FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Marie Antoinette" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Marie Antoinette
Enlarge
Marie Antoinette

Maria Antonia Josefa Johanna von Habsburg-Lothringen (November 2, 1755October 16, 1793), known to history as Marie Antoinette (pronounced /mariː ɑnt̪wanɛt̪/), was born an Archduchess of Austria, and later became Queen of France. She was the daughter of the Holy Romanic Emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa of Austria. She was married to Louis XVI of France at age 14, and was the mother of "lost dauphin" Louis XVII. Marie Antoinette is perhaps best remembered for her legendary (and, some modern historians say, exaggerated) excesses, and for her death: she was executed by guillotine at the height of the French Revolution in 1793, for the crime of treason. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1820x2095, 940 KB) Beschrijving no rights due of age Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marie Antoinette ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1820x2095, 940 KB) Beschrijving no rights due of age Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marie Antoinette ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The title of Archduke (in German Erzherzog) was invented in the Privilegium Maius, a forgery initiated by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria. ... Francis I Francis I (December 8, 1708 – August 18, 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria (born May 13, 1717, Vienna, Austria-died Nov. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... The Dauphin was the heir apparent to the throne of France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Childhood

Marie Antoinette's mother, the Empress Maria Theresa, ruled for 15 years prior to Maria Antonia's birth and was considered one of the most brilliant political figures in Europe.
Marie Antoinette's mother, the Empress Maria Theresa, ruled for 15 years prior to Maria Antonia's birth and was considered one of the most brilliant political figures in Europe.

Born at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Maria Antonia was the fifteenth child, eleventh and last daughter, of Francis I and Empress Maria Theresa. Of the names given at her christening, Maria honored the Virgin Mary; Antonia honored Saint Anthony of Padua; Josefa honored her elder brother, Archduke Josef; and Johanna honored Saint John the Evangelist.[citation needed] The court official described the baby as "a small, but completely healthy Archduchess."[citation needed] Maria's siblings included an older sister Maria Carolina, a younger brother Maximilian, and three older brothers Joseph, Leopold and Ferdinand Karl, all of whom had already begun to exert their influence over the Habsburg Empire. engraving of Maria Theresa of Austria, scanned from 19th century book: Lesbuch der Weltgeschichete oder Die Geschichete der Menschheit, by William Rednbacher, 1890. ... engraving of Maria Theresa of Austria, scanned from 19th century book: Lesbuch der Weltgeschichete oder Die Geschichete der Menschheit, by William Rednbacher, 1890. ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often only known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... Hofburg Neue Burg section, seen from Heldenplatz. ... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 UN complex in Vienna, with the non-affiliated Austria Center Vienna in front - picture taken from Danube Tower in nearby Danube Park. ... Infant baptism (also called paedobaptism and pedobaptism), the baptism of the infant children of believers, is an ancient custom of much of Christianity, including the Roman Catholic church, the Orthodox churches, Anglicans, Lutherans, Presbyterians, and Methodists, to name a few. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... Saint Anthony of Padua, also venerated as Saint Anthony of Lisbon (Santo António de Lisboa), particularly in Portugal (August 15, 1195 – June 13, 1231), is a Catholic saint who was born in Lisbon, Portugal, as Fernando de Bulhões (pron. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Categories: Saints | Ancient Roman Christianity | Christianity-related stubs ... HM Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria (13 August 1752 - 8 September 1814) as Queen Marie Caroline was queen consort and de facto ruler of Naples from 1768 to 1799 and from 1799 to 1806, and of Sicily from 1768 until her death in... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (Vienna, May 5, 1747 – Vienna, March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


Legend claims that Maria Antonia and the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart became acquainted as children, when Mozart gave a short musical concert for the Imperial Family. Afterwards, when asked by the Empress what he would like as a reward for his performance, the young Mozart allegedly asked for Maria Antonia's hand in marriage. The Empress was said to have been most amused by this request, but clearly had grander aspirations for her youngest daughter.[citation needed] Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. ...

Marie Antoinette at the age of 12.
Marie Antoinette at the age of 12.

Maria Antonia's sisters were quickly married off to the heads of European royal houses - Maria Christina to the Regent of the Austrian Netherlands; Maria Amalia to the Prince of Parma; and Maria Antonia's favourite sister, Maria Carolina, to King Ferdinand of Naples. In 1748, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was signed with the intention of ending nearly a century and a half of intermittent conflict between Austria and France (the two countries subsequently became allies in the Seven Years' War, 1756–1763). In an effort to preserve this alliance, it was proposed that Louis XV of France's heir, his grandson Louis-Auguste, marry one of Empress Maria Theresa's daughters. Upon the sudden deaths of her elder sisters due to smallpox (Joanna Gabriella in 1762 and Maria Josepha in 1767), Maria Antonia was next in line. Following lengthy negotiations, the official proposal for the teenage girl was made by Louis XV in 1769. Only after the marriage treaty was signed did Maria Theresa realize her daughter lacked sufficient knowledge of the French language and customs, and tutors were summoned to prepare the girl for her role as future Queen of France. [citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (552x769, 255 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marie Antoinette ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (552x769, 255 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marie Antoinette ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Country Italy Region Emilia-Romagna Province Parma (PR) Mayor Elvio Ubaldi (since May 28, 2002) Elevation 55 m Area 260 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 175,789  - Density 676/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Parmigiani (Parmensi are called the provinces inhabitants) Dialing code... HM Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily Her Majesty Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily née Her Imperial & Royal Highness Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria (13 August 1752- 8 September 1814) was queen consort and de facto ruler of Naples from 1768 to 1799 and from 1799... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ... Country Italy Region Campania Province Naples (NA) Mayor Rosa Russo Jervolino Elevation 17 m Area 117 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 1,000,470  - Density 8,457/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Napoletani Dialing code 081 Postal code 80100 Patron Saint Januarius  - Day September... Events April 24 - A congress assembles at Aix-la-Chapelle with the intent to conclude the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession - at October 18 - The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle is signed to end the war Adam Smith begins to deliver public lectures in Edinburgh Building of... There were two Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle. ... Combatants Prussia Great Britain Hanover Ireland Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Austria France Russia Sweden Spain Saxony The Seven Years War (1754 and 1756–1763), some of the theatres of which are called the Pomeranian War and the French and Indian War (see below), was a war in the mid-18th... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) was a highly contagious viral disease unique to humans. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1769 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

Marie Antoinette's husband, Louis-Auguste, the future Louis XVI of France.
Marie Antoinette's husband, Louis-Auguste, the future Louis XVI of France.

On April 19, 1770, a marriage per procurationem, or a marriage to her brother Maximillian , in place of Louis Auguste, took place in Vienna's Augustine Church. They did this because Marie would have entered France as the Archduchess of Austria until she married Louis and the French would not allow it. By this "marriage" taking place, she could enter the French court as the Dauphine, and then be officially married to Louis Auguste. Two days later, a sobbing Maria Antonia left Vienna to her mother's parting words, "Farewell, my dearest. Do so much good to the French people that they can say that I have sent them an angel." [citation needed] Traveling along the Danube River and accompanied by a large entourage of nearly 14 carriages, they passed through Munich, Augsburg, Günzburg, Ulm and Freiburg im Breisgau, before finally reaching the Rhine border between Kehl and Strasbourg weeks later. Louis XVI (color); From [[1]] in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Louis XVI (color); From [[1]] in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Procuration (Lat. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (ancient Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München, (pronounced listen) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern). ... Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... Günzburg is capital of the district of Günzburg in Swabia, Bavaria. ... Ulm is a city in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Danube, about 90 km south-east of Stuttgart and 140 km north-west of Munich. ... This article is about Freiburg in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... Kehl is a town in southwestern Germany in the Ortenaukreis, Baden-Württemberg. ...   City flag City coat of arms Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Alsace Département Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ...


On May 7, as a symbolic act of loyalty, Maria Antonia was required to leave her Austrian attire, possessions, servants, and friends behind. After lengthy negotiations, she was allowed to keep her dog, a Schitzu named Schnitzy. The 14-year old was stripped of her nationality and her clothes before the entire Austrian delegation that was present, causing her to break down and cry. She was dressed up in French clothing and was taken to Strasbourg for a Thanksgiving Mass in her honor. The entire city was illuminated in anticipation of her arrival and the streets were covered in flowers. A few days later, she would continue on her journey to Versailles. May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? Mass is a property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... Versailles: Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour dhonneur, later copied all over Europe The Château de Versailles — often called the Palace of Versailles, or simply Versailles — is a royal château, outside the gates of which the village...

Marie Antoinette, painted by Franz Xaver Wagenschön shortly after her marriage in 1770
Enlarge
Marie Antoinette, painted by Franz Xaver Wagenschön shortly after her marriage in 1770

Marie Antoinette was conveyed to the royal palace at Versailles, where she met her future grandfather-in-law, Louis XV, and other members of the royal family. Her future husband, the Dauphin Louis-Auguste, was very shy and plump. Only one year her senior, he had not had any previous sexual or romantic experience to prepare him for dealing with his fiancée. Their marriage was nevertheless conducted within hours of Marie Antoinette's arrival at Versailles. The Wedding Mass was lavishly celebrated in the Chapelle Royale on May 16, 1770. Just before the wedding, Marie Antoinette was presented with the magnificent jewels traditionally belonging to a French dauphine. The collection included an elaborate diamond necklace which had belonged to Anne of Austria and pieces which had also belonged to Mary Queen of Scots and Catherine de Medici. The large collection of gems was valued at approximately 2 million livres. Marie Antoinette also received a personal wedding gift from King Louis, a diamond-encrusted fan. The Dauphin and Marie Antoinette were married in front of the court, with the bride wearing a dress decorated by large white hoops covered in diamonds and pearls. The ceremony was followed by a formal dinner during which it is said that Louis-Auguste ate an enormous amount. When the king told him to eat less, the Dauphin replied "Why? I always sleep better when I have a full stomach!" [citation needed] They had an audience at this dinner of over 1000 French citizens eager to see their new Dauphine. Marie ate almost nothing. File links The following pages link to this file: Marie Antoinette Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Marie Antoinette Categories: Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... The Dauphin was the heir apparent to the throne of France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1770 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Anne of Austria by Peter Paul Rubens, c. ... Mary I of Scotland; known as Mary, Queen of Scots Mary I of Scotland (Mary Stuart or Stewart) (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587), better known as Mary, Queen of Scots, was the ruler of Scotland from December 14, 1542 – July 24, 1567. ... Catherine de Medici (April 13, 1519–January 5, 1589), born in Italy as Caterina Maria Romola di Lorenzo de Medici, and later queen of France under the French name Catherine de M dicis, was the wife of King Henry II of France, of the Valois branch of the kings... The livre tournois (or Tournoise pound) was a currency used in France, named after the town of Tours, in which it was minted. ...


The court then conducted the young couple to their bed, which had been blessed by the Archbishop of Reims. However, the marriage was not consummated and would not be for several years. The Archdiocese of Reims was founded (as a diocese) around 250 by St. ... Coition of a Hemisected Man and Woman (c. ...



im not sure ....


Life as dauphine

Marie Antoinette would not conceive until seven years into her marriage. Rumors began to circulate that Louis-Auguste might in fact be impotent, or that he suffered from a genital anomaly, reputedly phimosis. [citation needed] According to some historians, minor surgery corrected the problem. However, modern scholars such as Vincent Cronin and Simone Bertiere have proven that Louis XVI never had the surgery, since it is not recorded in his medical records. Furthermore, he went hunting everyday during the time frame in which the surgery was supposed to have occurred, which would have been impossible. The problem may have had more to do with the queen's narrowness of passage, causing intercourse to be painful and difficult. In spite of the physical problems, the couple's first child was born on December 19, 1778. However, they would continue to face accusations that the royal marriage was a sham.[1] Impotence or, more clinically, erectile dysfunction is the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis for satisfactory sexual intercourse regardless of the capability of ejaculation. ... Phimosis is a medical condition in which the foreskin of the penis of an uncircumcised male cannot be fully retracted. ...


The young dauphine also faced the spite of the Louis XV's mistress, Madame du Barry. Du Barry was born Jeanne Bécu, a commoner who gained the notice of nobility as a courtesan. As Marie Antoinette felt it was beneath herself to associate with such a woman, Du Barry set out to make her life as miserable as possible, beginning by turning the king against his granddaughter-in-law. Her mother and others from the Austrian court told her that snobbing the king's favorite was "most unwise in her current position", as in the position of a wife in an un-consumated marriage. Because of rank, Madame du Barry was not allowed to speak with Marie until spoken to by Marie. Because of rank, Marie would not associate with her until Madame du Barry began spreading vicious lies about her throughout the palace. Then, reportedly, she said to her at a ball, "There are a lot of poeple at Versailles tonight, aren't there," and walked away to mingle with others. After the King died, Du Barry was banished from the palace. Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... Madame du Barry [1] [2] (Marie-Jeanne, Countess du Barry) (August 19, 1743 - December 8, 1793) was a French courtesan who became the mistress of Louis XV of France. ... A courtesan of mid-16th century usage referred to a high-class prostitute or mistress, especially one associated with rich, powerful, or upper-class men who provided luxuries and status in exchange for her services. ...


Daily life for Marie Antoinette was somewhat monotonous. For example, she was assisted out of bed each morning and dressed by her various ladies-in-waiting. There was much etiquette to the dressing. The lady-in-waiting with the highest rank present was the only one allowed to hand her her bloomers, for example. Only a certain lady could tie her petticoats, but a different one had to put them on. After about a month, she finally convinced her ladies-in-waiting to allow her to bathe herself. She accompanied her husband for dinner, which was held in public (anyone who was decently dressed was permitted entry). Louis-Auguste ate enormous amounts of food, while Marie Antoinette ate almost nothing. Marie Antoinette loathed the public spectacle complaining bitterly to her mother, "I put on my rouge and wash my hands in front of the whole world!" Lady in Waiting is an album by American southern rock band The Outlaws, released in 1976. ...


Homesick and melancholic, Marie Antoinette especially missed the companionship she had enjoyed with her sister, Maria Carolina. She found a substitute in Princesse Thérèse de Lamballe. The Princesse de Lamballe was wealthy and kind-natured, and absolutely devoted to Marie Antoinette. Not long after meeting Thérèse, Marie Antoinette formed a deep attachment to the beautiful aristocrat, Gabrielle, Comtesse de Polignac. She was also on excellent terms with her husband's youngest brother Charles, the Comte d'Artois. HM Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria (13 August 1752 - 8 September 1814) as Queen Marie Caroline was queen consort and de facto ruler of Naples from 1768 to 1799 and from 1799 to 1806, and of Sicily from 1768 until her death in... Portrait of Princesse de Lamballe Marie Thérèse Louise de Savoie-Carignan, princesse de Lamballe (September 8, 1749 - September 3, 1792), was one of the best-known victims of the French Revolution. ... Gabrielle de Polastron Yolande Martine Gabrielle de Polastron, comtesse de Polignac (September 8, 1749–December 9, 1793) was a French aristocrat and friend of Marie Antoinette, whom she first met at Versailles in 1775. ... Charles X, King of France Navarre Charles X, King of France and of Navarre (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) was born at the Palace of Versailles. ...


Marie Antoinette did not involve herself in political matters, possibly because she lacked any real knowledge or interest in it. Her mother's ambassador, le Comte de Mercy d'Argenteau, who had been sent to spy on Marie Antoinette, reported with great frustration that she was doing nothing to further Austria's influence in France. [citation needed] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette's life changed suddenly on the afternoon of May 10, 1774 when King Louis XV died of smallpox. Courtiers rushed to swear allegiance to their new king, Louis XVI, and his wife, Marie Antoinette, then 19. They reportedly said, "Your Majesties, I am at your loyal service." Then the new king and queen fell to their knees in prayer, with Louis supposedly saying, "Dear God, guide and protect us. We are too young to reign." [citation needed] May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) was a highly contagious viral disease unique to humans. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ...


Coronation and reign

Marie Antoinette in a court dress à la Polonaise of 1779 worn over extremely wide panniers. Portrait by Mme Vigée-Lebrun.
Marie Antoinette in a court dress à la Polonaise of 1779 worn over extremely wide panniers. Portrait by Mme Vigée-Lebrun.

Louis XVI's coronation took place at Reims during the height of a bread shortage in Paris. This is the context in which Marie Antoinette is incorrectly quoted as joking, "If they have no bread, then let them eat cake!" ("Qu'ils mangent de la brioche.") There is no evidence that this phrase was ever uttered by Marie Antoinette. When Marie Antoinette actually heard about the bread shortage she wrote, "It is quite certain that in seeing the people who treat us so well despite their own misfortune, we are more obliged than ever to work hard for their happiness. The king seems to understand this truth; as for myself, I know that in my whole life (even if I live for a hundred years) I shall never forget the day of the coronation."[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (462x684, 221 KB)Portrait of Marie Antoinette by Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1779, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (462x684, 221 KB)Portrait of Marie Antoinette by Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun, 1779, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. ... Self Portrait in a Straw Hat, 1782 Elisabeth-Louise Vigee-LeBrun (April 16, 1755 - March 30, 1842) was a French painter, the most famous woman painter of the 18th century. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) (pronounced in French) is a city of northern France, 144 km (89 miles) east-northeast of Paris. ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... A famous misquotation is a well-known phrase attributed to someone who, in fact, did not say it. ... Brioche Brioche des Rois (served around Epiphany, esp. ...


The royals had been greeted with an outpouring of national joy and the young queen was especially adored, despite the cost of the coronation (almost 7000 livres were spent on a new crown for Louis XVI, and Marie Antoinette's magnificent gown was ordered from the fashion house of Paris's most exclusive designer, Rose Bertin). Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... Rose Bertin (2 July 1747 - 22 September 1813) was the French milliner and modiste to the Queen Marie Antoinette. ...


Shortly after the coronation, Marie Antoinette attempted to bring Étienne François, duc de Choiseul back to court. He had been banished by Madame du Barry because of his loyalty to Marie Antoinette and the alliance with Austria. However, the new queen did not have much success. Although King Louis did meet with Choiseul, he did not bring him back to court permanently. Later, when she tried to have her friend, the duc de Guines, appointed ambassador to England, Louis XVI said, "I have made it quite clear to the queen that he cannot serve in England or in any other Embassy." It was obvious that Marie Antoinette enjoyed no political influence with her husband whatsoever. Étienne-François, duc de Choiseul, French diplomat and statesman Étienne-François, duc de Choiseul (June 28, 1719 — May 8, 1785) was a French statesman. ... Madame du Barry [1] [2] (Marie-Jeanne, Countess du Barry) (August 19, 1743 - December 8, 1793) was a French courtesan who became the mistress of Louis XV of France. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ...


When Marie Antoinette's sister-in-law, Marie Thérèse, the wife of the Comte d'Artois, gave birth to her first child in August 1775, Marie Antoinette was subjected to cat-calls from market women asking why she had not produced a son as well. She spent the next day weeping in her rooms, much to the distress of her ladies-in-waiting, who felt she was "extremely affecting when in misfortune."


Fulfilling Marie Antoinette's determination to avoid boredom, conversation in her circle shied away from the mundane or intellectual. According to Madame Campan, one of the queen's ladies-in-waiting, "The newest songs from the Comédie, the most timely joke or pun or quip, the bon mot of the day, the latest and choicest titbit of scandal or gossip – these comprised the sole topics of conversation in the intimate group about the queen; discussion on a serious plane was banished from her court." Madame Campan Jeanne-Louise-Henriette Campan, born Henriette Genet (October 2nd 1752, Paris - March 16th 1822, Mantes) was a French educator, the companion of Marie Antoinette. ...


The queen's circle of friends was very exclusive. This caused resentment in Versailles, where the courtiers thought the queen was deliberately excluding them. Soon, she became the target of the vicious gossip of Versailles. She, however, remained oblivious. , Versailles (pronounced , roughly vair-sye’, in French), formerly the de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ...


Under the influence of d'Artois, Marie Antoinette began visiting the Paris Opéra balls in disguise. It was not long before gossips began whispering that the queen was orchestrating such events to meet with various secret lovers.


She also began spending more and more money, since she had no real idea of its value. She spent it mainly on clothes, gambling and diamonds. For her twenty-first birthday, she participated in a three-day long gambling party, in which huge amounts of money changed hands.

Enlarge
The Petit Trianon

Marie Antoinette had already caused enough anger at Versailles before she started appointing her friends to places that were traditionally held by others. She made Thérèse de Lamballe the Superintendent of the Queen's Household, despite the fact that there were some aristocratic ladies with a superior claim to that job. Image File history File links Chateau of the Petit Trianon, Versailles, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, architect File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Chateau of the Petit Trianon, Versailles, Ange-Jacques Gabriel, architect File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... , Versailles (pronounced , roughly vair-sye’, in French), formerly the de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ...


She then began spending less time living at the palace and more time at Le Petit Trianon, which was a small château in the palace grounds. The château was renovated for her and the costs soon spiralled out of control, especially whenever the gardens were re-designed to suit the queen's new tastes. The Petit Trianon, Versailles The Petit Trianon, situated at a short distance from the Grand Trianon in Versailles, France, was designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel by order of Louis XV for his long-term mistress, Madame de Pompadour, and was constructed between 1762-1768. ...


Vindictive rumors began that Marie Antoinette was sleeping with her brother-in-law Charles, the Comte d'Artois. Illegal presses in Paris soon began printing pamphlets showing the queen and Artois as adulterous lovers. The first pamphlet was called Les Amours de Charlot et Antoinette. L'Autrichienne en Goguette showed Artois and the Queen having anal sex in a palace salon. Le Godmiché Royal (the Royal dildo) showed Marie Antoinette masturbating, and later pamphlets would suggest that she had indulged in bestiality and lesbianism. No evidence of these charges had ever been produced, but they began to chip away at the queen's popularity with the people. Charles X, King of France Navarre Charles X, King of France and of Navarre (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) was born at the Palace of Versailles. ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... Roman men having anal sex. ... Mulher Sentada de Coxas Abertas, Drawing 1916 by Gustav Klimt Masturbation is the manual excitation of the sexual organs, usually to the point of orgasm. ... Look up Bestiality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual and romantic attraction between two individuals of the same sex. ...


There were also wider problems affecting France at the time, for the entire country was standing on the edge of bankruptcy. The long series of wars fought by Louis XIV and Louis XV had left France with the highest national debt in Europe. French society was under-taxed and what little money was collected failed to save the economy. Louis XVI was persuaded by Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais to support the American revolutionaries in their fight for independence from England. This decision was a disaster for France, despite its victory, because the cost was enormous. Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death just prior to his seventy-seventh birthday. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Beaumarchais Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (January 24, 1732 - May 18, 1799) was, among other accomplishments, a writer and librettist. ...


Marie Antoinette's brother, Emperor Joseph II, visited her in April 1777. He had come to inquire about the state of her marriage, since the Austrians were concerned about her failure to produce a son. They went for a long walk in the grounds of Le Petit Trianon, during which Joseph criticised her gambling and her taste in friends. He also had a deep conversation with Louis XVI, in which they discussed the couple's sexual problems. Whatever Joseph II said to Louis XVI, it obviously worked, for the marriage was soon consummated and by April 1778, the queen could happily announce that she was pregnant. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (Joseph Benedict August Johannes Anton Michel Adam) (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ...


==momhoodith

Marie Antoinette and her Children, by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun
Marie Antoinette and her Children, by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun

Marie Antoinette's first child was born at Versailles on December 19, 1778. She was forced to endure the humiliation of a public birth in her bedchamber, in front of hundreds of courtiers. The queen actually passed out through a combination of embarrassment and pain. It was the last time such a ritual was permitted as Marie Antoinette refused to give birth in public ever again. Image File history File links Lebr04. ... Image File history File links Lebr04. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... December 19 is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The baby was a girl and she was christened Marie Thérèse Charlotte. She was created "Princess Royal" or Madame Royale, since she was the oldest daughter of the king of France. Despite the fact that the country had desired a boy, Marie Antoinette was delighted with a girl. "A son would have belonged to the state," she said, "but you shall be mine, and have all my care; you shall share my happiness and soften my sorrows." Portrait of Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, Madame Royale Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, (December 19, 1778 - October 19, 1851), also known as La Princesse Royale or Madame Royale, was the eldest child of King Louis XVI and his Austrian wife, Queen Marie Antoinette. ...

Marie Antoinette in 1783, portrait by her favourite artist, Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun
Enlarge
Marie Antoinette in 1783, portrait by her favourite artist, Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun

Madame Royale was followed by three other children – Louis Joseph born in 1781, Louis Charles in 1785 and Sophie Béatrix in 1786. Image File history File links Portrait of Marie Antoinette by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, painted 1783. ... Image File history File links Portrait of Marie Antoinette by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, painted 1783. ... Self Portrait in a Straw Hat, 1782 Elisabeth-Louise Vigee-LeBrun (April 16, 1755 - March 30, 1842) was a French painter, the most famous woman painter of the 18th century. ... Louis-Joseph-Xavier-François (October 22, 1781-May 14, 1789) was the second child and first son of King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette. ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis... Princess Sophie died as a baby, much to the grief of her parents. ...


As she grew older, Marie Antoinette became much less extravagant. She was devoted to her children and she was very involved in taking care of them. Speaking of her youngest son, Louis Charles, she said, "Mon chou d'amour ("My cabbage of love", "cabbage" being a popular term of endearment even into modern times in France), is charming, and I love him madly. He loves me very much too, in his own way, without embarrassment." She was also much more involved in charity work, although she had always been very generous. Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis...


After she turned thirty in 1785, Marie Antoinette also began to dress with more restraint. She abandoned the more elaborate wigs which had been festooned with jewels and feathers and she refused to buy any more jewels for her personal collection. She was, however, fiercely criticised for building a small mock-village for herself in the grounds of Versailles in 1786. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The building of these kinds of artificial villages was very popular among French aristocratic ladies, who were keen to experience a rural idyll in the comfort of their own estates. This tradition had begun with Louis XIV's greatest mistress, the beautiful Athénaïs de Montespan in the 1680s. Marie Antoinette's defenders did not think she deserved so much criticism for building the Hameau (as it was known). Baroness d'Oberkirch complained, "Other people spent more on their gardens!" Even so, the queen was already unpopular and she could not possibly understand how much the Hameau would further damage her reputation. Many people began to see her as a clueless spendthrift who liked to play at being a shepherdess, whilst some of the real peasants lived in very hard conditions. Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death just prior to his seventy-seventh birthday. ... Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart, marquise de Montespan Françoise-Athénaïs de Rochechouart-Mortemart, marquise de Montespan (October 5, 1641 - May 27, 1707) was a mistress of Louis XIV. Born at the chateau of Tonnay-Charente, in todays Charente-Maritime, France, the daughter of Gabriel... Petit hameau, Versailles Petit hameau, the English translation of which is Little hamlet, is sometimes called Le Hameau de la Reine. This land was part of the private area of Queen Marie Antoinette at Versailles in France. ...


The affair of the necklace

One of the cottages built in Marie Antoinette's private village
One of the cottages built in Marie Antoinette's private village

Louis, Cardinal de Rohan, a member of one of France's most prominent aristocratic houses, was not in the queen's favour. He had been the Envoy to Austria: personal letters of his had been intercepted, in which he bragged to friends back home that he had "bedded half the Austrian court" and that Marie Antoinette's own mother the Empress had "begged" him for her turn. He had also jested to friends in Vienna by showing them some of the pamphlets insulting Marie Antoinette's honour. His ambitions to follow in the footsteps of Cardinal Richelieu and become Prime Minister of France meant that he was desperate to return to her favour, as the position was by royal appointment, and Marie Antoinette blocked his progress at every turn. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 646 KB) author = fr:User:Urban Ferme, Petit Trianon, parc de Versailles, photographie personnelle prise par lutilisateur Urban en septembre 2004, GFDL Urban Septembre 2004 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 646 KB) author = fr:User:Urban Ferme, Petit Trianon, parc de Versailles, photographie personnelle prise par lutilisateur Urban en septembre 2004, GFDL Urban Septembre 2004 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... The affair of the diamond necklace was a mysterious incident in the 1780s at the court of Louis XVI of France involving the queen Marie Antoinette. ... Louis René Édouard, cardinal de Rohan (September 25, 1734 - February 17, 1803), prince de Rohan-Guemenée, archbishop of Strassburg (now Strasbourg), a cadet of the great family of Rohan (which traced its origin to the kings of Brittany, and was granted the precedence and rank of a foreign princely... Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Vienna in 1858 UN complex in Vienna, with the non-affiliated Austria Center Vienna in front - picture taken from Danube Tower in nearby Danube Park. ... Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


When an impoverished aristocrat named Jeanne Saint-Rémy de Valois, Comtesse de la Motte, became aware of Rohan's desire to befriend the queen, she first became his mistress and then set about hatching an ingenious plan to make a small fortune for herself in the process. Jeanne de Valois was born in France 1756 to a peasant family. ...


Marie Antoinette had refused to buy a magnificent diamond necklace from the Royal Jewellers (she said the cost was too high and that the royal family preferred now to spend their money on the Navy). She became impatient with the jeweller and snapped, "Not only have I never commissioned you to make a jewel … but, what is more, I have told you repeatedly that I would never add so much as another carat to my present collection of diamonds. I refused to buy your necklace for myself; the king offered to buy it for me, and I refused it as a gift. Never mention it again."


The Comtesse de la Motte then pretended to be an intimate friend of the queen's, whilst persuading the cardinal that the queen secretly desired the necklace. He paid the 2 million livres to her (thinking she would then give it to the queen) and the Comtesse collected the necklace from the jewellers (who also thought she would give it to the queen, who would then pay them). The Comtesse, however, disappeared with both the jewels and the money.


When the time came to pay, the jewellers complained to the queen, who told them that she had received no necklace and had never ordered it. She had the story of the negotiations repeated for her. Then followed a coup de théâtre. On August 15, 1785, Assumption Day, when the whole court was awaiting the king and queen in order to go to the chapel, the Cardinal de Rohan was arrested as an accomplice in the scandal; the Comtesse de la Motte was found and subsequently arrested three days later, on August 18, 1785. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The police set to work to find all her accomplices and a sensational trial commenced, with the Cardinal de Rohan accepting the Parliament of Paris as judges. The trial resulted (May 31, 1786) in the acquittal of the Cardinal, among others, while the Comtesse was condemned to be whipped, branded and shut up in the prostitutes' prison. May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


When the Diamond Necklace Affair was exposed, public opinion was much excited by the trial. Most historians have come to the conclusion that Marie Antoinette was relatively blameless in the matter, that Rohan was an innocent dupe, and that the Comtesse de la Motte deceived both for her own gain. At the time, however, most people in France believed that Marie Antoinette had used the Comtesse as an instrument to satisfy her hatred of the Cardinal de Rohan. Various circumstances fortified this belief, which contributed to render Marie Antoinette very unpopular -- her disappointment at Rohan's acquittal and the fact that he was deprived of his charges and exiled to the abbey of la Chaise-Dieu. The Parliament's acquittal of Rohan also pointed to an assumption that Marie Antoinette was somehow in the wrong. The Comtesse herself eventually escaped prison and took refuge in London, where she published her mémoires in which she continued to accuse the queen and proclaim her innocence in the matter.


The Affair of the Necklace was disastrous in further discrediting Marie Antoinette's reputation among the French population. Already unpopular for her Austrian roots and past years of extravagant spending, salacious gossip in the wake of the scandal tainted her image even further; the general public opinion was that she had perpetrated a multi-million pound fraud for her own political ends. Her antagonistic pamphleteers, naturally, delighted in suggesting that the queen was also having affairs with both Rohan and the Comtesse de la Motte. The circulation of sexual scandal and arguments about extravagent necklaces made her appear even more out-of-touch with the ordinary people.


The countdown to revolution

Coupled with the political disaster of the Affair of the Necklace, the royal family also suffered some terrible personal tragedies. In 1787, Marie Antoinette's youngest daughter, Sophie-Béatrix, died shortly before her first birthday. The queen was devastated and spent hours weeping over the baby's body.


Not long after, the Royal Physicians informed her that her eldest son, the Dauphin Louis-Joseph, was terminally ill with consumption. The child's condition deteriorated by twisting the body in what was a painful death and Marie Antoinette spent most of her time nursing him during his last agonizing months. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...


The French government was now seriously in debt, thanks to inefficient taxation and costly foreign wars. The king summoned a council of nobles to discuss the situation. The Assembly of Notables, as it was called, could find no solution to the government's financial crisis. So Louis XVI was left with no alternative other than to call a meeting of the Estates-General in May 1789. The Estates-General was the main representative body of the French population, but it had not been called since the reign of Louis XIII in 1614. Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... In France under the Ancien Régime, the States-General or Estates-General (French: États généraux), was a legislative assembly (see The States) of the different classes (or estates) of French subjects. ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ...


Within days of meeting, the Estates-General was clamouring for reforms and criticising the monarchy and its policies. However, the royal family's attentions were on other things. On June 4, the Dauphin died at the age of seven. The king sank into sporadic bouts of depression and the queen was heartbroken. Immediately, some of her enemies began to spread rumours that she had poisoned her own son. June 4 is the 155th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (156th in leap years), with 210 days remaining. ... Clinical depression (also called severe depressive disorder, major depressive disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ...


The ultra-royalist circles at Versailles feared and resented the Estates-General. Marie Antoinette was coming to suspect that the reformists in the Estates-General were secretly working to overthrow the monarchy. On July 11, Marie Antoinette and her brother-in-law the Comte d'Artois persuaded Louis XVI to dismiss the liberal prime minister, Jacques Necker. Marie Antoinette's ally, Baron de Breteuil was made prime minister instead. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... July 11 is the 192nd day (193rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 173 days remaining. ... Charles X, King of France Navarre Charles X, King of France and of Navarre (October 9, 1757 – November 6, 1836) was born at the Palace of Versailles. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Jacques Necker Jacques Necker (September 30, 1732 – April 9, 1804) was a French statesman and finance minister of Louis XVI. // Early life Necker was Geneva, Switzerland. ... Louis-Auguste le Tonnelier Louis-Auguste le Tonnelier, baron de Breteuil, baron de Preuilly (March 7, 1730 – November 2, 1807) was a French aristocrat, statesman and politician. ...


Breteuil was a devout Roman Catholic and a committed royalist. The monarchy's enemies painted him as a ruthless tyrant, even though he did have a reputation for being very humanitarian in his treatment of opponents. Even so, the propaganda worked and Paris was gripped by fear that the royalists were planning a military attack on the city in order to force it into submission. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area...


A large mob marched on the symbol of royal authority in Paris, the Bastille Prison, and seized control of it on July 14, 1789. The Governor of the Prison was lynched and so were two ultra-right politicians. News did not reach the palace until very late that evening. When Louis XVI heard of it, he asked, "This is a revolt?" to which the duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt replied, "No, sire. It is a revolution."   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... The Bastille The Bastille ( ) was a prison in Paris, known formally as Bastille Saint-Antoine—Number 232, Rue Saint-Antoine—best known today because of the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, which along with the Tennis Court Oath is considered the beginning of the French Revolution. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Lynching is murder (mostly by hanging) conceived by its perpetrators as extra-legal execution. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Panic seized the palace and many courtiers fled for their lives. The Comte d'Artois fled abroad, in part due to fears he would be assassinated. Marie Antoinette's friend Duchesse de Polignac, the governess of her children, fled to Switzerland, where she continued writing to the queen. Marie Antoinette appointed the devout and disciplined Marquise de Tourzel as governess to the two surviving royal children – Princess Marie Thérèse and the new dauphin, Louis Charles. Gabrielle de Polastron Yolande Martine Gabrielle de Polastron, comtesse de Polignac (September 8, 1749–December 9, 1793) was a French aristocrat and friend of Marie Antoinette, whom she first met at Versailles in 1775. ... Louise-Elisabeth, Marquise de Tourzel (1749 - 1830) A French aristocrat and courtier. ... Portrait of Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, Madame Royale Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, (December 19, 1778 - October 19, 1851), also known as La Princesse Royale or Madame Royale, was the eldest child of King Louis XVI and his Austrian wife, Queen Marie Antoinette. ...


Marie Antoinette hoped to flee also. She felt it was unwise to remain so close to Paris during the current troubles. She hoped that the king would give orders for them to move to their château at Saint-Cloud or even to another royal home at Compiègne. The queen's things were already packed, and so were her children's. However, Louis decided that they would stay at Versailles. The queen could not disobey her husband and she refused to leave him.


Later, Louis XVI would realize what a mistake he had made in not leaving the Palace of Versailles when he had the chance. His decision to remain at the palace would condemn his entire family to intense suffering and trauma in the years ahead. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The fall of Versailles

Bedroom of Marie Antoinette
Bedroom of Marie Antoinette

It was a few months before news arrived that a mob from Paris had taken the decision to march on Versailles. Rumours had spread in the city that the royals were hoarding all the grain. News reached the Palace on October 5, with Marie Antoinette once again repeating her plea that they flee. The king refused. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2328x3462, 478 KB) Summary Bedroom of Marie Antoinette Versailles Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2328x3462, 478 KB) Summary Bedroom of Marie Antoinette Versailles Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (279th in Leap years). ...


Since she was aware that she was the most unpopular member of the royal family, Marie Antoinette chose to sleep on her own that evening. She left strict instructions with the Marquise de Tourzel that she was to take the children straight to the king if there were any disturbances.


In the early hours of the morning, the mob broke into the palace. The queen's guards were massacred. She and her ladies-in-waiting only narrowly escaped with their lives before the crowd burst in and ransacked her chambers. They made it to the centre of the palace; the king's bedchamber. The king's younger sister, Princess Elisabeth, was already there. The two children arrived and the doors were locked. Élisabeth Philippine Marie Hélène of France (May 3, 1764 - May 10, 1794), commonly called Madame Élisabeth, was the daughter of Louis, dauphin de France and Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, and the younger sister of King Louis XVI. The princess was born at Versailles in 1764. ...


By this time, a large crowd had gathered in the palace's courtyard and were demanding that the queen come to the balcony. She appeared in her night-robe, accompanied by her two children. The crowd demanded that the two children be sent back inside. So the queen stood alone for almost ten minutes, whilst many in the crowd pointed muskets at her. She then bowed her head and returned inside. Some in the mob were so impressed by her bravery that they cried "Vive la Reine!" ("Long live the Queen!")


The Royals were forced to return with the mob to Paris. They were taken to the dilapidated Tuileries Palace, which had last been used during the reign of Louis XIV. The Marquis de la Fayette, a liberal aristocrat who had embraced many American ideas when he fought for George Washington, was placed in charge of the royal family's security. When he met the queen, he bluntly told her, "Your Majesty is a prisoner. Yes, it's true. Since Her Majesty no longer has her Guard of Honour, she is a prisoner." Other royal "prisoners" included Louis XVI's sister, Elisabeth, and his other brother – the Comte de Provence. The Princesse de Lamballe had refused to abandon Marie Antoinette, as had the Marquise de Tourzel and several other royal servants. Up to 1871 the Tuileries Palace was a palace in Paris, France, on the right bank of the River Seine. ... The Marquis de La Fayette Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert Du Motier, marquis de La Fayette (or Lafayette) (September 6, 1757 – May 20, 1834) was a French aristocrat. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732–December 14, 1799) led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and was later elected the first President of the United States. ... Louis XVIII (November 17, 1755 - September 16, 1824) was King of France and Navarre from 1814 (although he declared that he considered his reign to have begun in 1795) until his death in 1824, with a brief break in 1815 due to Napoleons return in the Hundred Days. ... Marie Thérèse Louise de Savoie-Carignan, princesse de Lamballe (September 8, 1749 - September 3, 1792), was one of the best-known victims of the French Revolution. ... Louise-Elisabeth, Marquise de Tourzel (1749 - 1830) A French aristocrat and courtier. ...


Desperate to reassure her friends, Marie Antoinette sent a short note to the Austrian ambassador saying, "I'm fine, don't worry." When she appeared in public she appeared calm, serene and dignified.


A republican monarchy?

From the beginning of the Revolution, Marie Antoinette remained skeptical about the chances of a compromise. However, she was not yet prepared to give up all hope of a peaceful resolution to the crisis. Certain republicans, like Antoine Barnave, were moved by her plight and many more were thoroughly impressed by her dignity. The Comte de Mirabeau, whom she despised, told many people how impressed he was with the queen's courage and "manly" strength of character. Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie Barnave (October 22, 1761—November 29, 1793), was a French politician, and, together with Honoré Mirabeau, the most influential orators of the French Revolution. ... Portrait of Mirabeau by Joseph Boze Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, (often referred to simply as Mirabeau) (March 9, 1749 - April 2, 1791) was a French writer, popular orator and statesman. ...


Trying to re-establish normality, Marie Antoinette began inviting charitable commissions to the Tuileries and continued her generous patronage and desire to alleviate the suffering of the poor children of Paris. She also spent as much time as possible with her children, particularly the Dauphin.   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area...


Public hatred against the queen was so intense that she had to attend her daughter's first Communion in disguise. The traditional gift for a Princess upon her first Communion was a set of magnificent diamonds, but both Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette decided it would be better that Marie Thérèse go without the diamonds than the people go without bread. // A scattering of round-brilliant cut diamonds shows off the many reflecting facets. ...


Meanwhile, the National Assembly was drawing up a new constitution which would turn France into a constitutional monarchy. Marie Antoinette opened secret communications with the comte de Mirabeau, a prominent member of the National Assembly who hoped to restore the authority of the crown. Nevertheless, her mistrust of Mirabeau prevented the king from following his advice. Catherine the Great wrote to Marie Antoinette from Russia, telling her that the royals should ignore the complaints of their people "as the moon goes on its course without being stopped by the cries of dogs." Louis's sister, Elisabeth, was even more vocal in her hatred of the new system. Elisabeth, like her exiled brother the Comte d'Artois, was so horrified with the French Revolution, that she believed a civil war was inevitable. The National Assembly is the name of either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Portrait of Mirabeau by Joseph Boze Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, (often referred to simply as Mirabeau) (March 9, 1749 - April 2, 1791) was a French writer, popular orator and statesman. ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ...


On July 14, 1790, the royal family had to attend festivities to celebrate the first anniversary of the fall of the Bastille. The queen dutifully attended, even though she described the celebrations as symbolising "everything that is most cruel and sorrowful". The king's liberal cousin, Philippe, duc d'Orléans returned from England and publicly proclaimed his support for the revolutionaries. His hatred for Marie Antoinette was extreme and she believed that he was fomenting the Revolution in order to seize the crown for himself. Ultra-royalists even whispered that the duc d'Orléans had orchestrated the siege of Versailles in the hope of having Marie Antoinette assassinated. The duke enjoyed enormous popular support amongst the people of Paris, although his Scottish mistress Grace Elliott was a secret royalist, who later admitted to having gone to Belgium on a secret mission for the queen. She carried messages to baron de Breteuil, who was now acting as Louis and Antoinette's secret Prime Minister-in-exile. With Louis now suffering from periodic depression and chronic lethargy, Marie Antoinette had taken it upon herself to appoint Breteuil. It is generally believed that she forged the official document appointing Breteuil and passed it off as the king's own handwriting. July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Louis-Philippe-Joseph dOrléans, by Antoine-François Callet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... Motto: , traditionally rendered in Scots as Wha daur meddle wi me?[1] and in English as No one provokes me with impunity. ... Grace Elliot (1754?–1823). ... Louis-Auguste le Tonnelier Louis-Auguste le Tonnelier, baron de Breteuil, baron de Preuilly (March 7, 1730 – November 2, 1807) was a French aristocrat, statesman and politician. ...


Hope of compromise between the royals and the revolutionaries dimmed with the creation of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in 1790. This was a republican attack on the privileges and ancient practices of the Roman Catholic Church. When news was delivered to the royal family, Marie Antoinette whispered to the Marquise de Tourzel, "The Church. The Church... we're next." The law of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (Fr. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology, below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and maintained through...


By 1791, both the king and the queen had now come to the conclusion that the Revolution was going to destroy France. They came to the decision to flee to Montmédy, a royalist stronghold in the east of France. There they would gather their supporters and any foreign assistance they could (Marie Antoinette's brother Emperor Leopold II, the Russian empress, the King of Sweden and the King of Prussia had all promised military aid). They hoped that, once they had escaped, they would be able to negotiate with the revolutionaries, but they were now quite prepared to use force to stop them. Montmédy is a commune of the Meuse département, in northeastern France. ... Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (Vienna, May 5, 1747 – Vienna, March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany. ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May 1729–17 November 1796 [O.S. 6 November]) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia for some 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until... Gustav III (13 January 1746 (O.S.) (24 January 1746 (N.S.))–March 29, 1792) was King of Sweden from 1771 until his death. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744 – November 16, 1797) was the fourth king of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ...


The royals' escape was foiled at the town of Varennes, when the King's head was recognized on a coin as the horses drawing the carriage were being replaced, and they were forced back to Paris by local republicans. They were returned to the Tuileries Palace, but from now on it was clear that the King and the entire royal family were enemies of the Revolution. Varennes or Varennes-en-Argonne is a city in the French département of Meuse. ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area...


Marie Antoinette then tried to preserve the crown's rapidly deteriorating position by secretly negotiating with Antoine Barnave, leader of the constitutional monarchist faction in the Assembly. Barnave persuaded Louis to openly accept the new constitution in September 1791, but the queen undermined Barnave by privately urging her brother, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II, to conduct a counterrevolutionary crusade against France. Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie Barnave (October 22, 1761—November 29, 1793), was a French politician, and, together with Honoré Mirabeau, the most influential orators of the French Revolution. ...


Louis's attempt, encouraged by the Queen, to regain his authority by making war with her relations in Austria, hoping that a quick defeat of France would cause the Austrians to restore the monarchy, proved disastrous. When the Duke of Brunswick, commander of the Austro-Prussian army invading France, issued a manifesto threatening Paris with destruction if the royal family were harmed, reaction in Paris was swift and brutal. Rather than heeding the Manifesto, the revolutionaries were enraged by it and they attacked the Tuileries on 10 August 1792. Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, (Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Herzog zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Fürst von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern) (October 9, 1735 - 1806) was a German military general born in Wolfenbüttel, Germany. ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Marie Antoinette's initial decision was to stand and face the mob, even if it meant doing it on her own. However, her ladies-in-waiting begged her to think of her children and she reluctantly agreed to accompany the king and his entourage when they fled the palace for the National Assembly. The Palace was invaded in their absence and the Swiss Guard were massacred. The Governor of the Tuileries, the Marquis de Champcenetz, managed to escape the mob despite incurring heavy wounds. He was sentenced to death by the revolutionaries but managed to escape Paris with the help of Mrs. Elliott. The National Assembly is the name of either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. ... Papal Swiss Guards in traditional uniforms Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... Grace Elliot (1754?–1823). ...


Louis XVI was arrested by the republicans on 13 August, and just over a month later, on September 21 the National Convention abolished the monarchy. The royal family were then moved to the forbidding Temple Fortress and imprisoned. The king, queen, their two children and Louis's sister Elisabeth were heavily guarded, lest they be rescued by royalists. August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... This article is about a legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... The Temple was an ancient fortress in Paris, located in what are now the IIIe and IVe arrondissements. ...


After they had been imprisoned, Paris erupted into violence. The mob invaded the prisons and massacred anyone suspected of royalist leanings. Marie Antoinette's dearest friend, the Princesse de Lamballe, was captured and told to repudiate her oath of loyalty to the queen. When she refused, she was murdered by repeated hammer-blows to the head. Her body was then torn apart and her head placed on a pike. Eye-witness accounts of this event were given by the Comte de Beaujolais, Commissioner Daujon and wax-modeller Marie Grosholz (better known as Marie Tussaud, she was forced to make the death-mask of the princess). The head was taken to Marie Antoinette's window and displayed outside it. Cléry and Madame Tison saw it and Cléry informed the royal couple. According to her daughter the queen was 'frozen with horror', and then she collapsed to the ground in a dead faint. She then spent the night in tears. A wax sculpture of Marie Tussaud at Madame Tussauds wax museum in London Marie Tussaud (December 1, 1761 - April 16, 1850) is known for her wax sculptures and Madame Tussauds, the wax museum she setup in London. ...


Louis was tried for treason on December 11. He was condemned to death on January 17. The duc d'Orléans voted for Louis's death. He was allowed one last farewell supper with his family and he urged his young son not to seek vengeance for his death. The queen spent the next few hours huddled against her husband, clutching their son. Marie Thérèse sobbed hysterically, whilst Elisabeth clung to her brother. Louis was taken to the guillotine the next day. When she heard the crowds cheer her husband's death, Marie Antoinette collapsed to the ground, unable to speak. For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ...


Imprisonment

Marie Antoinette did not ever truly recover from her husband's death. According to her daughter, "She no longer had any hope left in her heart or distinguished between life and death." She began to suffer from convulsions and fainting fits. She also lost her appetite and an enormous amount of weight.

The Conciergerie Prison where Marie Antoinette was imprisoned before her death
The Conciergerie Prison where Marie Antoinette was imprisoned before her death

On the night of July 3, 1793, commissioners arrived in the royal family's cell with instructions to separate Marie Antoinette's son from the rest of his family. He had been proclaimed Louis XVII by exiled royalists after his father's death. The republican government had therefore decided to imprison the eight-year-old child in solitary confinement. Louis flung himself into his mother's arms crying hysterically and Marie Antoinette shielded him with her body, refusing to give him up. When the commissioners threatened to kill her if she did not hand the child over, she still refused to move. It was only when they threatened to kill Marie Thérèse that she came to realise how hopeless the situation was. Two hours after the commissioners had entered her room, the former Queen relinquished her son to them. They would not meet again, since Marie-Antoinette would soon be put on trial for treason and her son would die in captivity in 1795. The Palais de Justice, the Conciergerie and the Tour de lHorloge, after 1858 - by Adrien Dauzats The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with copyright terms of life of the author plus 70... The Palais de Justice, the Conciergerie and the Tour de lHorloge, after 1858 - by Adrien Dauzats The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with copyright terms of life of the author plus 70... The Palais de Justice, the Conciergerie and the Tour de lHorloge, after 1858 - by Adrien Dauzats The Conciergerie (French: La Conciergerie) is a former prison in Paris, located on the west of the ÃŽle de la Cité, near the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. ... July 3 is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 181 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis...


At two o'clock in the morning of 2 August 1793, Marie Antoinette was awoken by guards and told to get dressed. She was taken away from her daughter and sister-in-law and transferred across Paris to the Conciergerie Prison. She was re-named "the Widow Capet," after Hugh Capet, founder of the Capetian Dynasty. She was no longer to be referred to as "Marie Antoinette" but simply "Antoinette Capet" or "Prisoner No. 280." A young peasant girl, Rosalie Lamorlière, was entrusted to take care of Marie Antoinette's needs, but these were few since the queen did not ask for much. On August 29, 1793, Marie Antoinette was visited by Alexandre Gonsse de Rougeville, a devoted supporter who passed a secret message hidden in the petals of a carnation. The message informed the queen to prepare herself for imminent rescue. The plan failed when guards intercepted Marie Antoinette's reply, which she had pin-pricked into a piece of paper. The "affair of the carnation" fueled speculation of a widespread royalist conspiracy and the queen was consequently placed under even tighter security. August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Palais de Justice, the Conciergerie and the Tour de lHorloge, after 1858 - by Adrien Dauzats The Conciergerie (French: La Conciergerie) is a former prison in Paris, located on the west of the ÃŽle de la Cité, near the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. ... -1... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


On September 2, the republican journalist and politician, Jacques Hébert, told the Committee of Public Safety, "I have promised [my readers] the head of Antoinette. I will go and cut it off myself if there is any delay in giving it to me." Most republicans now felt an intense hatred for her and they were determined to see her dead. September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacques René Hébert Jacques René Hébert (November 15, 1757 - March 24, 1794) was editor of the extreme radical newspaper Le Père Duchesne during the French Revolution. ... The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), set up by the National Convention on April 6, 1793, formed the de facto executive government of France during the Reign of Terror (1793 - 1794) of the French Revolution. ...

Marie Antoinette under arrest
Marie Antoinette under arrest

She was brought to trial on October 14. When she entered the courtroom, most people were shocked at her appearance. She was emaciated, prematurely aged, exhausted and care-worn. Forty witnesses were called by the prosecution. They returned to the Affair of the Necklace or alleged that the queen had plied the Swiss Guard with alcohol during the siege of the palace. The most horrific charges came whenever Hébert accused her of having sexually abused her own son. When the queen was pressed to answer this charge she replied, "If I have not replied it is because Nature itself refuses to respond to such a charge laid against a mother." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (516x660, 54 KB) Oscar Rex (1857–1929): Marie Antoinette unter Arrest (posthumous fantasy painting) Oil on canvas, 130 x 102 cm Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (516x660, 54 KB) Oscar Rex (1857–1929): Marie Antoinette unter Arrest (posthumous fantasy painting) Oil on canvas, 130 x 102 cm Source: http://www. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The following questions were actually put to the jury: Is it established that manoeuvres and communications have existed with foreign powers and either external enemies of the republic, the said manoeuvres, &c., tending to furnish them with assistance in money, give them an entry into French territory, and facilitate the progress of their armies? Is Marie Antoinette of Austria, the widow Capet, convicted of having co-operated in these maneuvres and maintained these communications? Is it established that a plot and conspiracy has existed tending to kindle civil war within the republic, by arming the citizens against one another? Is Marie Antoinette, the widow Capet, convicted of having participated in this plot and conspiracy?


The jury decided unanimously in the affirmative, and she was condemned to death for treason on October 15 and escorted back to the Conciergerie. She wrote her final letter known as her "Testament", to her sister-in-law Elisabeth. She expressed her love for her friends and family and begged that her children would not seek to avenge her murder. For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation). ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... The Palais de Justice, the Conciergerie and the Tour de lHorloge, after 1858 - by Adrien Dauzats The Conciergerie (French: La Conciergerie) is a former prison in Paris, located on the west of the Île de la Cité, near the Cathedral of Notre-Dame. ...


Execution and burial

Marie Antoinette on her way to the guillotine, by Jacques-Louis David, 1793
Marie Antoinette on her way to the guillotine, by Jacques-Louis David, 1793

On the morning of October 16, 1793, a guard arrived to cut her hair and bind her hands behind her back. She was forced into a common, slow-moving cart and paraded through the streets of Paris for over an hour before reaching the Place de la Révolution where the guillotine stood. She stepped lightly down from the cart and stared up at the guillotine. They then stripped her naked for further humiliation. The priest who had accompanied her whispered, "This is the moment, Madame, to arm yourself with courage." Marie Antoinette turned to look at him and smiled, "Courage? The moment when my troubles are going to end is not the moment when my courage is going to fail me." Legend states that her last words were, "Monsieur, I ask your pardon. I did not do it on purpose," spoken after she had accidentally stepped on the executioner's foot. Download high resolution version (463x633, 64 KB)Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine, by Jacques-Louis David 1793 Pen and ink, 150 x 100 mm Musée du Louvre, Paris Circumstances how picture was created e. ... Download high resolution version (463x633, 64 KB)Marie Antoinette on the Way to the Guillotine, by Jacques-Louis David 1793 Pen and ink, 150 x 100 mm Musée du Louvre, Paris Circumstances how picture was created e. ... Self portrait of Jacques-Louis David (1794). ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... The Place de la Concorde seen from the Pont de la Concorde; in front, the Obelisk, behind, the Rue Royale and the Church of the Madeleine; on the left, the Hôtel de Crillon. ... The Maiden, an older Scottish design. ...


At 12:15, Marie Antoinette was executed. Her head was exhibited to a cheering crowd. The bodies of Marie, Louis XVI and Madame Elisabeth (Louis' sister) were buried in a mass grave near the location of today's La Madeleine church and covered in quicklime. Following the restoration of the Bourbons, a search was conducted for the bodies. On January 21, 1815, more than twenty years after her death, her corpse was exhumed - a lady's garter helped with identification - and Marie Antoinette was buried at the side of her spouse in the crypt of St. Denis Basilica just outside of Paris, the traditional final resting place of French monarchs. There are communes that have the name La Madeleine in France: River Madeleine, in the Territoire de Belfort département Communes La Madeleine, in the Nord département Related La Madeleine-de-Nonancourt, in the Eure département La Madeleine-de-Villefrouin, in the Loir-et-Cher département La... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion _ Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Originally an item of clothing, there are now several related meanings: Garter (clothing), the item of clothing Order of the Garter, a senior British order of chivalry List of female members of the mediaeval Order of the Garter List of Knights and Ladies of the Garter from 1348 Garter snake... The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ...


Styles

  • Her Highness Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria, she was rewarded the title "Her Royal Highness" when she was 10 years old, but only after her mother saw that she was dedicated to her studies and her country
  • Her Royal Highness The Dauphine of France
  • Her Majesty Queen Marie Antoinette of France and Navarre

Reputation

Traditional histories have portrayed Marie Antoinette as a shallow, weak, and self-indulgent person. In recent years, however, that view has somewhat changed. In 1933, Stefan Zweig wrote a biography of her "Marie Antoinette: The Portrait of an Ordinary Woman," in which he argued the queen achieved greatness during the final years of her life thanks to her extraordinary courage. His biography was later made into a hugely successful movie starring Norma Shearer (see below). Stefan Zweig (November 28, 1881 – February 22, 1942) was an Austrian writer. ... Norma Shearer in a gown by Adrian. ...


French historians, like André Castelot and Évelyne Lever, have generally been more critical in their biographies of Marie Antoinette; although neither has attacked her with the venom she received during her lifetime.


The trend in recent years, however, has been to focus on Marie Antoinette's strengths rather than her weaknesses. Deborah Cadbury, in her biography of Louis XVII, praised Marie Antoinette's devotion to her family and Munro Price, in his political study on the fall of the French monarchy, wrote "Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette have often been portrayed as weak and vacillating. Far from it; their policy between 1789 and 1792 was entirely consistent, and highly conservative. They were prepared to die for their beliefs, and ultimately did so." Louis XVII of France (March 27, 1785 – June 8, 1795), from birth to 1789 known as Louis-Charles, Duke of Normandy; then from 1789 to 1791 as Louis-Charles, Dauphin of Viennois; and from 1791 to 1793 as Louis-Charles, Prince Royal of France, was the son of King Louis...


The most thorough biography of Marie Antoinette has come from British historian, Lady Antonia Fraser. Marie Antoinette: The Journey was first published in 2001 and became an instant bestseller. The book was later adapted into a 2006 Hollywood movie (see below). After reading Fraser's book, historian Simon Sebag Montefiore concluded that Marie Antoinette was "a woman more sinned against than sinning." Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... ...


Marie Antoinette's life provided inspiration for the novel Trianon (first published in 1997) by author and historian, Elena Maria Vidal. Based on Vidal's painstaking research, this novel depicts pre-Revolution life at Versailles and the characters of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI with authenticity, in an attempt to dispel previous misconceptions about the royal couple. Trianon is the prequel to Madame Royale which is inspired by the life of Princess Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, daughter of Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ... Portrait of Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, Madame Royale Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte, (December 19, 1778 - October 19, 1851), also known as La Princesse Royale or Madame Royale, was the eldest child of King Louis XVI and his Austrian wife, Queen Marie Antoinette. ... Louis XVI Louis XVI (August 23, 1754 - January 21, 1793), was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French in 1791-1792. ...


One notable aspect of Marie Antoinette's legacy that has been traditionally downplayed until recently is her status as a leading fashion icon and trendsetter of her time. The cover story of the September 2006 issue of Vogue magazine was about the 2006 Sofia Coppola movie (see below), with an accompanying feature article about Marie Antoinette's contributions to fashion styles of the era. Most noteworthy was the queen's popularizing of the pouf, an aristocratic hairstyle where the hair was teased as high as possible, coated with powder, elaborately curled, and then adorned with various ribbons, ornaments and feathers. Created by fashion designer Rose Bertin, a pouf typically had a theme or message conveyed in its details: a pouf for attending a funeral, for example, would be adorned with black decorations and a veil. The pouf quickly became Marie Antoinette's signature style, and the trend spread rapidly among the French nobility of the time. Another trend that the queen established during her reign was that of encouraging her fashion designers to retain their other customers while working for her, so that she could stay abreast of every shift in fashion trends -- a sharp break from tradition, which dictated that stylists and designers cater to only one client at a time. The term fashion usually applies to a prevailing mode of expression, but quite often applies to a personal mode of expression that may or may not adhere to prevailing ideals. ... September 2006 is the ninth month of 2006 and has begun on a Friday. ... For other meanings, see vogue. ... Sofia Coppola Sofia Carmina Coppola (born May 14, 1971) is an American director, actress, producer, and Academy Award-winning screenwriter. ... Powder is a substance that has been crushed into very fine grains. ... A ribbon is a thin band of flexible material, typically cloth but also plastic or sometimes metal, used primarily for binding and tying. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Rose Bertin (2 July 1747 - 22 September 1813) was the French milliner and modiste to the Queen Marie Antoinette. ... Theme may refer to: Theme (music), the initial or primary melody Theme music, in film and television, a melody closely associated with the program Theme (literature), is the unifying subject of the story Theme (computer), a custom graphical appearance for certain software, similar to a skin Thema, in the Byzantine...


The only major disagreement amongst modern historians is the role played by the Swedish aristocrat, Count Axel von Fersen. There were unsubstantiated rumours at court that the dashing Fersen was at one time Marie Antoinette's lover. It is true that the two were very close and that Fersen risked his life many times to try and free her from prison. Some historians, like Evelyn Farr and Antonia Fraser, seem convinced that at one point the two did enjoy a physical relationship based on Fersen's famous line "Resté là" in his diary entry whenever he spent time with his other lovers. Others remain skeptical, arguing that there is no concrete evidence to support the idea that the two were lovers in the physical sense. Some even have claimed that Louis-Charles, later dauphin of France, was the biological child of Marie Antoinette and Fersen - this suggestion has however been rejected by Louis-Charles's most recent biographer, Deborah Cadbury. Count Axel von Fersen, dressed in the robes of a Swedish Privy Councilor, with the Knights Commander chains of the Royal Orders of the Seraphim and that of the Sword around his neck. ...


In literature

In the novel Le Chevalier de Maison-Rouge published in 1845 by Alexandre Dumas, Marie Antoinette is depicted as a kind and gentle woman who bears the trials of her captivity with grace and dignity. The novel follows the adventures of Maurice Lindey, a young Republican who is unwittingly caught up in a royalist plot to free the queen from prison. Events in the novel were inspired by "the affair of the carnation" (see above). Le Chevalier de Maison-Rouge (translated as The Knight of Maison-Rouge: A Novel of Marie Antoinette or The Knight of the Red House) was written in 1845 by Alexandre Dumas as part of a series referred to as the Marie Antoinette romances. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ...


Various modern novels have also been inspired by the queen's life. These range from popular literature like The Secret Diary of Marie Antoinette to works like those of Elena Maria Vidal, whose novel Trianon, is a deliberately Catholic interpretation of Marie-Antoinette's life and times. A well-received French novel, Les Adieux á la Reine by French historian Chantal Thomas (published in English as Farewell, My Queen) is a famously accurate take on the last three days of Marie-Antoinette's court at the palace of Versailles in 1789. 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


A Royal Diaries series has been based on Marie Antoinette's teen years and gives young children a simple way of learning the life and roles of Marie Antoinette.


In cinema

Video package for the Oscar nominated Marie Antoinette (1938) starring Norma Shearer.
Video package for the Oscar nominated Marie Antoinette (1938) starring Norma Shearer.

Given that she has become a historical icon, Marie Antoinette has appeared in many motion pictures. The most famous was "Marie Antoinette" in 1938, a multi-million dollar MGM studio extravaganza. It was based on Stefan Zweig's biography of Marie Antoinette. Lasting over three hours and famed for its set designs and costumes, "Marie Antoinette" became an instant hit. Image File history File links Mariea. ... Image File history File links Mariea. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Marie Antoinette (1938) Marie Antoinette was a 1938 film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. ... Norma Shearer in a gown by Adrian. ... Marie Antoinette (1938) Marie Antoinette was a 1938 film produced by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. ... Stefan Zweig (November 28, 1881 – February 22, 1942) was an Austrian writer. ...


Actress Norma Shearer starred in the title role. She identified heavily with the role and heavily researched every aspect of Marie Antoinette's life. Even today, there is still an emotional vibrancy and naturalness to her portrayal of the queen. She was nominated for the Oscar, but controversially lost out to Bette Davis for her role in Jezebel. For many people, Shearer's portrayal remains the definitive screen-version of Marie Antoinette. In Argentina, the film became the favourite movie of Eva Perón, who so admired Shearer's style that she later dyed her hair blonde. Norma Shearer in a gown by Adrian. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Bette Davis (April 5, 1908 – October 6, 1989), was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress of film, television and theatre. ... Jezebel is a 1938 film that tells the story of a headstrong young Southern woman during the years prior to the American Civil War, and how her actions cost her the love of the man she truly loves. ... María Eva Duarte de Perón (May 7, 1919 – July 26, 1952) was the second wife of Argentine President Juan Domingo Perón (1895–1974) and the First Lady of Argentina from 1946 until her death in 1952. ...


Her character has also appeared in several French-made movies on the life of Madame du Barry and several on the rise of Napoléon Bonaparte. Madame du Barry [1] [2] (Marie-Jeanne, Countess du Barry) (August 19, 1743 - December 8, 1793) was a French courtesan who became the mistress of Louis XV of France. ... Bonaparte as general Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur...


The "Affair of the Diamond Necklace" has inspired two movies, the most recent being The Affair of the Necklace in 2001. Heavily-romanticised and with the facts distorted to favour the Countess, the film was panned by critics. Joely Richardson played Marie Antoinette, with Hilary Swank, Jonathan Pryce, Adrien Brody, Brian Cox and Christopher Walken also starring. The Affair of the Necklace is a 2001 film directed by Charles Shyer and starring Hilary Swank, Jonathan Pryce, Simon Baker, Adrien Brody, and Joely Richardson. ... Joely Richardson Joely Richardson (born January 9, 1965 in the U.K.) is a British actress, who was born into a theatrical family. ... Hilary Ann Swank (born July 30, 1974) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress. ... Jonathan Pryce as Sam Lowry in Brazil Jonathan Pryce born Jonathan Price (b. ... Adrien Brody (born April 14, 1973) is an Oscar-winning American actor. ... Brian Cox as Hannibal Lecter from Michael Manns Manhunter. ... Christopher Walken (born Ronald Walken on March 31, 1943) is an Academy Award-winning American film and theatre actor. ...


Ettore Scola's "La Nuit de Varennes" (1982) chronicles Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette's failed escape attempt. Ettore Scola (born May 10, 1931) is an Italian screenwriter and film director. ...


In 1989, the French historian André Castelot wrote the script for "L'Autrichienne" ("the Austrian", or as it was pronounced during the french revolution, "the Austrian Bitch") directed by Pierre Granier-Deferre. Starring German chanteuse Ute Lemper as Marie Antoinette, the entire script was based on the transcripts of the queen's trial in 1793. Ercole de Roberti: Concert, c. ... Ute Lemper (born July 4, 1963) is a German chanteuse and actress. ...


In 1995, James Ivory and his Merchant Ivory Films made Jefferson in Paris starring Nick Nolte. It is a story about Thomas Jefferson's stay in Paris as U.S. Minister to France just prior to the French Revolution. Marie Antoinette and King Louis are played by Charlotte de Turckheim and Michael Lonsdale respectively. James Francis Ivory (born June 7, 1928) is an award-winning American film director, best known for the results of his long collaboration with Merchant Ivory Productions, which included both Indian-born producer Ismail Merchant and screenwriter Ruth Prawer Jhabvala. ... Merchant Ivory Productions is a film company founded by director James Ivory and producer Ismail Merchant, best known for its period costume dramas. ... Jefferson in Paris is a 1995 movie about the US historical figure Thomas Jefferson before he becomes US President. ... Nick Nolte at Cannes, 2000 Nicholas King Nolte (born February 8, 1941) is an Oscar-nominated American model, actor, and producer. ... Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 N.S. – July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–1809), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and an influential founder of the United States. ...   City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région ÃŽle-de-France Département Paris (75) Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Mayor Bertrand Delanoë  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area... The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a pivotal period in the history of French, European and Western civilization. ... Charlotte de Turckheim is a French actress born in 5 April 1955, Paris, France. ... Michael Lonsdale (born May 24, 1931 in Paris) is a French actor perhaps best known for his role as Sir Hugo Drax in the 1979 James Bond film, Moonraker. ...

Kirsten Dunst as Marie Antoinette in Sofia Coppola's Marie Antoinette (2006)
Kirsten Dunst as Marie Antoinette in Sofia Coppola's Marie Antoinette (2006)

US director Sofia Coppola made a film adaptation of Antonia Fraser's biography of Marie Antoinette under the title Marie Antoinette. Filming commenced in early 2005, with some scenes being shot at Versailles. Kirsten Dunst starred as Marie Antoinette, with Jason Schwartzman playing Louis XVI, Asia Argento as Madame du Barry, Rip Torn as Louis XV and Marianne Faithfull playing Marie Antoinette's mother Empress Maria Theresa. The film premiered in Cannes 2006, to great applause and scattered boos from the audience. [1]. It was released on May 24, 2006 in France and on October 20, 2006 in the US. Image File history File links MarieAntoinette. ... Image File history File links MarieAntoinette. ... Kirsten[1] Caroline Dunst (born April 30, 1982) is an American actress and former child fashion model. ... Sofia Coppola Sofia Carmina Coppola (born May 14, 1971) is an American director, actress, producer, and Academy Award-winning screenwriter. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sofia Coppola Sofia Carmina Coppola (born May 14, 1971) is an American director, actress, producer, and Academy Award-winning screenwriter. ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... Marie Antoinette is a 2006 film written and directed by Sofia Coppola about the life of Marie Antoinette, the Austrian archduchess who married into the French royal family in 1770, but was imprisoned and beheaded when the monarchy was overthrown in the French Revolution twenty years later. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kirsten[1] Caroline Dunst (born April 30, 1982) is an American actress and former child fashion model. ... Jason Francesco Schwartzman (born June 26, 1980) is an American actor. ... Louis XVI of France Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Asia Anna Maria Argento (born 20 September 1975, Rome) is an Italian television and film actress and director. ... Madame du Barry [1] [2] (Marie-Jeanne, Countess du Barry) (August 19, 1743 - December 8, 1793) was a French courtesan who became the mistress of Louis XV of France. ... Rip Torn in Men in Black. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... Marianne Faithfull on the cover of her album A Secret Life Marian Evelyn Faithfull[1] (b. ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often only known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ...


Trivia

  • The city of Marietta, Ohio in the U.S. was named for her.
  • Marie Antoinette plays a major role in the 1979 Japanese anime "The Rose of Versailles." In the series, the queen is depicted as a naive, but likeable, character. The show is based on the manga of the same name written by Riyoko Ikeda. Both the anime and manga are critically acclaimed and highly revered works in their respective media.
  • Marie Antoinette is mentioned in the Queen song Killer Queen.
  • Marie Antoinette never saw the ocean in her life.
  • Marie Antoinette was born one day after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake
  • A very similar character called Antoinetta Marie appears in the Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion game. Her appearance is very similar to Kirsten Dunst's in the movie Marie Antoinette.
Preceded by:
Maria Leszczyńska
Queen of France
May 10, 1774September 21, 1792
Succeeded by:
Joséphine de Beauharnais (Empress of the French)

Marietta is a city located in Washington County, Ohio. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Riyoko Ikeda (池田 理代子 Ikeda Riyoko, born 1947) is a Japanese mangaka. ... Queen are a British rock band formed by Freddie Mercury, Brian May, and Roger Taylor in London, England in 1970 from the remains of Smile, with John Deacon completing the lineup the following year. ... Killer Queen is a song by the English rock band Queen. ... This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ... Noble Family Leszczyński Coat of Arms Wieniawa Parents Stanislaw Leszczyński Katarzyna Opalińska Consorts Louis XV of France Children with Louis XV of France Louise-Elisabeth Henriette-Anne Marie-Louise Louis (dauphin) Philippe Adélaïde Victoire-Louise Sophie-Philippine Thérèse-Félicité Louise-Marie Date... Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile at Reims in 1223; a miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France, painted in the 1450s, kept at the National Library of France The monarchs of France ruled, first as kings and later as emperors, from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Joséphine de Beauharnais, Empress of the French Joséphine de Beauharnais (June 23, 1763 – May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and became Empress of the French. ...

References

  1. ^ "Marie-Antoinette, or the Private Life of a Queen", by Mona Ozouf, pp.74-85 of L'Histoire, June 2006, n°310

LHistoire is a monthly mainstream French magazine dedicated to historical studies, recognized by peers as the most important historical popular magazine (as opposed to specifics university journals or less scientific popular historical magazines). ...

Further reading

  • Vincent Cronin, Louis and Antoinette (1974) ISBN 0-8095-9216-9
  • Stanley Loomis, The Fatal Friendship ISBN 0-931933-33-1 (discusses and analyzes the relationship between Marie Antoinette and Count Fersen with particular focus on the escape attempt)
  • Antonia Fraser, Marie Atoinette, The Journey (2001) ISBN 0-75381-305-X

The Royal Diaries- Marie Antoinette, Princess of Versailles:Austria-France, 1769 by Katheryn Lasky Vincent Cronin (born May 24, 1924 in Tredegar, Wales) is a British historical, cultural, and biographical writer whose works have been widely translated into European languages. ... Count Axel von Fersen, dressed in the robes of a Swedish Privy Councilor, with the Knights Commander chains of the Royal Orders of the Seraphim and that of the Sword around his neck. ... The Flight to Varennes (June 20-21, 1791) was a significant episode in the French Revolution during which the French royal family, faced with a decrease in royal authority, attempted unsuccessfully to escape abroad disguised as a Russian aristocratic family. ...


External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Marie Antoinette (939 words)
Marie Antoinette was one of the last acts of Choiseul's policy (see CHOISEUL); but the Dauphiness from the first shared the unpopularity attaching to the Franco-Austrian alliance.
Marie Antoinette's disdain of Madame du Barry, the mistress of Louis XV, was perhaps, from a political standpoint, a mistake, but it is an honourable evidence of the high
Marie Antoinette secretly negotiated with foreign powers for the king's safety; but when, on 27 August, 1791, Leopold of Austria and Frederick William of Prussia bound themselves, by the Declaration of Pillnitz, never to allow the new
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m