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Encyclopedia > Mariazell Basilica
Basilica Mariä Geburt, Mariazell
Basilica Mariä Geburt, Mariazell

The Mariazell Basilica (also the Basilica Mariä Geburt or in English the Basilica of the Birth of the Virgin Mary) is the most important pilgrimage destination in Austria and one of the most important in Europe. In the church, a miraculous wooden image of the Virgin Mary is honoured. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x1051, 296 KB) [edit] Summary photo taken by de:User:Papiermond in April 2005 Source: de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x1051, 296 KB) [edit] Summary photo taken by de:User:Papiermond in April 2005 Source: de. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Pilgrim at Mecca A pilgrimage is a term primarily used in religion and spirituality of a long journey or search of great moral significance. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept...

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Early History

The territory around Mariazell was given to the Monastery of St. Lambrecht around 1103, and the monks built cells there in order to serve the local residents. Legends give the town's founding day as December 21, 1157, but it is first documented in 1243. A Marian altar was dedicated there in 1266. Mariazell is a village of Austria, in Styria, well known for winter sports, 143 km N. of Graz. ... St. ... Events April 27 - Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, goes into exile after falling out with Henry I of England Amadeus III becomes Count of Savoy Bohemund I of Antioch is released from imprisonment among the Turks The Scandinavian city of Lund becomes a see within the Roman Catholic Church Births February... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... // Events Innocent IV was elected pope. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ...

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The Current Church Building

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The Basilica of the Mariä Geburt

Gothic Portal
Gothic Portal

In the fourteenth century, a gothic church stood at Mariazell with a 90 m high spire and an ogive portal. In 1420 and 1474, the church was destroyed by fire. The church building was later expanded and baroque-ified by Domenico Sciassia from 1644 to 1683. To the left and right of the gothic spire a baroque tower was built, the nave was lengthened and widened, and a dome was added on the eastern side. The high altar, consecrated in 1704, was designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1150, 507 KB) Description: Gothic main entrance of Mariazell basilica, Styria - Gotisches Hauptportal der Basilika von Mariazell, Steiermark own image - eigene Aufnahme, Jan. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1150, 507 KB) Description: Gothic main entrance of Mariazell basilica, Styria - Gotisches Hauptportal der Basilika von Mariazell, Steiermark own image - eigene Aufnahme, Jan. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Gothic architecture characterizes any of the styles of European architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, in use throughout Europe during the high and late medieval period, from the 12th century onwards. ... An ogive is a curved shape, figure, or feature. ... Events May 21 - Treaty of Troyes. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach (1656- 5 April 1723) was an Austrian architect in the Baroque period. ...

Gnadenkapelle
Gnadenkapelle

The twelve side chapels each contain a baroque altar. The plaster stucco work of the organ gallery and the 1737 organ console was created by the Viennese sculptor Johann Wagner in 1740. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x762, 348 KB) [edit] Summary photo taken by de:User:Papiermond in April 2005 Source: de. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x762, 348 KB) [edit] Summary photo taken by de:User:Papiermond in April 2005 Source: de. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ... The Viennese language is an East Central Austro-Bavarian dialect spoken mostly in the Austrian capital of Vienna. ... Johann Peter Alexander Wagner (26 February 17301–7 January 1809) was a German rococo sculptor. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ...


In front of the main entrance are two life-sized lead statues created by Balthasar Moll in 1757. To the left stands King Ludwig I of Hungary and to the right is Heinrich, Margrave of Moravia. 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Louis the Great. ... Vladislaus III Henry or Wladislaus III Henry (Czech: Vladislav JindÅ™ich; ? - August 12, 1222) was the son of Vladislav II, and younger brother of PÅ™emysl Otakar I. On June 22, 1197 he was elected Duke of Bohemia. ... Margrave is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... Moravia in relation to the current kraje of the Czech Republic Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava, German: ( ), Hungarian: Morvaország, Polish: Morawy) is a historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ...


In 1907, the pilgrimage church was elevated to a basilica minor. 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... St. ...


The basilica has been undergoing a general restoration since 1992, which is expected to be completed in 2007. 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 2007 (MMVII) will be a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Holy Image and Chapel

"Magna Mater Austriae"
"Magna Mater Austriae"

The older part of the building, built in 1690, contains the Gnadenkapelle. This chapel sits on the site of the first "cell" and holds a Late Romanesque miraculous image of the Virgin Mary - the "Magna Mater Austria" - a 48 cm tall statuette made of linden. Image File history File linksMetadata Mariazel_gnadenbild. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mariazel_gnadenbild. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Romanesque St. ... Linden is one of three English names for a genus of trees, Tilia, also known as lime and basswood. ...

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Pilgrimage Developemnet

Pilgrims were already making their way to the Marian sanctuary in the 12th century. Larger numbers of pilgrims are documented beginning around 1330, when a secular court imposed a "Zellfahrt" ('Zell journey) as atonement for its criminals. In the following years increasing numbers of pilgrims came from neighboring lands. After the Counter-Reformation, the Habsburgs made Mariazell a national sanctuary. However, in 1783, Emperor Joseph II dissolved the monastery in Mariazell, and in 1787, he completely banned pilgrimages there. After the early withdrawal of the restrictions, today around a million pilgrims visit Mariazell each year. In May 2004, the Central European Catholic Day (mitteleuropäische Katholikentag) took place there. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Legends

Mariazell Basilica
Mariazell Basilica

There are three basic legends about the founding of Mariazell and its development. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1125x1500, 407 KB) Description: Frontal view of Mariazell basilica, Styria - Frontalansicht der Basilika von Mariazell, Steiermark own image - eigene Aufnahme, Jan. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1125x1500, 407 KB) Description: Frontal view of Mariazell basilica, Styria - Frontalansicht der Basilika von Mariazell, Steiermark own image - eigene Aufnahme, Jan. ...


The legend of the towns founding says that in 1157, the St. Lambrecht Monk Magnus was sent to the area of the current town as a minister. When his way was blocked by a rock, he set down the Marian figurine he had brought with him, whereby the rock broke apart and left Magnus' way clear. On a nearby bank, he settled down, placed the figurine on a tree trunk, and built a cell out of wood, which served as both his chapel and his living quarters. Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury...


The second legend relates how Henry Margrave of Moravia and his wife, having been healed of severe gout through the help of Our Lady of Mariazell made a pilgrimage to that place around 1200. There they built the first stone church on the site of the wooden chapel. Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died...


The third legend recounts a victorious battle of the Hungarian King Ludwig I over a numerically superior Turkish army. Out of thanks he built the gothic church and endowed it with the "Schatzkammerbild" ("treasury image") that he saw laid upon his chest in a dream.

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References

  • The information in this article is based on a translation of its German equivalent.
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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • (German) Mariazell Basilica
  • (German) Central European Catholic Day (mitteleuropäischer Katholikentag)
  • (German) Turmratsche in Mariazell

 
 

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