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Encyclopedia > Marijuana

The drug cannabis, also called marijuana, is produced from parts of the cannabis plant, primarily the cured flowers and gathered trichomes of the female plant. The major active chemical compound Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, commonly referred to as THC, has psychoactive and medicinal effects when consumed, usually by smoking or ingestion. Cannabis has been consumed by humans for thousands of years; in the 20th century there was an upswing in the use of cannabis for recreational and religious purposes. Image File history File linksMetadata Weeed1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Weeed1. ... Binomial name Cannabis sativa Linnaeus Cannabis sativa, also known as hemp, is a species of Cannabis. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Species Cannabis indica Cannabis ruderalis Cannabis sativa Cannabis (drug) Hemp Hemp (disambiguation) Cannabis is a genus of flowering plant that includes one or more species. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... Clivia miniata bears bright orange flowers. ... Trichomes, from the Greek meaning growth of hair, are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants and protists. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ¹-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis plant. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Cannabis has a long history of spiritual use, especially in India, where it has been used by wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries. ...


The possession, use, or sale of psychoactive cannabis products became illegal in many parts of the world in the early 20th century. Since then, while some countries have intensified the enforcement of cannabis prohibition, others have reduced the priority of enforcement to the point of de facto legality. Cannabis remains illegal in the vast majority of the world's countries. A demonstation by Promena in Sofia, Bulgaria in June 2003. ... The prohibition of drugs through legislation or religious law is a common means of controlling the perceived negative consequences of recreational drug use at a society- or world-wide level. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

Contents


Wild cannabis

Cannabis still grows wild in many places around the world, the most prominent species being Cannabis sativa. This species has been found growing wild in Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, China, Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Bulgaria, India, and Nepal. Wild Cannabis indica is mainly confined to hash producing areas such as Afghanistan, parts of the US Virgin Islands, and in Morocco. The genetic makeup of wild C. sativa shows great variation from place to place. For example, in warm places, the wild C. sativa can reach heights up to 20 feet (6 m) tall, but in colder climates it can be as short as 1 foot (30 cm) in height. Almost every single flower bracht bears a seed. The wild C. sativa has long, thin and airy buds and a Christmas tree shape structure. Wild C. indica remains compact and bushy with thick buds for the most part, and is sometimes used by the locals for hashish production. Generally, there are far fewer seeds in wild C. indica.[1] In many areas the wild population of cannabis is threatened due to government eradication and urbanization. Binomial name Cannabis sativa Linnaeus Cannabis sativa, also known as hemp, is a species of Cannabis. ...


Ancient history

Biologists generally agree that the cannabis plant first grew somewhere in the Himalayas.[2] Evidence of the smoking of cannabis can be found as far back as the Neolithic age, where charred hemp seeds were found in a ritual brazier at a burial site in present day Romania[3] . The most famous users of cannabis were the ancient Hindus. It was called ganjika in Sanskrit (ganja in modern Indian languages).[4] According to legend, Shiva, the destructive aspect of the Hindu trinity, told his disciples to revere the plant. The ancient drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas as a sacred intoxicating hallucinogen, was sometimes associated with cannabis. It has also been identified with a number of other plants and a mushroom, Amanita muscaria, so the involvement of cannabis cannot be definitively quantified. An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ... Look up Brazier on Wiktionary, the free dictionary A brazier is an upright standing or hanging metal bowl used for holding burning coal for a source of light or heat. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... Shiva (Sanskrit: शिव; Hindi: शिव (when used to distinguish lordly status), and written Śiva in the official IAST transliteration, pronounced as ) is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. ... Soma (Sanskrit), or Haoma (Avestan) (from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-) was a ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the later Vedic and greater Persian cultures. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ... Binomial name Amanita muscaria (Linnaeus) Hook. ...


The citizens of the Persian Empire would partake in the ceremonial burning of massive cannabis bonfires, directly exposing themselves and neighboring tribes to the billowing fumes, oftentimes for over 24 hours [Source: Abu Usaybia, Uyunu al-Anba fi Tabaquat al-Atibba, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965.] The ceremony was known as the booz-rooz. 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ...


Cannabis was also known to the Scythians, as well as to the Thracians/Dacians, whose shamans (the kapnobatai - "those who walk on smoke/clouds") burned cannabis flowers in order to induce trances. The cult of Dionysus, which is believed to have originated in Thrace, is also believed to have inhaled cannabis smoke. Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... Thracians in an ethnic sense refers to various ancient peoples who spoke Thracian languages, a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... Dionysus with a panther and satyr, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus or Dionysos or Dionysius (Ancient Greek: Διώνυσος or Διόνυσος; also known as Bacchus in both Greek and Roman mythology and associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but... Thrace (Bulgarian: Тракия, Trakiya; Greek: Θράκη, Thrákē; Latin: Thracia or Threcia, Turkish: Trakya, Macedonian: Тракија) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...

Spiritual use of cannabis: an Indian Sadhu smokes charas from a traditional pipe.
Spiritual use of cannabis: an Indian Sadhu smokes charas from a traditional pipe.

Image File history File links Sadhu. ... Image File history File links Sadhu. ...

Spiritual use

Cannabis has a long history of spiritual use, especially in India, where it has been used by wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries. The most famous religious group to use cannabis in a spiritual context is the Rastafari movement, though it is by no means the only group (e.g. Church of the Universe). Some historians and etymologists have claimed that cannabis was used by ancient Jews, early Christians, and of early Muslims of the Sufi order.[5] Cannabis, usually in the form of hashish, was an important yet frowned-upon part of Arab society during various periods of history. Hashish was said to have been used by the Hashshashin, a warrior sect.[5] Cannabis has a long history of spiritual use, especially in India, where it has been used by wandering spiritual sadhus for centuries. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... In Hinduism, sadhu is a common term for an ascetic or practitioner of yoga (yogi) who has given up pursuit of the first three Hindu goals of life: kama (pleasure), artha (wealth and power) and even dharma (duty). ... Various religious symbols Religion is a system of social coherence based on a common group of beliefs or attitudes concerning an object, person, unseen being, or system of thought considered to be supernatural, sacred, divine or highest truth, and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions, and rituals associated with such... His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religious movement that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former emperor of Ethiopia, as Jah (the Rasta name for God incarnate, from a shortened form of Jehovah found in Psalms 68:4 in the King... The Assembly of the Church of the Universe, an entheogen religion was established by Walter Tucker in 1969 in the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, rather than a pure ethnic group, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) had a militant basis as a religious sect (often referred to as a cult) of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ...


Many individuals also consider their use of cannabis to be spiritual regardless of organized religion though it is banned in many parts of the world, and in some cases because it is banned (cf. Bob Marley, "the more man smoke herb, the more Babylon fall"[6]). Robert Nesta Marley, OM (February 6, 1945 – May 11, 1981), better known as Bob Marley, was a Jamaican singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... Babylon occurs in the Christian New Testament both with a literal and a figurative meaning. ...


Medicinal use

Main article: Medical cannabis

Medically, cannabis is most often used as an appetite stimulant and pain reliever for certain terminal illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. It is used to relieve glaucoma and certain neurological illnesses such as epilepsy, migraine and bipolar disorder. It has also been found to relieve nausea for chemotherapy patients. The medical use of cannabis is politically controversial, but it is sometimes recommended informally by physicians. A synthetic version of the major active chemical in cannabis, THC, is available in many countries in the form of a pill as the prescription drug dronabinol (Marinol). THC has also been found to reduce arterial blockages[7]. A sublingual spray derived from an extract of cannabis has also been approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis in Canada as the prescription drug Sativex [8] - this drug may now be legally imported into the United Kingdom and Spain on prescription.[9] A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections in humans resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Bipolar disorder (previously known as manic depression) is a diagnostic category describing a class of mood disorders in which the person experiences states or episodes of depression and/or mania, hypomania, and/or mixed states. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Sativex is an oromucosal (mouth) spray developed by the UK company GW Pharmaceuticals for multiple sclerosis patients, who can use it to alleviate neuropathic pain and spasticity. ...


United States

Eleven states[10] in the United States passed laws allowing cannabis possession and consumption for medical purposes; however, the Supreme Court of the United States in Gonzales v. Raich ruled that the listing of cannabis as a Schedule I controlled substance was constitutional, and that possession for any reason other than approved medical research was therefore illegal under federal law. This remained consistent with their ruling in United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers Cooperative, an 8-0 decision stating that there is no exception as a Schedule I drug for people to use cannabis for medical purposes.[11] This creates an interesting tension between state and federal laws.[12] The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ... Holding Congress may ban the use of marijuana even where states approve its use for medicinal purposes. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 USC 13). ...


Some local city governments in the United States have noted that cannabis offenses are already an incredibly low priority for law enforcement, and have passed measures either decriminalizing small amounts of cannabis, or simply advising local authorities to limit enforcement of controlled substance laws as they pertain to small-time cannabis users. The city of Denver, Colorado, for instance, passed a law in 2006 which allows residents to legally possess up to an ounce of cannabis for personal use. The city of West Hollywood, California in 2006 adopted an advisory policy holding that within the city, the Los Angeles County Sheriff should not target possession of small quantities, or consumption in private, of cannabis.[13][14]The state of Alaska formerly allowed residents to legally possess up to four ounces for personal use, but it was criminalized on June 2, 2006; possesion of up to four ounces is now a misdemeanor.[15] Nickname: The Mile-High City Location of Denver in Colorado Coordinates: City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area    - City 401. ... West Hollywoods logo illustrates the citys borders. ... Memorial to fallen deputies. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A 1998 study by pro-legalization lobby NORML estimated cannabis to be the largest cash crop in several non-Midwestern states, and the fourth largest cash crop nationwide.[16] The National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws or NORML (pronounced normal) is a US-based non-profit corporation whose aim is, according to their most recent mission statement, move public opinion sufficiently to achieve the repeal of marijuana prohibition so that the responsible use of cannabis by adults...

Some cannabis seeds
Some cannabis seeds

Image File history File links CannabisSeeds. ... Image File history File links CannabisSeeds. ...

New breeding and cultivation techniques

Advances in breeding and cultivation techniques have increased the diversity and potency of cannabis strains since 1970, and these strains are now widely smoked all over the world. These advances are known as the sinsemilla techniques of production; sinsemilla, Spanish for without seed, are the dried, seedless female flowers of cannabis plants which have been grown in the absence of males to ensure no pollination takes place. Because THC potency and production drops off once pollination takes place, various techniques such as seed banks, hydroponics, cloning, lighting techniques, and the sea of green method have been utilized, in part as a response to prohibition enforcement efforts which have made outdoor cultivation more risky; thus, efficient indoor cultivation has become more common. These same advances have led to fewer seeds being present in cannabis currently than were present 20 years ago. A very young cannabis seedling. ... List of notable cannabis strains. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ¹-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis plant. ... Seedbanks store the seeds of a wide range of food crop cultivars in diverse locations to protect biodiversity and provide a source of seeds for planting where seed reserves are destroyed by natural disasters or war; or when the local cultivar of a food crop becomes susceptable to disease. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ... A very young cannabis seedling. ...


The increases in potency—and ramifications thereof—have been exaggerated by many opponents of cannabis use both in and out of government. In the United States, government advertisements encourage parents to disregard their own experience with cannabis when speaking to their children, on the premise that pot today is significantly stronger and thus more dangerous than that which they themselves might have smoked in the past.[17] In a general pattern of proposing reverses in cannabis rescheduling, the UK government is considering scheduling stronger cannabis (skunk, in local parlance) as a separate, more restricted substance. Cannabis reclassification in the United Kingdom refers to the transfer of cannabis to a different Class of the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. ...


Many cannabis proponents disagree vehemently, reasoning that as one must smoke less cannabis to achieve the same effect, it actually is safer and less potentially carcinogenic in the long run than that which was smoked in earlier times.


Preparations for human consumption

Roughly 1 to 2 grams of cannabis flowers, or buds, in a plastic bag.
Roughly 1 to 2 grams of cannabis flowers, or buds, in a plastic bag.

Cannabis is prepared for human consumption in several forms: . -- Schmiddy 6/28/04. ... . -- Schmiddy 6/28/04. ...

  • Marijuana or buds, the resin gland-rich flowering tops of female plants.
  • Hashish, a concentrated resin made from pressing kif into blocks.
    • Sinsemilla or sensemillia, flowering tops which are free of seeds as a result of being grown in a pollen-free environment. Since no plant energy can go into seed formation, this version is higher in psychoactive components.
  • Kief or kif, a powder containing the resin glands (glandular trichomes, often incorrectly called "crystals" or "pollen"). It is produced by sifting marijuana and leaves.
  • Charas, produced by hand-rubbing the resin from the resin gland-rich parts of the plant. Often thin dark rectangular pieces.
  • Bhang, prepared by the wet grinding of the leaves of the plant and used as a drink.
  • Hash oil, resulting from extraction or distillation of THC-rich parts of the plant.
  • Resin, when smoked through a pipe all of the above will cause black goo to create a film on the sides or collect in certain nooks depending on its shape. This can be collected and resmoked. This method is commonly referred to as scraping.
  • Minimally potent leaves and detritus, called shake, brush, bush or leaf.

There are also four recognized subspecies of Cannabis. These include Cannabis sativa sativa, Cannabis sativa indica, Cannabis sativa rasta, and Cannabis sativa ruderalis, the last containing much less THC and generally not used as a psychoactive substance.[citation needed] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A ripe red jalapeno cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), lily (Lilium auratum), primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Kief or kif is the dried resin glands (or trichomes) of cannabis, which accumulates on containers or has been removed with a kiefing screen or sieve. ... Trichomes, from the Greek meaning growth of hair, are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants and protists. ... Charas is the name given to hand-made hashish in India and Pakistan. ... A couple smoking bhang as an aphrodisiac. ... Hash oil is a solution of tetrahydrocannabinol, but is a misnomer in suggesting any resemblance to hashish. ... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ... Strathisla whisky distillery in Keith, Scotland Distillation is a method of separation of substances based on differences in their volatilities. ... Insect trapped in resin. ...


Smoking

There are several methods of smoking Cannabis. The most popular include the spliff or joint, the bong, the pipe, the shotgun, and the one-hitter. A cigarette rolling machine (A), a cannabis spliff (B), a small amount of crushed cannabis (C), and a book of cigarette rolling papers (D). ... A spliff. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Youth with pipe, by Hendrick Jansz Terbrugghen A smoking pipe is a device used for smoking combustible substances such as tobacco and cannabis. ... In the slang of consumers of cannabis, shotgun can have one of a number of meanings. ... A dugout, sometimes called a one-hitter, is a device used to facilitate discreet personal use of marijuana. ...


To create a joint, cannabis is rolled up into a cigarette, using rolling paper. Cannabis cigars, or blunts, can also be created by using the wrapper of a standard cigar. Rolling papers are small sheets or leaves of paper which are sold for rolling ones own cigarettes either by hand or with a rolling machine. ... Four cigars of different brands (from top: H. Upmann, Montecristo, Macanudo, Romeo y Julieta) An airtight cigar storage tube and a guillotine-style cutter A cigar is a tightly rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco, one end of which is ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into... Example of a blunt rolled with a Garcia y Vega cigar A blunt is a type of inexpensive cigar which is usually machine rolled, such as Swisher Sweets, Garcia y Vega, Phillie Blunts, Kingpin, White Owls, or Dutch Masters. ...


A bong is a water-pipe through which cannabis smoke is filtered. Variants include the gravity bong, which consists of a cone atop a perforated or cut water bottle. One may also ghetto rig a bong. This method of cannabis smoking is one of the most efficient, as the presence of chamber and carburetor reduce smoke waste. // Gravity Bong In the cannabis culture, gravity bong is a term that can refer to one of two devices usually used for smoking cannabis. ...


Pipes are usually made of blown glass, wood, or non-reactive metals. Metal pipes are often made of interchangeable pieces. Glass pipes have a carburetor, colloquially referred to as a carb or rush which is covered for suction then released for inhalation. Some users also prefer vertically held pipes, or improvised pipes made from aluminum foil, small plumbing fittings, soda cans, or crisp fruits or vegetables. Sculpting hot blown glass Glassblowing is the process of forming glass into useful shapes while the glass is in a molten, semi-liquid state. ...


A shotgun involves two people. One person takes a hit then puts the joint or blunt ember first into his mouth. Another person then places his mouth over the front end, and first person exhales through the joint, blowing both his smoke and the joint’s smoke into the other person’s mouth. More efficient variations of shotgunning involve both members curling their hands to form a 'shotgun' chamber. Simultaneous exhaling by one member and inhaling by the other member will effectively transfer smoke between the two people. Many consider this to be a very intimate practice.


A one-hitter is a device that looks similar to a cigarette. Seedless, stemless cannabis buds are loaded into a compartment in a container known as a dugout. A hitter, contained in another compartment, is loaded and lit. This is repeated for each hit. This method is also efficient in titrating the exact dose desired.

A glass bong- a common method of smoking cannabis
A glass bong- a common method of smoking cannabis

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (446x1024, 86 KB) Summary Glass bong. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (446x1024, 86 KB) Summary Glass bong. ...

Oral consumption

Cannabis may be orally consumed by blending it with ethanol or lipids. With this method, some claim that more cannabis must be used, though considering that the effects of oral consumption are different from those of inhalation, others may claim that less is required. The effects of the drug take longer to begin, but last longer and may be perceived as more physical rather than mental, though there are claims to the contrary. A dose of oral cannabis is often considered to give a stronger experience than the equivalent dose of smoked cannabis. A common belief holds that smoking cannabis leads to a large amount of the active compounds being lost in the exhaled smoke or simply decomposing on burning, whereas ingested cannabis results in 100% consumption of the active compounds, an assertion which cannot be confirmed without objective analysis. It is thought that the active component of cannabis, Δ9-THC, is converted to the more psychoactive 11-hydroxy-THC in the liver.[18] Titration is much more complex than through inhalation. Common preparations involve blending with butter, to create Cannabutter that is used in preparing Brownies, fudge, cookies, ganja goo balls or space cakes. However there are two preparations that do not contain butter in them and therefore fall into a slightly different category. These are the Leary biscuit and Nutella biscuit which require less preparation than more "conventional" recipes. Infusion in drinks containing milk and flavoring herbs is also possible, and more common in India. This article is about the chemical compound. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Butter is commonly sold in sticks (pictured) or small blocks, and frequently served with the use of a butter knife. ... Cannabutter is an oil/fat/butter based solution which has been infused with cannabinoids. ... An Alice B. Toklas brownie, also known as an Alice B. Tokin brownie or more colloquially as a bud brownie, magic brownie, or special brownie, is a type of hash cookie (a cake containing cannabis). ... A slice of Russian fudge Fudge is a type of confectionery, usually extremely rich and often flavored. ... Hash cookies, Space Cookie, hash cakes or space cakes are relatively common in regions with liberal drugs policies, including much of Europe (particularly the Netherlands). ... Ganja goo ball is a catch-all term for any gooey or sticky sweet ball-shaped dessert containing cannabis, usually referring to desserts that do not need to be baked. ... Space cake is a cookie that contains psychoactive substances, most frequently cannabis (hashish, marijuana). ... A Leary biscuit is a snack consisting of a cracker, cheese, and a marijuana bud. ... A glass of cows milk Milk is the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hÉ™(ɹ)b, or əɹb; see pronunciation differences) are plants grown for culinary, medicinal, or in some cases even spiritual value. ...


Hollowed-out gumballs filled with the drug, wrapped and distributed labeled as Greenades, were identified in 2006 as being used by high school students in the United States.[19]


As with other drugs that are taken orally, it is sometimes customary to fast before taking the drug to increase the effect, possibly because an empty stomach will absorb the drug faster so it 'hits' stronger. However, some people do eat before consuming the drug because eating it on an empty stomach makes them feel sick. Still, time to effect onset is an hour or sometimes more, as opposed to smoking, where effects can be almost immediate. Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food and in some cases drink, for a period of time. ...


Cannabis can also be consumed as a tea. THC is lipophilic and only slightly water soluble, with a solubility of only 2.8 grams per litre,[20] but enough to make a tea effective. Water-based infusion is generally considered to be inefficient. Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Impact of a drop of water. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in that fluid. ...


The seeds of the plant, high in protein and fatty acids, are appreciated by many species of birds. Many countries, including the United States, make the possession of viable cannabis seeds illegal[21], although they can be openly bought and sold legally in much of Europe, including the UK.[citation needed] A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ...


Vaporization

With a vaporizer, cannabis can be heated to a temperature of about 365 °F (185 °C), at which the active ingredients are released into gaseous form with little or no burning of the plant material. With this method, the user does not inhale as many (or any) toxic chemicals depending on the quality of the vaporizer. Scientific studies by MAPS/NORML have yielded varied results on the effectiveness of vaporizing as a method of cannabis consumption. One particular study by MAPS/NORML found 95% THC and no toxins delivered in the vapor.[22] However, an older study by MAPS/NORML showed minimal reduction of toxins.[23] Some users claim to experience subtly different effects when using cannabis in this way, and others claim to experience a far more intense effect from a smaller amount of cannabis. In addition, users note an improved ability to distinguish subtle characteristics of flavor and aroma, in absence of lighter gas fumes or burnt matter. A vaporizer (or vaporiser) is a device commonly used to release psychoactive compounds from plant material, most commonly cannabis or tobacco, although it can also be used to release certain therapeutic compounds from herbs and other plants (See aromatherapy). ... A gas is one of the four main phases of matter (after solid and liquid, and followed by plasma), that subsequently appear as a solid material is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. ...


Knifing

Main article: Knifers

Hot-knifing, blasting or doing blades is a process in which the tips of two knives are heated to a very high temperature, often by inserting them into the heating elements of a stove. The cannabis is then pressed between the heated knife-tips, rapidly combusting it. The vaporized cannabis is often funneled into the mouth of the smoker through the use of a plastic bottle-top, empty pen, or other hollow tube or funnel commonly known as a "hooter". In New Zealand and Australia, this is also known as "spots". A modified method of "spotting", uses knife blades heated to a much lower temperature, hot enough to vaporise the active ingredients, leaving the organic material scorched, rather than burned, thus decreasing potential harmful consequenses of the smoke itself. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Knives being heated on an element for spots Spots (also known as spotting, blades, dots or hot knives) is a method of smoking cannabis, where small pieces of the plant are placed between two very hot knives and the smoke produced is inhaled. ... Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state if the substance sublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state. ...


Immediate effects of consumption

A dried flowered bud of the Cannabis sativa plant, in this case, Sweet Tooth #3, a fourth generation, third backcross to Sweet Pink Grapefruit mother
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A dried flowered bud of the Cannabis sativa plant, in this case, Sweet Tooth #3, a fourth generation, third backcross to Sweet Pink Grapefruit mother

The nature and intensity of the immediate effects of cannabis consumption vary according to the dose, the species or hybridization of the source plant, the method of consumption, the user's mental and physical characteristics (such as possible tolerance), and the environment of consumption. This is sometimes referred to as set and setting. Smoking the same cannabis either in a different frame of mind (set) or in a different location (setting) can alter the effects or perception of the effects by the individual. Effects of cannabis consumption may be loosely classified as cognitive and physical. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the Cannabis sativa species tends to produce more of the cognitive or perceptual effects, while Cannabis indica tends to produce more of the physical effects. Insert non-formatted text here File links The following pages link to this file: Cannabis (drug) ... Insert non-formatted text here File links The following pages link to this file: Cannabis (drug) ... Set and setting describes the context for drug experiences: ones mindset and the setting in which the user has his experience. ... Binomial name Cannabis sativa Linnaeus Cannabis sativa, also known as hemp, is a species of Cannabis. ... Binomial name Cannabis indica Lam. ...


Active ingredients, metabolism, and method of activity

Of the approximately 400 different chemicals found in Cannabis, the main active ingredient is tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC). THC can degrade to other cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol or cannabinol, which can make one feel sleepy and disoriented. Different cannabis products have different ratios of these and other cannabinoids. Depending on the ratio, the quality and nature of the "high" will vary. Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ¹-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis plant. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabinol, also known as CBN, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ...


THC has an effect on the modulation of the immune system which may have an effect on malignant cells, but there is insufficient scientific study to determine whether this might promote or limit cancer. Cannabinoid receptors are also present in the human reproductive system, but there is insufficient scientific study to conclusively determine the effects of cannabis on reproduction. Mild allergies to cannabis may be possible in some members of the population. The Immune System (also known as the Immunlological System) is made up of all the mechanisms through which a multicellular organism defends itself from internal invaders such as bacteria, virus or parasites. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sex organ. ... An allergy can refer to several kinds of immune reactions including Type I hypersensitivity in which a persons body is hypersensitised and develops IgE type antibodies to typical proteins. ...


A study has shown that holding cannabis smoke in one's lungs for longer periods of time does not conclusively increase THC's effects.[24]


List of effects

Cannabis has a broad spectrum of possible cognitive, behavioral, and physiological effects, the occurrence of which vary from user to user. Some of these are the intended effect desired by users, some may be considered desirable depending on the situation, and others are generally considered undesirable. Users of cannabis report that these kinds of effects are more often produced by the sativa species of Cannabis. Binomial name Cannabis sativa Linnaeus Cannabis sativa, also known as hemp, is a species of Cannabis. ...


Cannabis also has effects that are predominantly physical or sensory, widely believed to be more common with the indica species. Binomial name Cannabis indica Lam. ...


Cognitive effects

Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state in which thought and perception are severely impaired. ... Schizophrenia is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental disorder characterized by impairments in the perception or expression of reality and/or by significant social or occupational dysfunction. ... For other senses of this word, see paranoia (disambiguation). ... Anxiety is a complex combination of emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... Short-term memory, sometimes referred to as primary or active memory, is that part of memory which stores a limited amount of information for a limited amount of time (roughly 15-45 seconds). ... A schematic representation of hearing. ... A hallucination is a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... Look up novelty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In psychology, sensation is the first stage in the chain of biochemical and neurologic events that begins with the impinging of a stimulus upon the receptor cells of a sensory organ, which then leads to perception, the mental state that is reflected in statements like I see a uniformly blue... Music is an art, entertainment, or other human activity that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... Taste is one of the most common and fundamental of the senses of animals. ... Sexual arousal is the process and state of an animal being ready for sexual intercourse. ... Metacognition refers to thinking about cognition (memory, perception, calculation, association, etc. ... This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... now. ... The word entheogen is a modern term derived from two Ancient Greek words, ἔνθεος (entheos) and γενέσθαι (genesthai). ... Rasta hairstyle Rastafarianism is a religious movement that believes in the divinity of ex Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie. ... Jah (IPA: ) is the name commonly used for God in the religious Rastafari movement. ...

Behavioral effects

Look up euphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... a disorder of memory which causes fantasies and dreams to be mixed with reality ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Many nations may find it to their advantage to maintain a policy of deliberate ambiguity (also known as a policy of strategic ambiguity). ... Stimulation is the irritating action of various agents (stimuli) on muscles, nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which activity is evoked; especially, the nervous impulse produced by various agents on nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which the part connected with the nerve is thrown into a state... The word fatigue is used in everyday living to describe a range of afflictions, varying from a general state of lethargy to a specific work induced burning sensation within muscle. ... Social Inhibition is what keeps humans from involving in potentially objectionable actions and/or expressions in a social setting. ...

Physiological effects

An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... Intraocular pressure is the fluid pressure inside the eye. ... A headache is a condition of mild to severe pain in the head; sometimes upper back or neck pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... A cramp is an unpleasant sensation caused by contraction, usually of a muscle. ... The arterial system The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Tachycardia is an abnormally rapid beating of the heart, defined as a resting heart rate of 100 or more beats per minute in an average adult. ... Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), also called keratitis sicca, xerophthalmia, dry eye syndrome (DES), or simply dry eyes, is an eye disease caused by decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation commonly found in humans and small animals. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known by the street names ecstasy or XTC (for more names see the full list), is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family, whose primary effect is believed to be the stimulation of secretion as well as inhibition of re-uptake of large amounts... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... This article is about the drug cocaine. ... Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. ... Orthostatic hypotension (also known as postural hypotension and, colloquially, as head rush) is a sudden fall in blood pressure that occurs when a person assumes a standing position. ... The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Body weight is simply the weight of anything, including humans. ... In medicine, insulin resistance is a decompensation of glucose homeostasis where tissues appear to be less responsive to insulin. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. ... If you got here via Cotton Mouth, but are looking for the candy, see Cotton Mouth (disambiguation) Xerostomia is the medical term for a dry mouth due to a lack of saliva. ... The alveoli (singular:alveolus), tiny hollow sacs which are continuous with the airways, are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... Insomnia is characterized by an inability to sleep and/or to remain asleep for a reasonable period. ... Sleep deprivation is an overall lack of the necessary amount of sleep. ...

Lethal dose

It is generally considered to be impossible to achieve a lethal overdose by smoking cannabis. According to the Merck Index, 12th edition, the LD50, the lethal dose for 50% of rats tested by inhalation, is 42 mg/kg of body weight. That is equivalent of a 165 lb (75 kg) man ingesting all of the THC in 21 one-gram cigarettes of high-potency (15% THC) cannabis buds at once, assuming no THC was lost through burning or exhalation. For oral consumption, the LD50 for rats is 1270 mg/kg and 730 mg/kg for males and females, respectively, equivalent to the THC in about a pound of 15% THC cannabis. Only with intravenous administration — an unheard-of method of use — may such a level be even theoretically possible.[31] Recently though, there have been a few incidents of THC-injections via syringes. The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds. ... An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ¹-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the Cannabis plant. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


There has only ever been one recorded verdict (although not ultimately upheld) of fatal overdose due to cannabis. In January 2004, Lee Maisey of Pembrokeshire, Wales was found dead. The coroner's report stated "Death due to probable cannabis toxicity". It had been reported that Maisey smoked about six joints a day. Mr. Maisey's blood contained 130 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) of the THC metabolite THC-COOH. However, the validity of the finding did not stand up well under review. As reported on 2004-01-28 in the Neue Züricher Zeitung, the Federal Health Ministry of Switzerland asked Dr. Rudolf Brenneisen, a professor at the department for clinical research at the University of Bern, to review the data of this case. Dr. Brenneisen said that the data of the toxicological analysis and collected by autopsy were "scanty and not conclusive" and that the conclusion "death by cannabis intoxication" was "not legitimate."[32] Additionally, Dr. Franjo Grotenhermen of the Nova-Institute in Cologne, Germany said: "A concentration of 130 ng/ml THC-COOH in blood is a moderate concentration, which may be observed some hours after the use of one or two joints. Heavy regular use of cannabis easily results in THC-COOH concentrations of above 500 ng/ml. Many people use much more cannabis than Mr. Maisey did, without any negative consequences." Pembrokeshire (Welsh: Sir Benfro) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... Motto: (Welsh for Wales for ever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) English, Welsh Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779 km² (3rd... The nanogram is an SI unit of mass (symbol ng) defined as: 1 ng = 1 × 10-12 kilogram (1 × 10-9 gram) A nanogram is one billionth (1/1,000,000,000) of a gram. ... The millilitre (ml or mL, also spelt milliliter) is a metric unit of volume that is equal to one thousandth of a litre. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Berne is a university in the Swiss capital of Berne. ... The article about perfume can be found at Eau de Cologne. ...

4 ounces of cannabis
4 ounces of cannabis

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 193 KB) Summary Four ounces of marijuana. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 193 KB) Summary Four ounces of marijuana. ...

Health issues and the effects of cannabis

Main article: Health issues and the effects of cannabis

There is some conclusive scientific evidence about the long-term effects of human cannabis consumption.[33] A cannabis plant. ...


The findings of many earlier studies purporting to demonstrate the effects of the drug are unreliable and generally regarded as junk science, as the studies were flawed, with strong bias and poor methodology. The most significant confounding factor is the use of other drugs, including alcohol and tobacco, by test subjects in conjunction with cannabis. When subjects using only cannabis were combined in the same sample with subjects using other drugs as well, researchers could not reach a conclusion as to whether their findings were caused by cannabis, other drugs, or the interaction between them. In addition, research using cannabis is heavily restricted in many countries, making it difficult to get new studies funded or approved. Since there are so many different compounds in cannabis, it is difficult to predict or accurately measure its effects. Some conclusions established with some degree of certainty that cannabis is less likely to cause emphysema or cancer than tobacco[34]; that it is unlikely to cause birth defects or developmental delays in the children of users,[35][36] and in a study done by the University of California Los Angeles in 2006, that even heavy marijuana smokers do not increase their risk for lung cancer.[37] According to a United Kingdom government report, using cannabis is less dangerous than both tobacco and alcohol in social harms, physical harm and addiction.[38] Junk or bunk science is a term used to describe purportedly scientific data, research, analyses or claims which are perceived to be driven by political, financial or other questionable motives. ... In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. ... Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005...


Newer research has also shown that cannabis use is generally higher among sufferers of schizophrenia, but causality has not been established[39][40] and confirmed that sustained early-adolescent cannabis use among certain genetically predisposed individuals has an elevated correlation with certain mental illness outcomes, ranging from psychotic episodes to clinical schizophrenia.[41][42] Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ...


Legality

A large scale anti-prohibition demonstration in Vancouver, Canada organized by the Marijuana Party and Marc Emery on April 20, 2005
A large scale anti-prohibition demonstration in Vancouver, Canada organized by the Marijuana Party and Marc Emery on April 20, 2005

Since the 20th Century, most countries have enacted laws against the cultivation, use, possession, or transfer of cannabis for recreational use. Naturally, these laws impact adversely on the cannabis plant's cultivation for non-recreational purposes, but there are many regions where, under certain circumstances, handling of cannabis is legal or licensed, and others where laws against its use, possession, or sale are not enforced. Many jurisdictions have also decriminalized possession of small quantities of cannabis, so that it is punished by confiscation or a fine, rather than imprisonment. By effectively removing the user from the criminal justice system, decriminalization focuses more on those who traffic and sell the drug on the black market. However, this does not solve the problem of how a user will obtain the "legal amount" of marijuana, since buying or growing marijuana is still illegal. Increasingly, many jurisdictions also permit cannabis use for medicinal purposes. Some countries allow the sale through drug companies.[citation needed] However, simple possession can carry long jail sentences in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison or even execution. Image File history File linksMetadata 420_9. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 420_9. ... Vancouver (pronounced: ) is a Canadian city in the province of British Columbia. ... A poster in Valencia, Spain, urges a vote for the Cannabis Party in Spains March 2004 general election Marijuana Parties are formal political parties set up specifically to legalize cannabis. ... Marc Emery wearing his 420 jersey. ... A Cannabis sativa plant In Cannabis culture, the number 420 (pronounced four-twenty) relates to the consumption of cannabis and elements of its associated culture. ... A demonstation by Promena in Sofia, Bulgaria in June 2003. ... Confiscation, from the Latin confiscato join to the fiscus, i. ... A fine is money paid as a financial punishment for the commission of minor crimes or as the settlement of a claim. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Trafficking is a term to describe a transnational illegal activity, involving transporting, usually smuggling drugs, transporting small arms or people. ... The black market or underground market is the part of economic activity involving illegal dealings, typically the buying and selling of merchandise or services (for example sexual services in many countries) illegally. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ...

U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics public service announcement used in the late 1930s and 1940s.
U.S. Federal Bureau of Narcotics public service announcement used in the late 1930s and 1940s.
See also: Legality of cannabis in the United States

Image File history File links Killerdrug. ... Image File history File links Killerdrug. ... // Before 1937 Until 1937, consumption and sale of cannabis was legal in most U.S. states. ...

Recent history

Under the name cannabis, 19th century medical practitioners sold the drug, (usually as a tincture) popularizing the word amongst English-speakers. It was rumoured to have been used to treat Queen Victoria's menstrual pains as her personal physician, Sir John Russell Reynolds, was a staunch supporter of the benefits of cannabis.[43] Cannabis was also openly available from shops in the US. By the end of the 19th century, its medicinal use began to fall as other drugs like aspirin took over its use as a pain reliever. In medicine, a tincture is an alcoholic extract (e. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 January 1877, until her death in 1901. ... The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ... Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory. ...


In 1894, the Report of the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission commissioned by the UK Secretary of State and the government of India, was instrumental in the decision not to criminalize the drug in those countries. The Report, which at over 500 pages remains one of the most complete collections of information on marijuana in existence, shows the stark contrast in the way that the American and British governments went about deciding whether to criminalize marijuana.[44]


The name marijuana (Mexican Spanish marihuana, mariguana) is associated almost exclusively with the plant's psychoactive use. The term is now well known in English largely due to the efforts of American drug prohibitionists during the 1920s and 1930s, who deliberately used a Mexican name for cannabis in order to turn the populace against the idea that it should be legal. (see 1937 Marijuana Tax Act) Mexican Spanish is the form of the Spanish language spoken in Mexico by over 90% of the population. ... In the United States, the 1937 Marijuana Tax Act (strictly the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act) was one of the cornerstone bills that led to the criminalization of Cannabis. ...


Although cannabis has been used for its psychoactive effects since ancient times, it first became well known in the United States during the jazz music scene of the late 1920s and 1930s. Louis Armstrong became a prominent and life-long devotee. It was popular in the blues scene as well, and eventually became a prominent part of 1960s counterculture. Jazz is an original American musical art form originating around the start of the 20th century in New Orleans, rooted in Western music technique and theory and marked by the profound cultural contributions of African Americans. ... Louis Daniel Armstrong (August 4, 1901[1] – July 6, 1971) (also known by the nicknames Satchmo for satchel-mouth and Pops) was an American jazz musician. ...


Decriminalization and legalization

In recent decades, a movement to decriminalize cannabis has arisen in several countries. This movement seeks to make simple possession of cannabis punishable by only confiscation or a fine, rather than prison. In the past several years, the movement has started to have some successes. These include Denver, Colorado legalizing possession of up to an ounce of cannabis[45], a broad coalition of political parties in Amsterdam, Netherlands unveiling a pilot program to allow farmers to legally grow it,[46] and Massachusetts voting in favor of a bill to decriminalize the possession of up to an ounce of marijuana[47]. Also, in Alaska, marijuana was decided legal for in-home, personal use under the Raven vs. State ruling in 1975. This ruling allowed up to four ounces of marijuana for these purposes. On July 17th, 2006, that amount was reduced to one ounce due to an "increase in potency" since the Raven verdict.[citation needed] In 2001 in the United Kingdom, it was announced that cannabis would become a Class C drug, rather than a Class B, this change took effect in 2004. [48] The Government of Mexico voted to legalize the possession of cannabis under 5 grams on April 28, 2006. [49] However, as of May 3, 2006, Mexican President Vicente Fox has said that he will not sign this proposed law until Congress removes the parts that would decriminalize the possession of small quantities of drugs[50] and vetoed the bill on May 4, 2006,[51] sparking broad controversy over the bill.[52][53][54] In the early summer of 2006 Fox and the Mexican congress came to an agreement and legalized possession of small amounts (and also measured amounts of other drugs). On July 17th, 2006, Italian Social Solidarity Minister Paolo Ferrero, speaking of the urgent need for depenalising the consumption of light drugs, said that "a joint is less harmful than a litre of wine." [55] A demonstation by Promena in Sofia, Bulgaria in June 2003. ... Decriminalization is the reduction or abolition of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts. ... Nickname: The Mile-High City Location of Denver in Colorado Coordinates: City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area    - City 401. ... A political party is an organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 742,951(1 January 2005) Demonym Amsterdammer Coordinates Website www. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... The 1917 Constitution of Mexico provides for a federal republic with powers separated into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches. ... April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vicente Fox Quesada[1] (born July 2, 1942) is the current President of Mexico. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paolo Ferrero (born 17 November 1960 in Pomaretto, Turin) is an Italian politician, member of the Communist Refoundation Party and currently the Italian Minister of Welfare. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ...


References

Notes

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  3. ^ Richard Rudgley (1999). The Lost Civilizations of the Stone Age.
  4. ^ "HEMP". Encyclopædia Britannica (11). (1911). Retrieved on 2006-06-15.
  5. ^ a b James Wasserman (2001). The templars and the Assassins.
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  7. ^ "Cannabis compound benefits blood vessels", Nature (magazine), 2005-04-04.
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  11. ^ FindLaw U.S. v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers Cooperative. Retrieved on 2006-03-25.
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Bibliography

Cannabis resources (edit)
Use: recreational drug, pharmaceutical drug, spiritual, culture, health issues, legal issues, cultivation
Preparations: bhang, hashish, kief, shake
Smoking: blunt, bong, chillum, dugout, hookah, gravity bong, shotgun, smoking pipe, lung, spliff, steamroller
Vaporization: vaporizer, knifers
Food: cannabutter, dope cake, Ganja goo ball, hash cookie, Green Dragon, Leary biscuit, cannabis brownie, pot tea

  Results from FactBites:
 
InfoFacts - Marijuana (2636 words)
Because marijuana compromises the ability to learn and remember information, the more a person uses marijuana the more he or she is likely to fall behind in accumulating intellectual, job, or social skills.
Marijuana admissions were primarily male (75 percent), White (55 percent), and young (40 percent were in the 15-–19 age range).
Marijuana use and increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
DEA Briefs & Background, Drugs and Drug Abuse, Drug Descriptions, Marijuana (1935 words)
Marijuana's damage to short-term memory seems to occur because THC alters the way in which information is processed by the hippocampus, a brain area responsible for memory formation.
Marijuana distribution is widespread throughout the country, as evidenced by the presence of 14 principal distribution centers for the drug, one or more of which are located in nearly every region of the country (see 2006 National Drug Threat Assessment, Appendix A, Map 6).
In 2005, the DEA seized 282,139 kgs of marijuana.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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