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Encyclopedia > Maria of Antioch

Maria of Antioch (1145-1182) was the daughter of Constance of Antioch and her first husband Raymond of Poitiers. Events Pope Lucius II is succeeded by Pope Eugene III Nur ad-Din ascends to power in Syria Construction begins on Notre-Dame dChartres in Chartres, France Korean historian Kim Pusik compiled the historical text Samguk Sagi. ... Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ... Constance of Antioch (1127-1163) was the ruler of the principality of Antioch (a crusader state) from 1130 to her death. ... Raymond of Poitiers (c. ...


In 1160 Maria's step-father, Constance's second husband Raynald of Chatillon, was taken prisoner by Maj ad-Din, the emir of Aleppo and an ally of Nur ad-Din. Her mother claimed the Principality of Antioch for herself, but the nobles supported her son, Maria's brother Bohemund III. Baldwin III set Bohemund up as prince and appointed as regent the rich and wordly Aimery of Limoges, Latin Patriarch of Antioch and an old opponent of Raynald. Constance protested this decision in Constantinople at the court of the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus, the nominal overlord of Antioch. Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynald or Reginald of Chastillon) (c. ... Old Town Aleppo viewed from the Citadel Aleppo is also the name of two townships in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... Bohemund III of Antioch (1144-1201), also know as the Stammerer, was ruler of the principality of Antioch (a crusader state) from 1163 to his death. ... Baldwin III (1130-1162) was king of Jerusalem from 1143-1162. ... The Latin Patriarch of Antioch was an office established in the aftermath of the First Crusade by Bohemund, the first Prince of Antioch. ... Map of Constantinople. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Fresco of Manuel I Manuel I Comnenus Megas (November 28, 1118? – September 24, 1180) was Byzantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. ...


At the end of 1159, Manuel's wife Empress Irene (originally named Bertha of Sulzbach) had died, and Manuel wanted to marry a princess from one of the Crusader states. John Contostephanus, the chief dragoman (interpreter) Theophylact, and the acolouthos of the Varangian Guard Basil Camateros were sent to Jerusalem to seek a new wife, and the two princesses Maria of Antioch and Melisende of Tripoli, daughter of Raymond II of Tripoli and Hodierna of Tripoli, were offered as candidates. Both were renowned for their beauty, but according to John Cinnamus Maria was the more beautiful of the two; the tall, blonde-haired princess clearly showed her Norman ancestry. Baldwin suggested Melisende, and her brother Raymond III of Tripoli set about gathering an enormous dowry, with gifts from Hodierna and Melisende's namesake, her aunt Queen Melisende. The ambassadors were not satisfied and delayed the marriage for over a year; they had apparently heard rumours concerning Hodierna's infidelity and therefore Melisende's legitimacy. Instead, Manuel chose Maria. Raymond was insulted and in retaliation attacked Cyprus. Bertha of Sulzbach (died 1159) was the first wife and Empress of Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus. ... The Crusader states, c. ... The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds), Greek Ιεροσόλυμα, is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... Raymond II of Tripoli (c. ... Hodierna of Tripoli (c. ... John Cinnamus (12th century) was a Byzantine historian. ... The Normans (adapted from the name Northmen or Norsemen) were a mixture of the indigenous people of France and the Viking invaders under the leadership of Hrolf Ganger, who adopted the French name Rollo and swore allegiance to the king of France (Charles the Simple). ... Raymond III of Tripoli (c. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... Melisende (1105 – September 11, 1161) was Queen of Jerusalem from 1131 to 1153. ...


Meanwhile, an imperial embassy led by Alexius Bryennius Comnenus and the prefect of Constantinople, John Camaterus, came to Antioch to negotiate the marriage. Maria embarked from the port of St. Simeon for Constantinople in September of 1161, and the marriage took place in Hagia Sophia on December 24. Three patriarchs performed the marriage: Luke Chrysoberges, Patriarch of Constantinople; Sophronius, Patriarch of Alexandria, and Athanasius, Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch. The marriage was celebrated with feasts, gifts to the church, and chariot races in the Hippodrome for the people. By this Antioch essentially became an imperial fief. The marriage also strengthened the position of her mother Constance, who now held the regency of Antioch. According to Nicetas Choniates, Maria To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hagia Sophia as it appears today A section of the original architecture of Hagia Sophia The Church of the Holy Wisdom, commonly known as Hagia Sophia in English, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in Istanbul (Constantinople). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria has the title Patriarch and Pope of Alexandria and all Africa. ... The Patriarch of Antioch is one of the Eastern Orthodox patriarchs, sometimes called the Greek Patriarch of Antioch to distinguish from the Oriental Orthodox Syrian Patriarch of Antioch. ... // Early chariot racing It is unknown exactly where chariot racing began, but it may have been as old as chariots themselves. ... The Hippodrome today The Hippodrome of Constantinople was a horse-racing track that was the sporting and social centre of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire and the largest city in Europe. ... Nicetas Choniates (c. ...

"...was like unto the laughter-loving, golden Aphrodite, the white-armed and ox-eyed Hera, the long-necked and beautiful ankled Laconian, whom the ancients deified for their beauty, and all the rest of the beauties whose good looks have been preserved in distinguished books and histories." For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hêra (World Book «HIHR uh») (Greek or ) was the wife and sister of Zeus. ... Helen () was the wife of Menelaus and reputed to be the most beautiful woman in the world; her abduction by Paris brought about the Trojan War. ...

Maria seems to have played some role in the political and diplomatic life of Constantinople. She could understand ambassadors from the west, and according to Choniates, she discovered the treachery of dragoman Aaron Isaakios, who told some western ambassadors not to give in to the emperor's demands. Manuel later had Isaakios blinded. In 1169 Maria gave birth to a son, the future emperor Alexius. Alexius II Comnenus (1167-1183), Byzantine emperor (1180-1183), was the son of emperor Manuel I Comnenus and Maria, daughter of Raymund, prince of Antioch, and was born at Constantinople on September 10, 1167. ...


After the death of Manuel in 1180 Maria officially became a nun with the name "Xena," but in reality she acted as regent for their son Alexius. Despite being a nun she had many ambitious suitors, but she chose another Alexius, the protosebastos and protovestiarios, nephew of Manuel and uncle of Maria Comnena, former queen of Jerusalem, as an advisor and lover, causing a scandal among the Greek population. As a Westerner who favoured the Italian merchants, Maria was opposed by the Greeks, and her regency was widely considered incompetent. The leaders of the opposition were Maria Porphyrogenita, Manuel and Bertha's daughter, and her husband Renier of Montferrat, though himself a fellow Latin. Maria Porphyrogenita considered herself the rightful heir, as the elder child of Manuel; she was almost as old as her step-mother Maria. Maria and Renier gained the support of the Patriarch and used Hagia Sophia as a base of operations. Alexius had the patriarch arrested, leading to open warfare on the streets of Constantinople. Maria Comnena (c. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... Maria Comnena (1149-1182) was the eldest daughter of the Emperor Manuel I Comnenus by his first wife, Bertha of Sulzbach. ... Renier of Montferrat (1162–1183) was the fifth son of William III of Montferrat. ... Hagia Sophia as it appears today A section of the original architecture of Hagia Sophia The Church of the Holy Wisdom, commonly known as Hagia Sophia in English, is a former Eastern Orthodox church converted to a mosque, now converted into a museum, in Istanbul (Constantinople). ...


Manuel's cousin Andronicus, who had been exiled during Manuel's reign, was invited back by Maria Porphyrogenita, and marched on Constantinople in 1182. He provoked the citizens into a massacre of the Latin inhabitants, mostly Venetian and Genoese merchants. After gaining control of the city, he had Maria Porphyrogenita and Renier poisoned, and then had Empress Maria arrested and imprisoned her in the monastery of St. Diomedes. The empress tried to seek help from her brother-in-law Bela III of Hungary, to no avail. Andronicus had Alexius II sign the order for her execution, and appointed his own son Manuel and the sebastos George to execute her, but they refused. Instead Maria was strangled to death by the hetairiarch Constantine Tripsychos and the eunuch Pterygeonites. Maria was then buried in an unmarked grave on a nearby beach. Andronicus had himself crowned co-emperor, but Alexius II was soon murdered as well, and Andronicus took full control of the empire. Sometime later Andronicus also defaced or destroyed all the images of Maria in Constantinople Billon trachy (a cup-shaped coin) of Andronicus I Comnenus (1183-1185) Andronicus I Comnenus (c. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) 45°26′N 12°19′E, the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice in Italy. ... Location within Italy Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes, German Genua, Spanish Génova, Galician Xénova) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Bela III of Hungary (Hungarian , Slovak: Belo III), born in 1148, was King of Hungary circa 1172_1196. ... A eunuch is an infertile human male whose testicles have either been removed (deliberately or by accident) or are otherwise non-functional. ...


Sources

  • Lynda Garland, Byzantine Empresses: Woman and Power in Byzantium, AD 527-1204. Routledge, 1999.
  • Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, Vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press, 1952.
  • Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press, 1997.
  • O City of Byzantium, Annals of Niketas Choniat─ôs, trans. Harry J. Magoulias. Wayne State University Press, 1984.
  • John Cinnamus, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, trans. Charles M. Brand. Columbia University Press, 1976.
  • William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. E. A. Babock and A. C. Krey. Columbia University Press, 1943.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Maria of Antioch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (941 words)
Maria of Antioch (1145-1182) was the daughter of Constance of Antioch and her first husband Raymond of Poitiers.
In 1160 Maria's step-father, Constance's second husband Raynald of Chatillon, was taken prisoner by Maj ad-Din, the emir of Aleppo and an ally of Nur ad-Din.
Maria embarked from the port of St. Simeon for Constantinople in September of 1161, and the marriage took place in Hagia Sophia on December 24.
Constance of Antioch - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (357 words)
Constance of Antioch (1127-1163) was the ruler of the principality of Antioch (a crusader state) from 1130 to her death.
She became princess of Antioch when she was only four-years-old, under the regency of Baldwin II of Jerusalem (1130-1131) and Fulk of Jerusalem (1131-1136).
Maria of Antioch (1145-1182), married (rechristened as "Xena") to Manuel I Comnenus
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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