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Encyclopedia > Mariano Azuela
Mariano Azuela
Mariano Azuela

Mariano Azuela González (January 1, 1873March 1, 1952) was a Mexican author and physician, best known for his fictional stories of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. He wrote novels, works for theatre and literary criticism. Image File history File links Mariano_Azuela_2. ... Image File history File links Mariano_Azuela_2. ... The name Mariano Azuela may refer to: Mariano Azuela González, (1873-1952) a prominent Mexican writer. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Many portions of this article are translations of excerpts from the article Revolución Mexicana in the Spanish Wikipedia. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Known as the "first of the novelists of the Revolution," Azuela wrote many pieces including the newspaper piece "Impressions of a Student" in 1896, the novel Andrés Pérez, maderista in 1911, and Los de abajo, (or The Underdogs), in 1915. 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Term of office: 6 November 1911 – 18 February 1913 Preceded by: Francisco León de la Barra (interim) Succeeded by: Pedro Lascuráin (interim) Date of birth: 30 October 1873 Place of birth: Parras, Coahuila Date of death: 22 February 1913 Place of death: Mexico City Profession: Businessman First Lady... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


During his days in the Mexican Revolution, Azuela wrote about the war and its impact on Mexico. He served under president Francisco I. Madero as chief of political affairs in Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco - his home town. After Madero's death, he joined the military forces of Julián Medina, a follower of Pancho Villa, where he served as a field doctor. He later was forced for a time to emigrate to El Paso, Texas. There he wrote Los de abajo, a first-hand description of combat during the Mexican revolution, based on his experiences in the field. In 1917 he moved to Mexico City where for the rest of his life he continued his writing and worked as a doctor among the poor. A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Many portions of this article are translations of excerpts from the article Revolución Mexicana in the Spanish Wikipedia. ... Term of office: 6 November 1911 – 18 February 1913 Preceded by: Francisco León de la Barra (interim) Succeeded by: Pedro Lascuráin (interim) Date of birth: 30 October 1873 Place of birth: Parras, Coahuila Date of death: 22 February 1913 Place of death: Mexico City Profession: Businessman First Lady... A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Doroteo Arango Arámbula (June 5, 1878 – July 23, 1923) — better known as Francisco Villa or, in its diminutive form, Pancho Villa — was one of the foremost leaders and best known generals of the Mexican Revolution, between 1911 and... A panoramic view of El Paso, Texas from the north. ... Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México, México D.F. or simply México, pronounced IPA: ) is the capital city of the nation of Mexico. ...


In 1942 he received the Mexican national prize for literature. On April 8, 1943 he became a founding member of Mexico's National College. In 1949 he received the Mexican national prize for Arts and Sciences. He died in Mexico City March 1, 1952 and was placed in a sepulchre of the Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres. 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... el ...

Contents

Los de abajo (The Underdogs)

Azuela's impact on Latin American letters revolves around Los de abajo (1915) which remains essential reading for a fuller understanding of Mexican society in the first decades of the 20th century. Written in the midst of the Mexican Revolution, the novel, although brief, points to the deeply rooted causes of the rebellion against the regime of Porfirio Díaz and foreshadows the eventual betrayal of the revolutionary impetus in the following decades. A graphical timeline is available here: Timeline of the Mexican Revolution Many portions of this article are translations of excerpts from the article Revolución Mexicana in the Spanish Wikipedia. ... José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori (15 September 1830 – 2 July 1915), Mexican war hero and President (later considered a dictator), ruled Mexico from 1876 until 1911 (with the exception of a four-year period). ...


The Mexican social and political context, 1910-1920

As in any society, there were the affluent and the poor, but in Mexico this distinction was very acute. Mariano Azuela depicts the Mexican Revolution of 1910 in a way that explains the country's social and political divide. Azuela points to two main main causes of the social and political turbulence between the popular classes and the economic elites. The first was the 1913 betrayal, overthrow, and murder of Mexican President Francisco Madero, an attempt by Porfirio Díaz to resume his forty-year dictatorship known as the Porfiriato. The second issue was land reform. 1 percent of the landowners controlled 97 percent of all agricultural land, and 92 percent of the rural population was landless. The people of Mexico wanted reform to improve their economic wellbeing, and were not going to allow the dictatorship of Díaz any longer. Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution (1917) would soon promise to force those who stole land from peasants during the Porfiriato to return that land, but the government largely failed to act on that promise. Francisco I. Madero González (30 October 1873 – 22 February 1913) was a revolutionary who served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. ... Land reform (also agrarian reform although that can have a broader meaning) is the government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of — i. ... This article is about the current Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. ... This article is about the current Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. ...


Social and individual dynamics in the Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution directly affects the social atmosphere in The Underdogs, and individualism and the struggle for subsistence guide most of the characters’ actions; however, a sense of community exists, and the characters are initially unified by a common ideal. This ambiguity reflects the chaos created by the war. The lack of an absolute reality is one reason why critics consider the novel postmodern. Andy Warhols iconic Marilyn Monroe // Postmodernism is an idea that has been extremely controversial and difficult to define among scholars, intellectuals, and historians, as it connotes to many the hotly debated idea that the modern historical period has passed. ...


Social dynamics change throughout the course of the novel. Most of the characters are poor peasants, and they become revolutionaries in part because of social stigmas; this helps creates a bond between them. As a community they try to change the corrupted structure of the government, but their individual wants ultimately conflict with their goal; some critics argue, however, that they never had a plan. The drive for personal gain and recognition causes the group to fail, and Azuela implies that their individual interest becomes similar to the government’s.


Social structure and class representation in The Underdogs

Throughout Los de Abajo the reader sees a steady decline in social order. What starts as a lower class uprising against the cruel Federales, becomes a free for all anarchy in which martial strength rules. This descent into chaos also highlights the class tensions between the ruling and peasant class. Those of the peasant class, like Demetrio, are frustrated from years of oppression at the hands of those in power. He and his men rose up against the injustices committed by those in government against the poor. The poor had no government representation and consequently there was nothing to stop others from taking advantage of them. The ruling elite class, represented by Cervantes, is largely ignorant and arrogant towards the lower classes. They see them as a lower species removed from their sophistication. It is only when the lower classes revolt and the former elite lose control that social conditions improve for those fighting. Yet, at the end the same people who were abused by the government now abuse their power, making themselves rich and damaging others. It is no longer an issue of equality but of greed.


Language hierarchy in The Underdogs

There are three major language levels in The Underdogs. The lowest in hierarchical order is a language strongly influenced by the indigenous culture. The majority of these words are modified by non-standard orthography, writing words phonetically and indicating that the speaker is not pronouncing words in their entirety; a tone of submission is also present. Camila and Doña Remigia are good representative of this stratum. Demetrio Macias and his men represent the next level, prosaic language roughly understood to be that of the Mexican macho. Every word seems to be elongated, which causes everything they say to sound more dramatic. The last and highest level in hierarchy is the highly sophisticated upper class language of Luis Cervantes. All three levels are dialectic derivatives of Spanish; as a result of these language differences, the characters sometimes experience difficulty when trying to communicate across the social hierarchy. The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. ... Look up Macho in Wiktionary, the free dictionary This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


The dehumanization of the revolutionary troops

In Los de Abajo the main character, Demetrio Macias, becomes the leader of a revolutionary band. The narrator, who utilizes various animal attributes to describe the revolutionaries, constantly dehumanizes their members. The names, actions, and behaviors of the members of the band are those of animals. Their behavior leads to the unnecessary abuse of the females within the troop. The female solely functions to procreate and serve the male, which is presented as the norm between animals. This same animal irrationality adopted by the troop explains the lack of a communal ideal, a goal. Once political disillusion sets in, these characters wonder around fighting with no purpose, only for the privilege of survival. These behaviors and irrationality explain the fall of the troop at the end of the book.


Partial list of works

  • María Luisa (1907).
  • Los fracasados (1908, The failures).
  • Mala yerba (1909, Weed).
  • Andrés Pérez, maderista (1911).
  • Los de abajo (1915, The Underdogs).
  • La malhora (1923, Evil Hour).
  • El desquite (1925, Recovery).
  • La luciérnaga (1932, The Firefly).
  • Cien años de novelas mexicanas (1947, One Hundred Years of the Mexican Novel).
  • Sendas perdidas (1949 Lost Paths).
  • La maldición (1955, posthumous, The Curse).
  • Esa sangre (1956, posthumous, That Blood).

Term of office: 6 November 1911 – 18 February 1913 Preceded by: Francisco León de la Barra (interim) Succeeded by: Pedro Lascuráin (interim) Date of birth: 30 October 1873 Place of birth: Parras, Coahuila Date of death: 22 February 1913 Place of death: Mexico City Profession: Businessman First Lady...

References

  • This article draws on the corresponding article in the Spanish-language Wikipedia, accessed 04:37, Nov 21, 2004 (UTC).
    • That appears to have been drawn largely from his official biography at the Colegio Nacional, México. Re-accessed Sept 9, 2005.

External links

  • Works by Mariano Azuela at Project Gutenberg
  • National College:Mariano Azuela (in Spanish)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Mariano Azuela - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (333 words)
Mariano Azuela González (January 1, 1873 – March 1, 1952) was a Mexican author and physician, best known for his fictional stories of the Mexican Revolution of 1910.
Known as the "first of the novelists of the Revolution," Azuela wrote many pieces including the newspaper piece "Impressions of a Student" in 1896, the novel Andrés Pérez, maderista in 1911, and Los de abajo, (or The Underdogs), in 1915.
During his days in the Mexican Revolution, Azuela wrote about the war and its impact on Mexico.
Mariano Azuela Güitrón - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (186 words)
Azuela Güitrón is the son of Mariano Azuela Rivera – who also served as a Minister of the Supreme Court (Associate Justice) – and María de los Dolores Güitrón Machaen; he is also the grandson of Mariano Azuela González, a prominent novelist of the Mexican Revolutionary period.
He graduated with a bachelor's degree in law from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in 1959 and has served as magistrate (1971 – 1983) and president (1981) of the Fiscal Tribunal of the Federation.
Azuela was a long-serving member of the faculty at the Ibero-American University in Mexico City, which he joined in 1963.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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