only tanks. It is normal to have a little nitrate buildup, and some livestock handle it better than others. Most hermatypic corals, while able to assimilate nitrate, cannot be expected to perform well with chronically high nitrate concentrations (>40 mg/L as nitrate ion (~ 10 mg/L nitrate-nitrogen)). General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... // Definition The nitrite ion is NO2−. A nitrite compound is one that contains this group, either an ionic compound, or an analogous covalent one. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ...


Other suggested tests include calcium, alkalinity, iodine, strontium, molybdenum, and other trace minerals. Research the particular species you wish to keep to see if it is necessary for you to do additional testing. General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... Sea surface alkalinity (from the GLODAP climatology) Alkalinity or AT is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ...


Water changes

Water changes are a staple of good saltwater maintenance. (Although controversial, larger (approx 200 Gallons) aquariums are much more stable and water changes may not need to take place if the nitrogen cycle has fully established itself in the tank. Supplements are sometimes needed to add calcium, alkalinity, etc.) Water changes involve removing a fraction of the total volume of the aquarium, replacing that water with new pre-mixed saltwater. Pre-mixed saltwater has been dechlorinated and/or dechloraminated--typically with an additive such as bisulfite or through filtering. Water should be brought to the same temperature if more than a 5% change. Salinity should match that of the aquarium, or be dosed very slowly if altering the salinity. Aging and aerating saltwater (such as in a bucket with a powerhead or airstone) is recommended as good practice to allow the salts to fully ionize and the pH to stabilize. For information on water from a sea or ocean, see sea water. ... Schematic representation of the flow of Nitrogen through the environment. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... Sea surface alkalinity (from the GLODAP climatology) Alkalinity or AT is a measure of the ability of a solution to neutralize acids to the equivalence point of carbonate or bicarbonate. ... A powerhead, bang stick, or shark stick is a specialized firearm intended to be used underwater and fire in direct contact with the target. ... For other meanings of the word salt see table salt or salt (disambiguation). ... The correct title of this article is . ...


Replacement water should be of the same source as the aquarium, whether it be reverse osmosis (RO), de-ionized (DI), distilled or municipal supply, in order to avoid drastic changes in water chemistry. In cases where one is replacing a tap water-based salt mix with a reverse osmosis-based salt mix, the replacement water should be added slowly over the course of several hours to avoid sending the aquarium inhabitants into osmotic shock. If using municipal water, one should check with the local utility company to find out the composition of that tap water. Water containing high levels of nitrate or phosphate should be avoided, and reverse osmosis or distilled water used in its place. Reverse osmosis is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solvent through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. ... Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... Osmotic shock is a condition that inhibits cellular activity. ...


Conservation

Almost all species kept in marine aquaria at this time are caught in the wild although the number of captive raised species are increasing everyday. Very few species, such as clownfish, are captive-bred on a commercial scale. Much collecting is done in Indonesia and the Philippines, where use of cyanide and other destructive collection methods is discouraged but unfortunately common. The majority of live rock is also harvested in the wild, and recent restrictions on this harvest in Florida have caused a shift to Fijian and aquacultured rock. Natural rock takes many years if not centuries to form, and is vital habitat for countless marine species, and thus, commercial-scale harvesting of naturally-occurring live rock has been criticized by conservationists. Additionally, many animal species sold to hobbyists have very specific dietary and habitat requirements that cannot be met by hobbyists (e.g. Labroides genus wrasses, the moorish idol); these animals almost inevitably die well before their time, and their color and appearance is poor. These issues are often downplayed by individuals and organizations with a financial interest in the trade. Hobbyists should be urged to buy only certified net-caught fish (although ensuring the legitimacy of such claims can be difficult) or captive-raised fish, as well as farmed corals and to support legitimate reef conservation efforts. It should be noted that the majority of corals can be "fragged", whereby a portion of a larger captive coral is separated and can subsequently be raised into an individual specimen, allowing for coral propagation within the domestic aquarium; the trade in frags (i.e. fragments) offers a fantastic opportunity for marine aquarists to obtain new and unique corals while limiting the impact on the natural environment. Rare species and those without a history of being successfully kept in captivity should be avoided. Binomial name Zanclus cornutus (Linnaeus, 1758) The moorish idol, Zanclus cornutus (Crowned Scythe), is a small perciform marine fish, the sole representative of the family Zanclidae (from the Greek zagkios, oblique). A common inhabitant of tropical to subtropical reefs and lagoons, the moorish idol is notable for its wide distribution...


Commercial front

Various businesses have brought a commercial front to fishkeeping, perhaps the largest being Marineland, Inc. Along with movies such as Finding Nemo, fishkeeping is becoming much more widespread than ever before. Perhaps the biggest turndown in fishkeeping is the initial cost. A 100 US gallon (400 L) reef tank full of coral and equipment can cost in excess of $2500 US. Aside from the difficulty, this is a large factor as to why freshwater fishkeeping is still so widespread in comparison to its marine counterpart. Finding Nemo is an Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theaters by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


References and further reading

  • The Conscientious Marine Aquarist, by Robert Fenner
  • Invertebrates: A Quick Reference Guide, by Julian Sprung
  • Corals: A Quick Reference Guide, by Julian Sprung
  • Reef Invertebrates: An Essential Guide to Selection, Care and Compatibility, by Anthony Calfo and Robert Fenner
  • Aquarium Corals: Selection, Husbandry, and Natural History, by Eric H. Borneman
  • Natural Reef Aquariums: Simplified Approaches to Creating Living Saltwater Microcosms, by John H. Tullock

Julian Sprung ( 1966 – ), is a zoologist by training, and is a recognized expert on the subject of marine aquarium keeping. ...

External links

Pets: Fish and Aquaria: Marine at the Open Directory Project The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Marine aquarium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2858 words)
Marine fishkeeping is different from its freshwater counterpart because of its complexity; the marine environment is more difficult to maintain, requiring more equipment and time from the hobbyist, and the aquarium inhabitants are often more expensive to acquire.
Aquariums were equipped with large air compressors, and were heavily aerated and filtered (primarily with undergravel filters, a norm for some time).
The major components of a marine aquarium are a tank, usually composed of glass or acrylic, a stand, components necessary for chemical, mechanical, and biological filtration, lighting, and an apparatus used to heat the aquarium, usually an aquarium heater.
Marine Aquarium (3001 words)
Experienced marine hobbyists, on the other hand, have been stressing for years that a sound, commonsense approach, coupled with a desire to seek correct advice and act upon it, is usually enough to set the beginner on his/her way.
However large an aquarium may be, it is still minute when compared to the natural environment in which fish normally exist.
Most of the commonly available marine fish are at their best at temperatures between the mid- and high 70ºs F (24º-26º C).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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