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Encyclopedia > Mariana Trench
Mariana Trench
Mariana Trench

The Mariana Trench (or Marianas Trench) is the deepest known submarine trench, with a maximum depth of about 11 km (6.8 mi), and the deepest location on the surface of the Earth's crust. It is located in the floor of the western North Pacific Ocean, to the east and south of the Mariana Islands, near Guam. Marianas Trench is a Canadian pop punk band from Vancouver, British Columbia signed to 604 Records. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (773 × 1000 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (773 × 1000 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Categories: Stub | Plate tectonics | Earth sciences | Landforms | Oceanic trenches ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels...


The trench forms the boundary between two tectonic plates, where the Pacific Plate is subducted beneath the Philippine Plate. The bottom of the trench is farther below sea level than Mount Everest is above it. At the bottom, the water column above exerts a pressure of 108.6 MPa, over one thousand times the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level. The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ...  The Philippine plate, shown in dull red The Philippine Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean to the east of the Philippines. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... “Everest” redirects here. ... A water column is a conceptual column of water from surface to bottom sediments. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure or stress (also: Youngs modulus and tensile strength). ... Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ...


Exploration

See also: Challenger Deep

The trench was first surveyed in 1951 by the Royal Navy vessel Challenger, which gave its name to the deepest part of the trench, the Challenger Deep.[1] Using echo sounding, the Challenger II measured a depth of 5 960 fathoms (10 900 metres, 35 760 ft) at 11°19′N, 142°15′E.[2] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... HMS Challenger was a survey ship of the United Kingdoms Royal Navy. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Illustration of echo sounding. ... A fathom is the name of a unit of length in the Imperial system (and the derived U.S. customary units). ...


In 1957, the Soviet vessel Vityaz reported a depth of 11 034 meters (36 200 ft), dubbed the Mariana Hollow.[citation needed] (Although this claim was made by the Soviets in 1957, the finding has not been repeated by subsequent mapping expeditions by more accurate and modern equipment. [3]) Soviet redirects here. ...

January 23, 1960: Trieste just before the dive
January 23, 1960: Trieste just before the dive

In an unprecedented dive, the United States Navy bathyscaphe Trieste reached the bottom at 1:06 p.m. on January 23, 1960, with U.S. Navy Lieutenant Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard on board.[1] Iron shot was used for ballast, with gasoline for buoyancy.[1] The onboard systems indicated a depth of 11 521 meters (37 799 ft), but this was later revised to 10 916 meters (35 813 ft).[citation needed] At the bottom, Walsh and Piccard were surprised to discover soles or flounder about 30 cm (1 ft) long,[4] as well as shrimp.[citation needed] According to Piccard, "The bottom appeared light and clear, a waste of firm diatomaceous ooze".[4] Download high resolution version (740x615, 77 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (740x615, 77 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USN redirects here. ... Typical internal arrangement A bathyscape, bathyscaphe, or bathyscaph is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea diving submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere suspended below a float (rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design) Bathyscaphe Trieste, before dive into Marianas Trench... The bathyscaphe Trieste Trieste was a Swiss designed deep-diving research bathyscaphe (deep boat) with a crew of two people, which reached a record-breaking depth of about 10,900 m (about 35,760 ft), in the deepest part of the oceans, the Challenger Deep, in 1960. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Don Walsh was a lieutenant in the United States Navy. ... Jacques Piccard (born July 28, 1922) is a Belgian explorer and engineer, known for having developed underwater vehicles for studying ocean currents. ... There are several types and uses of Iron shot Small round iron balls used as projectiles. ... Ballast is used in sailboats to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on the sail. ... “Petrol” redirects here. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... The soles are flatfishes of various families. ... Flounder or flukes are flatfish that live in ocean waters ie. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ...


In 1962, the M.V. Spencer F. Baird recorded a greatest depth of 10 915 meters (35 810 ft).[citation needed] In 1984, the Japanese sent the Takuyō (拓洋), a highly specialized survey vessel, to the Mariana Trench and collected data using a narrow, multi-beam echo sounder; they reported a maximum depth of 10 924 metres, also reported as 10 920 meters ± 10 meters).[2][5] The most accurate measurement on record was taken by a Japanese probe, Kaikō (かいこう), which descended unmanned to the bottom of the trench on March 24, 1995 and recorded a depth of 10 911 meters (35 798 ft).[6] Kaiko was a remote control Japanese deep-sea submarine that sampled bacteria from the ocean floor of the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, the deepest location in the world. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is planning to send its Nereus hybrid remotely operated vehicle (HROV) to explore the trench in 2007 or 2008.[7] The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers. ... Nereus is a hybrid autonomous underwater vehicle (HROV, a type of remotely operated vehicle) built by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). ...


See also

The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c The Mariana Trench - Exploration. marianatrench.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.
  2. ^ a b Ritchie, Steve. The deepest depths. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.
  3. ^ Yahoo! Answers - What is the deepest depth of the ocean that has ever been explored?. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  4. ^ a b National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) webpage. Section "1960 - Man at the Deepest Depth"
  5. ^ New Chief Hydrographer of Japan. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.
  6. ^ Japan Atlas: Japan Marine Science and Technology Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-04.
  7. ^ Vessels and vehicles of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Coordinates: 11°21′N, 142°12′E Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Marianas trench - Encyclopedia.com (1006 words)
The Marianas Trench is the deepest point on Earth.
occupation, with settlement of the Marianas at 4300 B.P. (Athens and...
Bombarding the Marianas: joint fires at the strategic, operational and tactical levels.
The Marianas Trench (547 words)
Nearby is the island of Guam, a U.S. Territory inhabited by natives identified as Chamorros.
The Marianas trench is sometimes called the 'Challenger Deep' because it was located and named after His Majesty's Ship 'Challenger' of the British Royal Navy in the 19th century.
The Marianas Trench, for example, marks where the fast-moving Pacific Plate converges against the slower moving Philippine Plate.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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