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Encyclopedia > Marie Caroline of Austria
HM Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily

Her Majesty Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily née Her Imperial & Royal Highness Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria (13 August 1752- 8 September 1814) was queen consort and de facto ruler of Naples from 1768 to 1799 and from 1799 to 1806, and of Sicily from 1768 until her death in 1814, though she had lost the de facto power in 1812. She was born an Austria princess and was a sister of Marie Antoinette. A picture of HM Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily File links The following pages link to this file: Maria Carolina of Austria ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... King George V of the United Kingdom and his consort, Queen Mary A queen consort is the wife and consort of a reigning king. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Location within Italy Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ...

Contents

Early life and marriage

Her Imperial & Royal Highness Marie Caroline Luise Josephe Johanna Antonie, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, Princess of Tuscany was born in 1752, the daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often only known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... Francis I Francis I (December 8, 1708 – August 18, 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ...


On 12 May 1768, she married the young Ferdinand IV of Naples who was also Ferdinand III of Sicily. Ferdinand was not very intelligent, and Marie Caroline took advantage of that to control him, and she became the true ruler of the kingdom. On 14 August 1777, when she gave birth to a male heir, Francis, she became a Counsellor of State, and she took advantage of this position of political influence. She inherited much of her mother's intelligence, but was also ambitious and cruel, wanting to raise the kingdom to a position of power. Marie Caroline eventually established a tyrannical reign through her husband's power. May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Francis I (August 14, 1777 - November 8, 1830) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1825 to 1830. ...


The First Coalition

During the French Revolution, the queen actually sympathized with the French rebels until the French monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792. She further lost turned against with the execution of first her brother-in-law Louis XVI of France (21 January 1793) and then her own younger sister Marie Antoinette (16 October, 1793). The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 – January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ...


The Queen and her husband were horrified, and Marie Caroline used her uxorious husband to bring the Neopolitan and Sicilian armies into the First Coalition against France. Peace was made in 1796. The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain revolutionary France. ... 1796 was a leap year starting on Friday. ...

"The Queen of Naples, without being as pretty as her younger sister, the Queen of France, resembled her greatly..." ~Baillio (1982)

Two pictures of Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Queen Marie Antoinette of France. ...

The Parthenopaean Republic

In 1799, Naples had its own (albeit unsuccessful) revolution. They proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic and ended the Kingdom of Naples. However, a few months later, an army under Cardinal Ruffo and destroyed the republic. The queen wanted to show no mercy to the rebels, and used Lady Hamilton, a mistress of the Viscount Nelson, to persuade the latter to carry out her revenge. Her excuse was that the execution of her sister Marie Antoinette made her despise Republicans and Jacobins. 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Parthenopaean Republic formed a brief interlude in the history of the Kingdom of Naples, the result of activities of France in the aftermath of Jacobinism to export revolution . Origins of the Republic On the outbreak of the French Revolution King Ferdinand IV of Naples and Queen Maria Carolina did... Fabrizio Ruffo (September 16, 1744 _ December 13, 1827) Neapolitan cardinal and politician, was born at San Lucido in Calabria. ... Emma Hamilton, in one of dozens of portraits by George Romney, at the height of her beauty in the 1780s Emma Hamilton (Lady Hamilton) (April 26, 1765 - January 16, 1815) is best remembered as the mistress of Lord Nelson. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (September 29, 1758 – October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... Jacobin Club, the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution, had its origin in the Club Breton, which formed at Versailles shortly after the opening of the Estates General in 1789. ...


Deposition and death

In 1806, her husband was deposed as King of Naples (thus deposing her as de facto ruler) by Napoleon Bonaparte. However, Marie Caroline retained her status and power in Sicily until 1812, when her husband essentially (but not officially) abdicated, appointing his son Francis regent, which deprived the queen of her influence, and Marie Caroline was exiled to her homeland Austria, where she died in 1814. After her death, her husband became subservient to the will of Austria with his top advisor Marie Caroline gone. 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Francis I (August 14, 1777 - November 8, 1830) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1825 to 1830. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Worldroots.com (498 words)
Ancestors of Archduchess Caroline of Austria 1795-1799 -
Ancestors of Archduchess Caroline of Austria 1801-1832 -
Ancestors of Marie Caroline, Archss of Austria 1794-1795
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