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Encyclopedia > Marie Alfred Cornu

Marie Alfred Cornu (March 6, 1841April 12, 1902) was a French physicist. 19th century photograph. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1902 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A physicist is a scientist trained in physics. ...


Cornu was born at Orléans, and after being educated at the École polytechnique and the École des mines, in 1867 he became professor of experimental physics in the former institution, where he remained throughout his life. Although he made various excursions into other branches of physical science, undertaking, for example, with Jean-Baptistin Baille about 1870 a repetition of Cavendish's experiment for determining the gravitational constant G, his original work was mainly concerned with optics and spectroscopy. In particular he carried out a classical redetermination of the speed of light by A. H. L. Fizeau's method (see Fizeau-Foucault Apparatus), introducing various improvements in the apparatus, which added greatly to the accuracy of the results. This achievement won for him, in 1878, the prix Lacaze and membership of the Academy of Sciences in France, and the Rumford Medal of the Royal Society in England. In 1899, at the jubilee commemoration of Sir George Stokes, he was Rede lecturer at Cambridge, his subject being the wave theory of light and its influence on modern physics; and on that occasion the honorary degree of D.Sc. was conferred on him by the university. He died at Paris on April 12, 1902. Orleans cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Cross, built from 1278 to 1329; the Protestants pillaged it in the 1560s; the Bourbon kings restored it in the 17th century. ... The cadets of Polytechnique rushed to the defense of Paris against the foreign armies in 1814. ... ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A professor is a senior teacher, lecturer and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Cavendish (October 10, 1731 - February 24, 1810) was a British scientist. ... According to the law of universal gravitation, the attractive force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ... See also list of optical topics. ... Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency. ... Cherenkov effect in a swimming pool nuclear reactor. ... Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau Physicist Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau (September 23, 1819-1896), French physicist, was born in Paris. ... The Fizeau-Foucault apparatus (1850) was designed by the French physicists Hippolyte Fizeau and Léon Foucault for measuring the speed of light. ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... Not to be confused with the Rumford Prize In 1796, Benjamin Thompson, known as Count Rumford, gave $5000 separately to the Royal Society of London and the other by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences to give awards every two years for outstanding scientific research on heat or light. ... The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge, known simply as the Royal Society, is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Lecturer is the name given to university teachers in most of the English-speaking world (but not at most universities in the US or Canada) who do not hold a professorship. ... The city of Cambridge is an old English university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire. ... Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye, or in a more general sense, any electromagnetic radiation in the range from infrared to ultraviolet. ... An Honorary degree (Latin: honoris causa ad gradum) is a degree awarded to someone by an institution that he or she may have never attended, it may be a bachelors, masters or doctorate degree - however, the latter is most common. ... Sc. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1902 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Cornu spiral, a graphical device for the computation of light intensities in Fresnel's model of near-field diffraction, is named after him. The spiral (or clothoid) is also used in geometrical road design. In mathematics and optics, the two Fresnel integrals, S(x) and C(x) arise in the description of near field Fresnel diffraction phenomena, and are the integrals defined as follows: . Some may use π t2/2 instead of t2, in which case the S(x) and C(x) above should... Augustin Fresnel Augustin-Jean Fresnel (pronounced [] in AmE, [] in French) (May 10, 1788 – July 14, 1827), was a French physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the wave theory of light and optics. ... Diffraction is the apparent bending and spreading of waves when they meet an obstruction. ... Highway engineering is the process of design and construction of efficient and safe highways and roads. ...


This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica. The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Marie Alfred Cornu - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (292 words)
Marie Alfred Cornu ( March 6, 1841 — April 12, 1902) was a French physicist.
Cornu was born at Orléans, and after being educated at the École polytechnique and the École des mines, in 1867 he became professor of experimental physics in the former institution, where he remained throughout his life.
The Cornu spiral, a graphical device for the computation of light intensities in Fresnel 's model of near-field diffraction, is named after him.
Search Encyclopedia.com (548 words)
Marie Antoinette Marie Antoinetteăntwenĕt´, äNtwänĕt´, 1755-93, queen of France, wife of King Louis XVI and daughter of Austrian Archduchess Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I. She was married in 1770 to the dauphin, who became king in 1774.
The daughter of Alfred, duke of Edinburgh and of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, she was the granddaughter of Czar Alexander II of Russia and of Queen Victoria of England.
Marie Caroline Marie Caroline, 1752-1814, queen of Naples, consort of Ferdinand IV (later Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies), daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa, and sister of Queen Marie Antoinette of France.
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