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Encyclopedia > Mariana Islands

The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Ladrones Islands, from Spanish Islas de los Ladrones meaning "Islands of Thieves") are an archipelago made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the north-western Pacific Ocean between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (809x1000, 70 KB) Mariana Islands Maps from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (809x1000, 70 KB) Mariana Islands Maps from http://www. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ...

Contents

Description

They are the southern part of a submerged mountain range that extends 1,565 miles (2,519 km) from Guam to near Japan. The Marianas are the northernmost islands of a larger island group called Micronesia, situated between 13° and 21° N. latitude and 144° and 146° E. longitude. The Himalaya as seen from the International Space Station A mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands or separated from other mountain ranges by passes or rivers. ...


The Marianas have a total land area of 389 square miles (1007 km²)[1] The total population in the early 20th century was 2500. They are composed of two administrative units:

It consists of two groups, a northern group of ten volcanic main islands, of which only four (Agrihan, Anatahan, Alamagan and Pagan) are inhabited; and a southern group of five coralline limestone islands (Rota, Guam, Aguijan, Tinian and Saipan), all inhabited save Aguijan. In the northern volcanic group a maximum elevation of about 2700 feet is reached; there are craters showing signs of activity, and earthquakes are not uncommon. Coral reefs fringe the coasts of the southern isles, which are of slight elevation. This article is about the various forms of the jurisdiction of the United States. ... Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aquijan Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean (15°10... Saipan, Tinian & Aguiguan The atom bomb pit on Tinians North Field, where Little Boy was loaded aboard the Enola Gay Tinian Shinto shrine. ... Rota Rota, also known as the peaceful island, is the southernmost island of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). ... In the terminology of the United States insular areas, a commonwealth is an organized territory that has established with the Federal Government a more highly developed relationship, usually embodied in a written mutual agreement. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anatahan is one of the most active volcanoes of the Northern Mariana Islands. ... Alamagan The Northern Marianas island of Alamagan is located 146 nautical miles north from Saipan and is 4. ... Pagan Island is an island of the Northern Mariana Islands chain, located at 18. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aquijan Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean (15°10...


All the islands except Farallon de Medinilla and Uracas or Farallon de Pajaros (in the northern group) are more or less densely wooded, and the vegetation is luxuriant, much resembling that of the Carolines, and also of the Philippines, whence many species of plants have been introduced. Owing to the moistness of the soil cryptogams are numerous, as are also most kinds of grasses. Coconut and areca palms, yams, sweet potatoes, manioc, coffee, cocoa, sugar, cotton, tobacco and mother-of-pearl are the chief products, and copra is the principal export. Agriculture is neglected, in spite of the exceptional advantages offered by the climate and soil. On most of the islands there is a plentiful supply of water. Farallon de Medinilla is the eleventh independent island in the Northern Mariana Islands chain. ... Farallon de Pajaros (from spanish Farallón de los pájaros, meaning Birds Rock), also known as Uracas (from Spanish Urracas, meaning Ravens), is the westernmost island in the Northern Mariana Islands chain. ... Farallon de Pajaros (from Spanish Farallón de los pájaros, meaning Birds Rock), also known as Urracas (from Spanish Urracas, meaning Magpies), is the westernmost island in the Northern Mariana Islands chain. ... The Caroline Islands should not be confused with Caroline Island, part of Kiribati (Southern Line Islands), also in the central Pacific. ... Cladonia sp. ... Species (Betel nut palm) and about 50 more Areca is a genus of about 50 species of single-stemmed palms in the family Arecaceae, found in humid tropical forests from Malaysia to the Solomon Islands. ... Copra drying in the sun Copra is the dried meat, or kernel, of the coconut. ...


The fauna of the Marianas, though inferior in number and variety, is similar in character to that of the Carolines, and certain species are indigenous to both colonies. Swine and oxen run wild, and are hunted when required: the former were known to the earliest inhabitants, the latter, along with most other domestic animals, were introduced by the Spaniards. The climate though damp is healthy, while the heat, being tempered by the trade winds, is milder than that of the Philippines; the variations of temperature are not great. The trade winds are a pattern of wind that are found in bands around the Earths equatorial region. ...


History

The first European to discover the island group was Ferdinand Magellan who on 6 March 1521 observed the two southernmost islands, sailed between them[2]. Magellan's crew called the islands Islas de los Ladrones. The common account for this naming is the supposed predilection of the natives for thieving, plundering Magellans ships the first they did. The islands are still occasionally called the Ladrones. Magellan himself styled them Islas de las Velas Latinas (Islands of the Lateen Sails ). San Lazarus archipelago, Jardines and Prazeres are among the names applied to them by later navigators. Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (66th in leap years). ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... A lateen (from Latin) is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. ... Lazarus raised from the grave by Jesus, painting by the Swedish artist Karl Isakson (c. ...


In 1667 Spain formally claimed them, established a regular colony there, and gave the islands the official title of Las Marianas in honor of Spanish Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of Philip IV of Spain. They then had a population of 40-60,000 inhabitants, but the Chamorros were almost exterminated by the diseases brought by the Spanish. A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Mariana of Austria, 1652, portrayed by Diego Velázquez Mariana or Maria-Anna of Austria (Vienna, 23 December 1634 - Madrid, 16 May 1696), daughter of Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III and Infanta Maria Ana of Spain, was the second wife of her maternal uncle Philip IV of Spain. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ...


The native population known to the early Spanish colonists as Chamorros has died out as a distinct people, though their descendants intermarried. At the Spanish occupation in 1668, the Chamorros were estimated at 40,000 to 60,000, but less than a century later only 1800 remained. They were characteristic Micronesians, with a considerable civilization. In the island of Tinian are some remarkable remains attributed to them, consisting of two rows of massive square stone columns, about 5 feet 4 inch broad and 14 feet high, with heavy-round capitals called latte stones. According to early Spanish accounts cinerary urns were found embedded in the capitals. The Chamorros are an indigenous people of Guam and the Mariana Islands. ... Saipan, Tinian & Aguiguan The atom bomb pit on Tinians North Field, where Little Boy was loaded aboard the Enola Gay Tinian Shinto shrine. ... A capital of the Composite order In Western architecture, the capital (from the Latin caput, head) forms the crowning member of the column, which projects on each side as it rises, in order to support the abacus and unite the square form of the latter with the circular shaft. ... Maya funerary urn For the computing term, see URN, for the student radio station URN see University Radio Nottingham. ...


Research in the archipelago was carried out by Commodore Anson, who in August 1742 landed upon the island of Tinian[3]. The Ladrones were visited by Byron in 1765, Wallis in 1767 and Crozet in 1772. George Anson, 1st Baron Anson (April 23, 1697 - 1762) was a British admiral and a wealthy aristocrat, noted for his circumnavigation of the globe. ... John Byron (November 8, 1723 – April 10, 1786) was a British vice-admiral. ... Samuel Wallis (c. ... Crozet may refer to: Crozet Islands, a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean, part of the French Southern Territories Crozet, a commune of the Ain département, in France Crozet, Virginia, a town in state of Virginia, the United States. ...


The Marianas remained a Spanish colony under the general government of the Philippines until 1898, when, as a result of the Spanish-American War, Spain ceded Guam to the United States. Governor-General of the Philippines was the title of the chief political executive during two pre-independence phases in the history of the Philippines, under Spanish and U.S. rule. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (only 432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties Unknown[1] The Spanish...


By Treaty of 12 February 1899, the remaining islands of the archipelago (except Guam, but with the Carolines and Pelew Islands) was sold by Spain to Germany for 837,500 German gold mark (about $4,100,000 at the time) to Germany and were incorporated to the German Protectorate of New Guinea; their total population around 1900 was only 2,646 inhabitants, the ten most northerly islands being actively volcanic and almost uninhabited. February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Caroline Islands should not be confused with Caroline Island, part of Kiribati (Southern Line Islands), also in the central Pacific. ... Anthem: Belau loba klisiich er a kelulul Capital Melekeok1 Largest city Koror Official languages English, Palauan, Japanese (in Angaur) Government Constitutional government in free association with the USA  - President Tommy Remengesau Independence from UN Trust Territory   - Date October 1, 1994  Area  - Total 459 km² (195th) 177 sq mi   - Water (%) negligible... German 20 Mark banknote from 1914 (www. ... Flag Capital Berlin Language(s) German (official), Austronesian languages, Papuan languages, German creoles Political structure Colony King List of German monarchs Historical era German colonization  - Colonization November 3, 1884  - Treaty of Versailles June 28, 1919 Currency Goldmark German New Guinea (Ger. ...


The Ally Japan began to occupy the islands in 1914. After Germany and the rest of the Central Powers lost World War I, the former German islands were entrusted by the League of Nations to Japanese control as a mandate territory (not unlike a UN Trust territory). European military alliances in 1915. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919-1920. ... League of Nations mandates were territories established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 28 June 1919. ...


The island chain saw fighting between the US and Japanese forces in 1944 during World War II. The United States wanted to capture the islands for use as a bombing base to raid the Japanese mainland. In the Pacific theater of World War II, the American Marianas Campaign, known as Operation Forager, pushed westward from the Marshall Islands in the summer of 1944 to capture the islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Once captured, the islands of Saipan and Tinian were used extensively by the United States military as they finally put mainland Japan within round-trip range of American bombers. In fact, both the Enola Gay and the Bockscar (which dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively) flew their missions from Tinian’s “North Field”. Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aquijan Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean (15°10... Saipan, Tinian & Aguiguan The atom bomb pit on Tinians North Field, where Little Boy was loaded aboard the Enola Gay Tinian Shinto shrine. ... Colonel Paul Tibbets waving from Enola Gays cockpit after the bombing of Hiroshima. ... Bockscar after its mission against Nagasaki. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


Ecclesiastical history

The Prefecture Apostolic of the Marianas was erected on 17 September 1902, by the Constitution "Quae mari sinico" of Pope Leo XIII. The islands had previously formed part of the Philippine Diocese of Cebu. By Decree of 18 June 1907 they were entrusted to the Capuchin Fathers of the Westphalian Province, to which order the first Prefect Apostolic, Very Rev. Paul von Kirchhausen (appointed August, 1907; residence in Saipan, Carolina Islands), belonged. There were two public schools, but accommodation was so inadequate that the boys attended in the morning and the girls in the evening. The instruction was given in English, and in addition to the usual elementary subjects, carpentry and other trades were taught. Two priests were stationed at Agana on Guam; one in each of the smaller settlements, Agat and Merizo. In addition to the churches at these places, there is a church at Samay and several little chapels in the mountains. A priest from Agana visited each month the colony where the lepers are segregated, to celebrate Mass and administer the sacraments. Catholicism was the sole—and remains the primary—religion. An apostolic prefecture is a particular church of the Roman Catholic Church for non-Catholic or missionary regions and countries which do not have a diocese yet. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Cebu Region: Central Visayas (Region VII) Capital: Cebu City Founded: April 7, 1521 and April 27, 1565 Population: 2000 census—3,356,137 (largest) Density—660 per km² (6th highest) Area: 5,088. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... An apostolic prefect is the missionary head of a particular church of the Roman Catholic Church, known as apostolic prefecture, in missionary regions and countries where no diocese is yet established. ... Agat is a village on the American island of Guam located on the west coast. ... Merizo is the southern most village of Guam, a U.S. territory. ... A leper colony or leprosarium is a place to quarantine people with leprosy from the rest of the population. ...


Sources and references

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
This article incorporates text from the public-domain Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913.
  • WorldStatesmen- Guam & Northern Marianas (not fully exploited)
  • Pascal Horst Lehne and Christoph Gäbler: Über die Marianen. Lehne-Verlag, Wohldorf in Germany 1972.
  • L. de Freycinet, Voyage autour du monde (Paris, 1826-1844)
  • The Marianas Islands in Nautical Magazsile, xxxiv., xxxv. (London, 1865-1866)
  • 0. Finsch, Karolinen und Marianen (Hamburg, 1900); Costenoble, Die Marianen in Globus, lxxxviii. (1905).
  1. ^ The CIA World Factbook (2006).
  2. ^ Peschel, O. (1877). Geschichte des Zei killers der Entdeckungen. 
  3. ^ George, Lord Anion (1748). Voyage round the World, book iii. 

Coordinates: 16°37′N, 145°37′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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