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Encyclopedia > Marine conservation

Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. Marine conservation focuses on limiting human-caused damage to marine ecosystems, and on restoring damaged marine ecosystems. Marine conservation also focuses on preserving vulnerable marine species. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... This article is about the body of water. ... Restoration ecology is the study of returning degraded ecosystems and landscapes to a reference state where ecological communities and processes are re-established. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...



Marine conservation is the study of conserving physical and biological marine resources and ecosystem functions. This is a relatively new discipline. Marine cons boka

ervationists rely on a combin

chodaation of scientific principles derived from marine biology, oceanography, and fisheries science, as well as on human factors such as demand for marine resources and marine law, economics and policy in order to determine how to best protect and conserve marine species and ecosystems. Marine conservation can be seen as a subdiscipline of conservation biology. Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


Strategies and techniques for marine conservation tend to combine theoretical disciplines, such as population biology, with practical conservation strategies, such as setting up protected areas, as with marine protected areas (MPAs) or Voluntary Marine Conservation Areas. Other techniques include developing sustainable fisheries and restoring the populations of endangered species through artificial means. The term Marine Protected Area is often used as an umbrella term covering a wide range of marine areas with some level of restriction to protect living, non-living, cultural, and/or historic resources. ... Voluntary Marine Conservation Areas (VMCA) are areas of coastline which are of particular wildlife and scientific value that enjoy a level of voluntary protection. ...

Another focus of conservationists is on curtailing human activities that are detrimental to either marine ecosystems or species through policy, techniques such as fishing quotas, like those set up by the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization, or laws such as those listed below. Recognizing the economics involved in human use of marine ecosystems is key, as is education of the public about conservation issues. Individual fishing quotas (called popularly IFQ) are a means by which many governments have tried to regulate fishing. ... The Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) is a multinational organization with a mandate to provide scientific advice and management of fisheries in the northwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean. ...

Laws and treaties

International laws and treaties related to marine conservation include the 1966 Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas. United States laws related to marine conservation include the 1972 Marine Mammal Protection Act, as well as the 1972 Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act which established the National Marine Sanctuaries program. Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... opened for signature - 29 April 1958 entered into force - 20 March 1966 objective - to solve through international cooperation the problems involved in the conservation of living resources of the high seas, considering that because of the development of modern technology some of these resources are in danger of being overexploited... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 prohibits, with certain exceptions, the take of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas, and the importation of marine mammals and marine mammal products into the U.S. Congress defines take as “harass, hunt, capture... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ocean Dumping Act was one of several key environmental laws, passed by the US Congress in 1972. ... A U.S. National Marine Sanctuary is one of 13 protected marine ecosystems within U.S. waters. ...

Marine conservation organisations and education

There are marine conservation organisations throughout the world that focus on funding conservation efforts, educating the public and stakeholders, and lobbying for conservation law and policy. Examples of these organizations are the Blue Frontier Campaign (United States), and Marine Conservation Society (United Kingdom). The Blue Frontier Campaign is a United States marine conservation activist organization founded by David Helvarg in 2003. ... The Marine Conservation Society (MCS) is a UK-based NGO dedicated to the protection of the marine environment and its wildlife. ...


  • Primack, Richard B. (1998). "Essentials of conservation biology." 2nd Ed. Sunderland, Ma: Sinauer.
  • Ray, G. Carleton and McCormick-Ray, Jerry (eds). (2004). "Coastal-marine conservation: science and policy". Malden, Ma: Blackwell.
  • Marine Conservation Biology Institute (MCBI). Bibliography of resources.

See also

The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... Subsistence fishing in Bangladesh. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Fisheries management is today often referred to as a governmental system of management rules based on defined objectives and a mix of management means to implement the rules, which is put in place by a system of monitoring, control, and surveillance (MCS). ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ...

External links

  • U.S. National Marine Sanctuary Program



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