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Encyclopedia > Marilyn Waring

Marilyn Waring (born 1952) is a renowned New Zealand feminist, an activist for "female human rights", an author and an academic. She holds a Ph.D. in political economy. Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ...


She became the youngest member in the New Zealand Parliament in 1975, at the age of 23, a position she kept until 1984. The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As of 2005, she works as Professor of Public Policy and heads the post-graduate programme in Public Policy at the Albany Campus of Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand. She has held Fellowships at Harvard and Rutgers Universities. She is a member of the Board of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Massey University is based in Palmerston North, New Zealand with additional campuses in Te Aro, Wellington (inherited by absorbing ther former Wellington Polytechnic) and in Albany, to the north of Auckland. ... Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest urban area in New Zealand. ... Harvard, see Harvard (disambiguation) Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Rutgers University Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is located in New Brunswick, Piscataway, Camden and Newark, New Jersey. ... // Introduction The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is the central bank of New Zealand. ...


She has worked as a consultant for organizations such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Yukon Territorial Government, the Ford Foundation, and the Ontario Provincial Government. Headquartered in Rome, Italy, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations programs seek to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and, by these means, to eliminate hunger. ... The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... The Ford Foundation is a US charitable foundation created to fund programs that promote democracy, reduce poverty and promote international understanding (see mission statement). ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal it began, loyal it remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th)  - Land 917,741 km²  - Water 158,654 km² (14. ...

Contents


Focus

Waring's recent work has focused on women's work as an issue of international human rights. She has also done activist work on behalf of women imprisoned or denied refugee status "because of feminist political issues beyond the restricted definitions and practices of international human rights," she says.


She became well known in Canada following a 1995 National Film Board of Canada video documentary on her work, Who's Counting: Sex, Lies and Global Economics. 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Toronto offices of the National Film Board of Canada The National Film Board of Canada (or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ...


She has outspokenly criticised GDP, the economic measure that became a foundation of the United Nations System of National Accounts following World War II. She ridicules a system which 'counts oil spills and wars as contributors to economic growth, while child-rearing and housekeeping are deemed valueless.' The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb. ...


History

Early Life

In 1973, Waring received an Honours BA in Political Science and International Politics from Victoria University of Wellington. 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... Niccolò Machiavelli, ca 1500, became the key figure in realistic political theory, crucial to political science Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ... International relations (IR) is an academic and public policy field, a branch of political science, dealing with the foreign policy of states within the international system, including the roles of international organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). ... Victoria University of Wellington is the oldest university in Wellington, New Zealand. ...


Political Career (1975-1984)

In 1975 general election, she became the New Zealand National Party member of Parliament for the Raglan electorate. She fell out with Prime Minister Rob Muldoon almost immediately. 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Current National Party logo The New Zealand National Party currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the Opposition. ... Raglan is a seaside town and surrounding district associated with Whaingaroa Harbour (also known as Raglan Harbour) on the west coast of the Waikato region in New Zealands North Island. ... A prime minister may be either: the chief or leading member of the cabinet of the top-level government in a country having a parliamentary system of government; or the official, in countries with a semi-presidential system of government, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives... Sir Robert David (Rob) Muldoon KCMG CH (25 September 1921–5 August 1992) served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1975 to 1984. ...


During her period in Parliament, she served as Chair of the Public Expenditures Committee, Senior Government Member of the Foreign Affairs Committee, and on the Disarmament and Arms Control Committee.


Waring made history during her political career when she withdrew her support from her party over the issue of a nuclear-free New Zealand, precipitating a snap election in 1984. Her action brought down the government, and led to New Zealand becoming the first country to ban nuclear ships from its harbours. The 1984 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ...


Muldoon justified the snap election with Waring's revolt, calling the issue of ship visits a matter of 'national security', the only reason besides confidence and supply, on which a government in New Zealand can fall.


Academic Life

In 1984, she left politics and returned to lecturing, where her research has focused on well-being, human rights and on economic factors that influence legislation and aid.


In 1988, she published If Women Counted.


In 1989, she was awarded a Ph.D. in Political Economy, and in 1990, she was awarded the University of Waikato Research Council grant to continue work on "female human rights." Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. ... Political economy was the original term for the study of production, the acts of buying and selling, and their relationships to laws, customs and government. ... The University of Waikato is located in Hamilton and Tauranga, New Zealand, and was established in 1964. ... The Research Councils of the UK are government agencies responsible for particular areas of science and technology. ...


Between 1991 and 1994, Marilyn Waring served as Senior Lecturer in Public Policy and the Politics of Human Rights with the Department of Politics at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. Lecturer is the name given to university teachers in most of the English-speaking world (but not at most universities in the US or Canada) who do not hold a professorship. ... The University of Waikato is located in Hamilton and Tauranga, New Zealand, and was established in 1964. ...


Farming

In between her academic and activist engagements, Waring farmed angora goats and dry stock on her hill-farm north of Auckland. Her farm was organised for maximum simplicity and self-sufficiency. She left the farm to become a 'city dweller' on turning 50.


Further reading

  • Waring, Marilyn. Women, Politics, and Power: Essays, Unwin Paperbacks-Port Nicholson Press (1984). Issues on women in Parliament, apartheid and New Zealand sport, Nuclear Free New Zealand etc
  • Waring, Marilyn. If Women Counted, Macmillan (1988). If Women Counted points out the shortcomings of ignoring women’s unpaid work in economic tallies. She later produced a documentary on the same topic, Who's Counting(see later).
  • Waring, Marilyn. Three Masquerades: Essays on Equality, Work and Hu(man) Rights, Auckland: Auckland University Press with Bridget Williams Books (1996) ISBN 0802080766. Three Masquerades includes references to Waring's years in Parliament, which she describes as "an experience of counterfeit equality." It also looks at her experiences with farming and with the development field, where she was "daily confronted with the travesty of excluding women's unpaid work from the policy-making process."
  • Waring, Marilyn. Counting for Nothing: What Men Value and What Women are Worth, Bridget Williams Books (1998). [first published 1977; reprinted seven times] ISBN 0802082602

This is a feminist analysis of modern economics, revealing how woman's housework, caring of the young, sick and the old is automatically excluded from value in economic theory.

  • Waring, Marilyn. In the Lifetime of a Goat: Writings 1984-2000, Bridget Williams Books (April, 2004) ISBN 1877242098
  • The National Film Board of Canada. Who's Counting?: Marilyn Waring on Sex, Lies, and Global Economics. [Video]. Directed by Terre Nash (1995) ISBN 0-7722-0680-5

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Marilyn Waring - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (745 words)
Marilyn Waring (born 1952) is a renowned New Zealand feminist, an activist for "female human rights", an author and an academic.
Waring made history during her political career when she withdrew her support from her party over the issue of a nuclear-free New Zealand, precipitating a snap election in 1984.
Between 1991 and 1994, Marilyn Waring served as Senior Lecturer in Public Policy and the Politics of Human Rights with the Department of Politics at the University of Waikato, New Zealand.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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