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Encyclopedia > Marine biology
Various species of reef fish in the Hawaiian Islands.

Marine biology is the scientific study of living organisms in the ocean or other marine or brackish bodies of water. Given that in biology many phyla, families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather than on taxonomy. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x2001, 4710 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x2001, 4710 KB) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Brackish water is water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as sea water. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body of water. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...


Marine life represents a vast resource, providing food, medicine, and raw materials, in addition to helping to support recreation and tourism all over the world. At a fundamental level, marine life helps determine the very nature of our planet. Marine organisms produce 90% of the oxygen we breathe[citation needed] and probably help regulate the earth's climate. Shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... “Fun” redirects here. ... Tourist redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Shore A shore or shoreline is the land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake. ...


Marine biology covers a great deal, from the microscopic, including plankton and phytoplankton, which can be as small as 0.02 micrometers and are both hugely important as the primary producers of the sea, to the huge cetaceans (whales) which reach up to a reported 33 meters (109 feet) in length. For the SpongeBob SquarePants character, see Sheldon J. Plankton. ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


The habitats studied by marine biology include everything from the tiny layers of surface water in which organisms and abiotic items may be trapped in surface tension between the ocean and atmosphere, to the depths of the abyssal trenches, sometimes 10,000 meters or more beneath the surface of the ocean. It studies habitats such as coral reefs, kelp forests, tidepools, muddy, sandy, and rocky bottoms, and the open ocean (pelagic) zone, where solid objects are rare and the surface of the water is the only visible boundary. Surface tension is an effect within the surface layer of a liquid that causes that layer to behave as an elastic sheet. ... Categories: Stub | Plate tectonics | Earth sciences | Landforms | Oceanic trenches ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Kelp Forest Kelp forests are a type of marine ecosystem established around colonies of kelp; they contain rich biodiversity. ... Tide pools at a beach Closeup of a tide pool with some algae and barnacles Tide pools (also tidal pools or rock pools) are rocky pools by the ocean that are filled with seawater. ...


A large amount of all life on Earth exists in the oceans. Exactly how large the proportion is still unknown. While the oceans comprise about 71% of the Earth's surface, due to their depth they encompass about 300 times the habitable volume of the terrestrial habitats on Earth. This article is about the tv programme Life on Earth. ...


Many species are economically important to humans, including the food fishes. It is also becoming understood that the well-being of marine organisms and other organisms are linked in very fundamental ways. Human understanding is growing of the relationship between life in the sea and important cycles such as that of matter (such as the carbon cycle) and of air (such as Earth's respiration, and movement of energy through ecosystems). Large areas beneath the ocean surface still remain effectively unexplored. A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... For the thermonuclear reaction involving carbon that helps power stars, see CNO cycle. ... General Circulation Models (GCMs) are a class of computer-driven models for weather forecasting and predicting climate change, where they are commonly called Global Climate Models. ...

Contents

Subfields

The marine ecosystem is large, and thus there are many subfields of marine biology. Most involve studying specializations of particular species (i.e., phycology, invertebrate zoology, ichthyology). Marine ecosystems are part of the earths aquatic ecosystem. ... Phycology (or algology) (from Greek: φύκος, phykos, seaweed; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), a subdiscipline of botany, is the scientific study of algae. ... it ois the study of people who help many animals ... Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθυ, ikhthu, fish; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ...


Other subfields study the physical effects of continual immersion in sea water and the ocean in general, adaptation to a salty environment, and the effects of changing various oceanic properties on marine life. A subfield of marine biology studies the relationships between oceans and ocean life, and global weather and environmental issues (such as carbon dioxide displacement). Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Recent marine biotechnology has focused largely on marine biomolecules, especially proteins, that may have uses in medicine or engineering. Marine environments are the home to many exotic biological materials that may inspire biomimetic materials. The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Many marine biomolecules have found technology applications. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Bionics (also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. ...


An interesting branch of marine biology is aquaculture; which some countries do a lot of in the oceans, especially Japan. Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ...


Related fields

Marine biology is a branch of oceanography and is closely linked to biology. It also encompasses many ideas from ecology. Fisheries science and marine conservation can be considered partial offshoots of marine biology. Thermohaline circulation Oceanography (from Ocean + Greek γράφειν = write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. ...


Lifeforms

Microscopic life

Microscopic life undersea is incredibly diverse and still poorly understood. For example, the role of viruses in marine ecosystems is barely being explored even in the beginning of the 21st century. Copepod photo, by Uwe Kils GFDL larger images on http://www. ... Copepod photo, by Uwe Kils GFDL larger images on http://www. ... Orders Calanoida Cyclopoida Gelyelloida Harpacticoida Misophrioida Monstrilloida Mormonilloida Platycopioida Poecilostomatoida Siphonostomatoida Copepods are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... 20XX redirects here. ...


The role of phytoplankton is better understood due to their critical position as the most numerous primary producers on Earth. Phytoplankton are categorized into cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae/bacteria), various types of algae (red, green, brown, and yellow-green), diatoms, dinoflagellates, euglenoids, coccolithophorids, cryptomonads, chrysophytes, chlorophytes, prasinophytes, and silicoflagellates. Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. ... Orders The taxonomy is currently under revision. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... Classes Dinophyceae Noctiluciphyceae Syndiniophyceae The dinoflagella are a large group of flagellate protists. ... Major groups Phototrophs    Euglenales    Eutreptiales Osmotrophs    Rhabdomonadales Phagotrophs    ?Heteronematales    ?Sphenomonadales The euglenids (also spelled euglenoids) are one of the best-known groups of flagellates, commonly found in freshwater especially when it is rich in organic materials, with a few marine and endosymbiotic members. ... Coccolithophores are single-celled algae, or phytoplankton, belonging to the haptophytes. ... Typical genera Order Cryptomonadales    Campylomonas    Chilomonas    Chroomonas    Cryptomonas    Falcomonas    Geminigera    Guillardia    Hemiselmis    Plagioselmis    Proteomonas    Storeatula    Rhodomonas    Teleaulax Order Goniomonadales    Goniomonas The cryptomonads are a small group of flagellates, most of which have chloroplasts. ... The golden algae or chrysophytes are a large group of heterokont algae, found mostly in freshwater. ... One chlorophyte is the single member of the group of Chlorophyta. ... The silicoflagellates are a small group of unicellular heterokont algae, found in marine environments. ...


Zooplankton tend to be somewhat larger, and not all are microscopic. Many Protozoa are zooplankton, including dinoflagellates, zooflagellates, foraminiferans, and radiolarians. Some of these (such as dinoflaggelates) are also phytoplankton; the plant/animal distinction often breaks down in very small organisms. Other zooplankton include cnidarians, ctenophores, chaetognaths, molluscs, arthropods, urochordates, and annelids such as polychaetes. Many larger animals begin their life as zooplankton before they become large enough to take their familiar forms. Two examples are fish larvae and sea stars (also called starfish). Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton is the aggregate community of weakly swimming but mostly drifting small organisms that inhabit the water column of the ocean, seas, and bodies of freshwater. ... Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... Parasitic excavate (Giardia lamblia) Green algae (Chlamydomonas) Flagellates are cells with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella. ... Orders Allogromiida Carterinida Fusulinida - extinct Globigerinida Involutinida - extinct Lagenida Miliolida Robertinida Rotaliida Silicoloculinida Spirillinida Textulariida incertae sedis    Xenophyophorea    Reticulomyxa The Foraminifera, or forams for short, are a large group of amoeboid protists with reticulating pseudopods, fine strands that branch and merge to form a dynamic net. ... Classes Polycystinea Acantharea Sticholonchea Radiolarians (also radiolaria) are amoeboid protozoa that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into inner and outer portions, called endoplasm and ectoplasm. ... Classes Anthozoa - Corals and sea anemones Cubozoa - Sea wasps or box jellyfish Hydrozoa - Hydroids, hydra-like animals Scyphozoa - Jellyfish Cnidaria is a phylum containing some 10,000 species of relatively simple animals found exclusively in aquatic environments (most species are marine). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Classes Archisagittoidea Sagittoidea Chaetognatha is a phylum of predatory marine worms that are a major component of plankton worldwide. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes Ascidiacea (2,300 species) Thaliacea Appendicularia Sorberacea Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates, sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with incurrent and excurrent siphons. ... Classes and subclasses Class Polychaeta (paraphyletic?) Class Clitellata*    Oligochaeta - earthworms, etc. ... Subclasses Palpata Scoleoida Tomopteris from plankton The Polychaeta or polychaetes are a class of annelid worms, generally marine. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Orders Brisingida (100 species[1]) Forcipulatida (300 species[2]) Paxillosida (255 species[3]) Notomyotida (75 species[4]) Spinulosida (120 species[5]) Valvatida (695 species[6]) Velatida (200 species[7]) For other uses, see Starfish (disambiguation). ...

Plants and algae

Giant kelp.
Giant kelp.

Plant life is relatively rare undersea. Most of the niche occupied by plants on land is actually occupied by macroscopic algae in the ocean, such as Sargassum and kelp which are commonly known as seaweeds. The non algae plants that do survive in the sea are often found in shallow waters, such as the seagrasses (examples of which are eelgrass, Zostera, and turtlegrass, Thalassia). These plants have adapted to the high salinity of the ocean environment. The intertidal zone is also a good place to find plant life in the sea, where mangroves or cordgrass or beach grass might grow. Sea kelp is very important to small sea creatures because the creatures can hide from predators. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1271x839, 258 KB) Macrocystis pyrifera Photo: Shane Anderson. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1271x839, 258 KB) Macrocystis pyrifera Photo: Shane Anderson. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Species Sargassum bacciferum, aka. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Seagrass from the coast of Florida Sea grass (or sea-grass in British English) are flowering plants from four plant families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae, and Cymodoceaceae) that grow in the marine saline environment. ... Species Zostera japonica Zostera marina Zostera is a genus small genus of widely distributed aquatic grass, it is commonly called eelgrass. ... The foreshore, also called the intertidal or littoral zone, is that part of a beach that lies between average high tide and average low tide. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal Mangroves are woody trees or shrubs that grow in mangrove habitats or mangal (Hogarth, 1999). ... Species See text. ... Species Ammophila arenaria Ammophila breviligulata Marram Grass or Beach Grass is a genus of two species of grass growing almost exclusively on coastal sand dunes, where rhizomes on its extensive root system allow it to survive in a very harsh and windswept ecosystem. ... Families Alariaceae Chordaceae Laminariaceae Lessoniaceae Phyllariaceae Pseudochordaceae Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...

Marine invertebrates

As on land, invertebrates make up a huge portion of all life in the sea. Invertebrate sea life includes Cnidaria such as jellyfish and sea anemone; Ctenophora; sea worms including phyla Plathyhelminthes, Nemertea, Annelida, Sipuncula, Echiura, and the Phoronida; Mollusca including shellfish, squid, octopus; Crustaceans; Porifera including sponges, Bryozoa, Echinodermata including starfish; and Urochordata - sea squirts or tunicates. Image File history File linksMetadata Crown_of_Thorns-jonhanson. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Crown_of_Thorns-jonhanson. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The crown-of-thorns seastar (Acanthaster planci) is a seastar with thorn-like spines sprouting all over its body for protection. ... Invertebrate is a term coined by Chevalier de Lamarck to describe any animal without a backbone or vertebra, like insects, squids and worms. ... Subphylum/Classes[1] Anthozoa — corals and sea anemones Medusozoa:[2] Cubozoa — sea wasps or box jellyfish Hydrozoa — hydroids, hydra-like animals Polypodiozoa Scyphozoa — jellyfish Staurozoa — stalked jellyfish unranked: Myxozoa - parasites Cnidaria[3] (IPA: [4]) is a phylum containing some 11,000 species of apparently simple animals found exclusively in aquatic... Bold text For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... Families Many, see text. ... Classes Tentaculata Nuda Ctenophores are jellyfish-like animals commonly called comb jellies, sea gooseberries, sea walnuts, or Venus girdles. ... Sea worm is a general term that may refer to a number of phyla of animals, or may refer specifically to: Acanthocephala, parasitic worm Annelida, Chaetognatha, Cycliophora, lobster worms Entoprocta, Echiura, spoon worms Gastrotricha, microscopic Gnathostomulida, microscopic Hemichordata, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Micrognathozoa, microscopic Nematoda, round worms Nematomorpha, parasitic worms Nemertea, Onychophora... Phylum (plural: phyla) is a taxon used in the classification of animals, adopted from the Greek phylai the clan-based voting groups in Greek city-states. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontidae The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar animals well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Octopus (disambiguation). ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Classes Stenolaemata Gymnolaemata Phylactolaemata Bryozoans are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... Classes Asteroidea Concentricycloidea Crinoidea Echinoidea Holothuroidea Ophiuroidea Echinoderms (Echinodermata) is a phylum of marine animals found in the ocean at all depths. ... Classes Ascidiacea Thaliacea Appendicularia Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates or sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with input and output siphons. ... Classes Ascidiacea Thaliacea Appendicularia Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates or sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with input and output siphons. ... Classes Ascidiacea (2,300 species) Thaliacea Appendicularia Sorberacea Urochordata (sometimes known as tunicata and commonly called urochordates, tunicates, sea squirts) is the subphylum of saclike filter feeders with incurrent and excurrent siphons. ...

Fish

Main article: Fish

Fish have evolved very different biological functions from other large organisms. Fish anatomy includes a two-chambered heart, operculum, secretory cells that produce mucous, swim bladder, scales, fins, lips and eyes. Fish breathe by extracting oxygen from water through their gills. Fins propel and stabilize the fish in the water. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x1024, 194 KB) Beschreibung Carcharhinus longimanus, ca. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x1024, 194 KB) Beschreibung Carcharhinus longimanus, ca. ... Binomial name (Poey, 1861) Range of oceanic whitetip shark Synonyms Squalus maou, Lesson 1822-1825 Squalus longimanus, Poey 1861 Pterolamiops longimanus Carcharhinus obtusus, Garman 1881 Carcharhinus insularum, Snyder 1904 Pterolamiops magnipinnis, Smith 1958 Pterolamiops budkeri, Fourmanoir 1961 The oceanic whitetip shark, Carcharhinus longimanus, is a large pelagic shark of tropical... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... The operculum in fish is the hard bony flap covering and protecting the gills of Bony fish. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The word mucous is an adjective which means pertaining to mucus or having the qualities of mucus. ... The gas bladder (also fish maw, less accurately swim bladder or air bladder) is an internal organ that contributes to the ability of a fish to control its buoyancy, and thus to stay at the current water depth, ascend, or descend without having to waste energy in swimming. ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... A fin is a surface used to produce lift and thrust or to steer while traveling in water, air, or other fluid media. ... For other uses, see Lip (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ...


Well known fish include: sardines, anchovy, tuna, clownfish (also known as anemonefish), and bottom fish which include halibut and ling cod. Predators include sharks and barracuda. Sardines in the Pacific An open Sardines can Sardines on a plate grilled Sardines For the hide and seek-like game, see Hide and seek. ... Genera Amazonsprattus Anchoa Anchovia Anchoviella Cetengraulis Coilia Encrasicholina Engraulis Jurengraulis Lycengraulis Lycothrissa Papuengraulis Pterengraulis Setipinna Stolephorus Thryssa The anchovies are a family (Engraulidae) of small, common salt-water fish. ... For other uses, see Tuna (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... This article is about the flatfish species; for the United States Navy ships named Halibut see USS Halibut. ... Binomial name Ophiodon elongatus Girard, 1854 The lingcod, Ophiodon elongatus, is a fish of the greenling family Hexagrammidae. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ...

Reptiles

Main article: Marine reptile

Reptiles which inhabit or frequent the sea include sea turtles, Marine Iguanas, sea snakes, and Saltwater Crocodiles. All extant marine reptiles are oviparous and need to return to land to lay their eggs. Thus most species, excepting sea turtles, live on or near land rather than in the ocean. Some extinct marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, evolved to be viviparous and had no requirement to return to land. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 5. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 5. ... Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean. ... Euryapsids Plesiosaurs Ichthyosaurs placodonts Diapsids mosasaurs marine crocodiles marine Iguanas Categories: Lists of animals | Reptiles ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean. ... Binomial name Amblyrhynchus cristatus (Bell, 1825) The Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) is an iguana that has the unique ability among modern lizards to live and forage in the sea. ... For sea snakes in mythology and cryptozoology, see Sea serpent. ... Binomial name (Schneider, 1801) Range of the Saltwater Crocodile in black The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living reptiles. ... In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... Families Ichthyosauridae Leptonectidae Mixosauridae Ophthalmosauridae Shastasauridae Stenopterygiidae Teretocnemidae Ichthyosaurs (Greek for fish lizard - ιχθυς meaning fish and σαυρος meaning lizard) were giant marine reptiles that resembled fish and dolphins. ... A viviparous animal is an animal employing vivipary, a method of reproduction in which the embryo develops inside the body of the mother from which it gains nourishment, and not from an egg. ...

Seabirds

Seabirds are species of Birds adapted to living in the marine environment, examples including albatross, penguins, gannets, and auks. Although they spend most of their lives in the ocean, species such as gulls can often be found thousands of miles inland. chinstrap penguin larger image on http://www. ... chinstrap penguin larger image on http://www. ... Binomial name Pygoscelis antarctica The Chinstrap Penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) is a species of [penguin which is found in the South Sandwich Islands, Antarctica, the South Orkneys, South Shetland, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, Balleny and Peter I Island. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... This article is about the bird family. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... For other uses, see Gannet (disambiguation) Species Morus bassanus Morus capensis Morus serrator Synonyms Moris Gannets are seabirds in the family Sulidae, closely related to the boobies. ... Genera Uria Alle Alca Pinguinus Synthliboramphus Cepphus Brachyramphus Ptychoramphus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula Extinct genera, see Systematics Auks are birds of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. ... “Seagull” redirects here. ...

Marine mammals

Main article: Marine mammal

There are five main types of marine mammals. A Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris). ... A Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris). ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member...

Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Families See text. ... Families See text The toothed whales (systematic name Odontoceti) form a suborder of the cetaceans. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Sperm Whale range (in blue) The Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is the largest of all toothed whales and is the largest toothed animal alive, measuring up to 18 metres (60 ft) long. ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... Genera Neophocaena Phocoena - Harbor porpoise Phocoenoides - Dalls porpoise The porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. ... Diversity Around 15 species; see list of cetaceans or below. ... Families Balaenidae Balaenopteridae Eschrichtiidae Neobalaenidae Scientifically known as the Mysticeti, the baleen whales, also called whalebone whales or great whales, form a suborder of the order cetacea. ... Binomial name Eschrichtius robustus Lilljeborg, 1861 Gray Whale range The Gray Whale or Grey Whale (Eschrichtius robustus), more recently called the Eastern Pacific Gray Whale, is a whale that travels between feeding and breeding grounds yearly. ... Binomial name Borowski, 1781 Humpback Whale range The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a baleen whale. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Blue Whale range Subspecies B. m. ... Families Dugongidae Trichechidae For information about the Gothic Metal band, see Sirenia (band) Sirenia are herbivorous mammals of coastal waters. ... For other uses, see Manatee (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Müller, 1776) Natural range of . ... Binomial name (Zimmermann, 1780) Stellers Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) is an extinct, large sirenian mammal formerly found near the Asiatic coast of the Bering Sea. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Gray Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ... For other uses, see Sea Lion (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Walrus Subspecies Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies Walruses are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... For other uses, see Weasel (disambiguation). ... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... For other meanings, see Bear (disambiguation). ...

Oceanic Habitats

Reefs

Main article: Coral reef

Reefs comprise some of the densest and most diverse habitats in the world. The best-known types of reefs are tropical coral reefs which exist in most tropical waters; however, reefs can also exist in cold water. Reefs are built up by corals and other calcium-depositing animals, usually on top of a rocky outcrop on the ocean floor. Reefs can also grow on other surfaces, which has made it possible to create artificial reefs. Coral reefs also support a huge community of life, including the corals themselves, their symbiotic zooxanthellae, tropical fish and many other organisms. Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 1. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reef (disambiguation). ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Extant Subclasses and Orders Alcyonaria    Alcyonacea    Helioporacea Zoantharia    Antipatharia    Corallimorpharia    Scleractinia    Zoanthidea [1][2]  See Anthozoa for details For other uses, see Coral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Construction in place of an artificial reef from hollow tile blocks Ship about to be scuttled to act as an Artificial Reef An artificial reef is a man-made, underwater structure, typically built for the purpose of promoting marine life in areas of generally featureless bottom. ... Zooxanthellae are golden-brown endosymbionts of various marine animals and protozoa. ...


Much attention in marine biology is focused on coral reefs and the El Niño weather phenomenon. In 1998, coral reefs experienced a "once in a thousand years" bleaching event, in which vast expanses of reefs across the Earth died because sea surface temperatures rose well above normal. Some reefs are recovering, but scientists say that 58% of the world's coral reefs are now endangered and predict that global warming could exacerbate this trend. Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion or a fraction as a whole number. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ...


Deep sea and trenches

The deepest recorded measure to date is the Mariana Trench, near the Philippines, in the Pacific Ocean at 10924 m (35838 ft). At such depths, water pressure is extreme and there is no sunlight, but some life still exists. Small flounder (family Soleidae) fish and shrimp were seen by the American crew of the bathyscaphe Trieste when it dove to the bottom in 1960. This article is about the geographical feature. ... Water pressure is the pressure in any system for supplying water, usually a domestic water system, although the term is used in other contexts as well, such as a municipal water system. ... Genera (22 genera) The soles are a family (Soleidae) of flatfishes found in both oceans and freshwater, feeding on small crustaceans and other invertebrates. ... Typical internal arrangement A bathyscape, bathyscaphe, or bathyscaph is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea diving submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere suspended below a float (rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design) Bathyscaphe Trieste, before dive into Marianas Trench... The bathyscaphe Trieste Trieste was a Swiss designed deep-diving research bathyscaphe (deep boat) with a crew of two people, which reached a record-breaking depth of about 10,900 m (about 35,760 ft), in the deepest part of the oceans, the Challenger Deep, in 1960. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Other notable oceanic trenches include Monterey Canyon, in the eastern Pacific, the Tonga Trench in the southwest at 10,882 m (35,702 feet), the Philippine Trench, the Puerto Rico Trench at 8605 m (28232 ft), the Romanche Trench at 7760 m (24450 ft), Fram Basin in the Arctic Ocean at 4665 m (15305 ft), the Java Trench at 7450 m (24442 ft), and the South Sandwich Trench at 7235 m (23737 ft). The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor. ... A canyon in Monterey Bay, which is commonly explored by the scientists at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. ... The Tonga Trench is located in the Pacific ocean and is 32,000 ft (9,900 m) deep. ... The Philippine Trench is a submarine trench to the east of the Philippine islands. ... Location map Puerto Rico trench - USGS The Puerto Rico Trench is an oceanic trench located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Romanche Trench, also called Romanche Furrow or Romanche Gap, is the third deepest of the major trenches of the Atlantic Ocean, after the Puerto Rico Trench and the South Sandwich Trench. ... The Java Trench, also called Sunda Trench, with a length of 2 600 km and a maximum depth of 7 725 meters at 10°19N, 109°58E, was long thought to be the deepest trench of the Indian Ocean, but is in fact second to the Diamantina Trench... The South Sandwich Trench is the deepest trench of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, and the second deepest of the Atlantic Ocean, after the Puerto Rico Trench. ...


In general, the deep sea is considered to start at the aphotic zone, the point where sunlight loses its power of transference through the water. Many life forms that live at these depths have the ability to create their own light. The aphotic zone is the depth of the ocean that is not exposed to sunlight. ...


Much life centers on seamounts that rise from the deeps, where fish and other sea life congregate to spawn and feed. Hydrothermal vents along the mid-ocean ridge spreading centers act as oases, as do their opposites, cold seeps. Such places support unique biomes and many new microbes and other lifeforms have been discovered at these locations. A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the waters surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. ... A hydrothermal vent A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planets surface from which geothermally heated water issues. ... Oceanic Ridge Oceanic crust is formed at an oceanic ridge, while the lithosphere is subducted back into the asthenosphere at trenches. ... For the English rock band, see Oasis (band). ... Tubeworms, soft corals and chemosynthetic mussels at a seep located 3,000 metres down on the Florida Escarpment. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ...


Open ocean

The great expanse of open ocean habitat is huge, and many species can be found passing through it and living in it. The term "open ocean" usually is meant to refer to the vast stretches of water between points of land, or between undersea mounts. Contrary to popular notions the open ocean is often not the place where marine animals spend the majority of their lives. Most species simply pass through the open ocean on their ways to other places. Larger species are the main ongoing inhabitants... poo


Intertidal and shore

Limpets in the intertidal zone in Cornwall, England.

Intertidal zones, those areas close to shore, are constantly being exposed and covered by the ocean's tides. A huge array of life lives within this zone. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1875 pixel, file size: 820 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1875 pixel, file size: 820 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph taken by Mark A. Wilson (Department of Geology, The College of Wooster). ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... A rock, seen at low tide, exhibiting typical intertidal zonation. ... This article is about tides in the ocean. ...


Shore habitats span from the upper intertidal zones to the area where land vegetation takes prominence. It can be underwater anywhere from daily to very infrequently. Many species here are scavengers, living off of sea life that is washed up on the shore. Many land animals also make much use of the shore and intertidal habitats. A subgroup of organisms in this habitat bores and grinds exposed rock through the process of bioerosion. Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ...


How oceanic factors affect distribution of various organisms

An active research topic in marine biology is to discover and map the life cycles of various species and where they spend their time. Marine biologists study how the ocean currents, tides and many other oceanic factors affect ocean lifeforms, including their growth, distribution and well-being. This has only recently become technically feasible with advances in GPS and newer underwater visual devices. A life cycle is a period involving one generation of an organism through means of reproduction, whether through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction. ... Ocean currents (1911) Ocean currents (1943) An ocean current is any more or less continuous, directed movement of ocean water that flows in one of the Earths oceans. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... GPS redirects here. ...


Most ocean life breeds in specific places, nests or not in others, spends time as juveniles in still others, and in maturity in yet others. Scientists know little about where many species spent different parts of their life cycles. For example, it is still largely unknown where sea turtles travel. Tracking devices do not work for some life forms, and the ocean is not friendly to technology. Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


Famous marine biologists

Jacques-Yves Cousteau, co-inventor of the aqua-lung, is well known for popularizing marine biology.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau, co-inventor of the aqua-lung, is well known for popularizing marine biology.

Source: List of biologists. Image File history File links Jacques-Yves Cousteau. ... Image File history File links Jacques-Yves Cousteau. ... ... Ali Ezzeldin Abdelghany (born 16 June 1944 in Cairo) is an Egyptian academic and marine biologist. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jakob Johan Adolf Appellöf (Garda on Gotland 2 November 1857 – 5 January 1921), Swedish marine zoologist. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the zoologist Samuel Stillman Berry. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Henry B. Bigelow (1879-1967) was a pioneering oceanographer and marine biologist. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and nature writer whose writings are often credited with launching the global environmental movement. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Carl Chun (October 1, 1852 – April 11, 1914) was a German marine biologist. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1976. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... HMS Beagle was a Cherokee class 10-gun brig of the Royal Navy, named after the beagle, a breed of dog. ... Felix Anton Dohrn, (b. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sylvia Earle Sylvia Alice Earle (born August 30, 1935 in Gibbstown, New Jersey) is an American oceanographer. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Hans Hass Hans Hass (born January 23, 1919 in Vienna, Austria) is a biologist and mainly known for his documentaries about sharks, the energon theory, and his commitment to the protection of the environment. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Gotthilf Hempel Prof. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Johan Hjort was born in Oslo, Norway 18 February 1869 and died there 7 October 1948. ... The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) was established in 1902 by eight northern European nations. ... Bruno Hofer (1861 – 1916) was a German fishery scientist, credited with being the founder of fish pathology. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Bold text For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Uwe Kils in 1998 Uwe Kils (born July 10, 1951) is a German marine biologist specializing in planktology. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... August David Krohn (1803 – 1891) was a Saint Petersburg born zoologist of German origin. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William Elford Leach FRS (February 2, 1790 – August 26, 1836) was an English zoologist and marine biologist. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the similarly named institution in Chestnut Hill, see Boston College. ... Nicholai Nicholaevich Miklukho-Maklai (Николай Николаевич Миклухо-Маклай in Russian) (1846 – 1888) was a Russian ethnologist, anthropologist and biologist. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sir John Murray (March 3, 1841 - March 16, 1914), pioneering Scots-Canadian oceanographer and marine biologist. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the country. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Treat Paine (February 18, 1812– February 8, 1872) was an American planter, ship builder, and lawyer from Edenton, North Carolina. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... Edward Flanders Robb Ricketts (May 14, 1897 - May 11, 1948) commonly known as Ed Ricketts, was an American marine biologist, ecologist, and philosopher. ... Harald Rosenthal (* June 9, 1937 in Berlin) is a German hydrobiologist and fisheries scientist known for his work in fish farming, ecology, and international cooperation. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Sars (b. ... Georg Ossian Sars (April 20, 1837 - April 9, 1927) was a Norwegian marine biologist. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ruth Turner was a pioneering marine biologist. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Professor Sir Charles Wyville Thomson (March 5th, 1830 - March 10th, 1882), Professor of Zoology and chief scientist on the Challenger expedition. ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This is a list of notable biologists. ...


See also

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1330, 407 KB) A giant grouper taken at the Georgia Aquarium on January 23rd by myself with a Canon 5D and 24-105mm f/4L IS. Taken by Diliff Edited by Fir0002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1200x1330, 407 KB) A giant grouper taken at the Georgia Aquarium on January 23rd by myself with a Canon 5D and 24-105mm f/4L IS. Taken by Diliff Edited by Fir0002. ... Binomial name Epinephelus lanceolatus Bloch, 1790 The Giant Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is also known as the Brindle Bass and as the Queensland Grouper in Australia. ... Algae have conventionally been regarded as simple plants within the study of botany. ... Aliens of the Deep is a 2005 documentary film, directed by Academy Award winner James Cameron and Steven Quale and filmed in the 3-D IMAX format. ... Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Freshwater angelfish Freshwater biology is a field of biology that studies the life and ecosystems of freshwater habitats. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Release of rehabilitated pinnipeds into the Pacific Ocean The Marine Mammal Center is a private non-profit organization centered on rescue, rehabilitation, environmental research and education pertaining to certain species within the pinnipedia, carnivora and cetacea biological orders. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... Phycology (or algology) (from Greek: φύκος, phykos, seaweed; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), a subdiscipline of botany, is the scientific study of algae. ... This article is about the body of water. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Marine biology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1785 words)
Marine biology is the scientific study of the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the ocean.
Marine biology covers a great deal, from the microscopic, including plankton and phytoplankton, which can be as small as 0.02 micrometers and are both hugely important as the primary producers of the sea, to the huge cetaceans (whales) which reach up to a reported 33 meters (109 feet) in length.
The habitats studied by marine biology include everything from the tiny layers of surface water in which organisms and abiotic items may be trapped in surface tension between the ocean and atmosphere, to the depths of the abyssal trenches, sometimes 10,000 meters or more beneath the surface of the ocean.
Encyclopedia4U - Marine biology - Encyclopedia Article (372 words)
Marine biology is the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems.
Given that in biology many Phyla, Families and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology deals with those species in which life is spent only (or mainly) in the water, thus its classification is based on the environment rather than on taxonomy.
Marine biology is a huge field, given that a large (exactly how large is unknown at this point) porportion of all life on earth is contained in the oceans.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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