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Encyclopedia > Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria
Holy Roman Empress (consort), Queen of Hungary, Bohemia, Croatia and Slavonia, Archduchess of Austria, Duchess of Parma and Piacenza, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Reign 20 October 1740-29 November 1780
Born 13 May 1717
Vienna
Died 29 November 1780
Vienna
Buried Imperial Crypt Vienna
Predecessor Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Successor Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor
Consort Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Issue Archduchess Maria Elisabeth
Archduchess Maria Anna
Archduchess Maria Caroline
Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II
Maria Christina
Archduchess Maria Elisabeth
Archduke Charles Joseph
Maria Amalia
Leopold
Archduchess Maria Caroline
Archduchess Maria Johanna Gabriela
Archduchess Maria Josepha
Maria Caroline
Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este
Marie Antoinette
Maximilian Francis
Royal House House of Habsburg-Lorraine
Father Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Bohemia and Hungary, Archduchess of Austria, (German: Maria Theresia, Hungarian: Mária Terézia, Romanian: Maria Tereza, Slovak: Mária Terézia, Czech: Marie Terezie; May 13, 1717November 29, 1780) was (reigning) Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia. Image File history File links Kaiserin_Maria_Theresia_(HRR). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... An ornament of the sarcophagus of Emperor Karl VI: a deaths head with the crown of the Holy Roman Empire Tomb of Franz Josef I, flanked by wife Elisabeth and son Rudolf. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Portrait of Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria Archduchess Maria Anna (October 6, 1738 – November 19, 1789) was the second and eldest surviving daughter of Emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa of Austria. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Archduchess Marie Christine of Austria, Duchess of Teschen Marie Christine Johanna Josephe Antonie of Austria (born Maria Christina Johanna Josepha Antonia) (3 May 1742 - 24 June 1798), (→Family Tree) called Mimi, was the fourth girl and fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Archduchess Maria Johanna Gabriela Josefa Antonia of Austria (15 February 1750 Vienna, Austria - 23 December 1762 Vienna, Austria). ... Archduchess Maria Josepha Gabriella Johana Antonia Ana of Austria (19 March 1751 Vienna, Austria) - (15 October 1767 Vienna, Austria). ... HM Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily Her Majesty Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily née Her Imperial & Royal Highness Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria (13 August 1752- 8 September 1814) was queen consort and de facto ruler of Naples from 1768 to 1799 and from 1799... Archduke Ferdinand Karl Anton Joseph Johann Stanislaus of Austria-Este (1 June 1754-24 December 1806), was the fourth son and fourteenth child of Franz I and Maria Theresa, became heir to the Duchies of Modena and Reggio through his marriage on 15 October 1771 to Beatrice dEste, the... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Maximilian Franz visits with his sister Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI. Painting by Josef Hauzinger Maximilian Franz (1756-1801) was the 16th and the last child of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was empress of the Holy Roman Empire and mother of Maria Theresa of Austria. ... Maria Theresia Isabella, queen consort of Naples and Sicily Archduchess Maria Theresa (Isabella) of Austria (31 July 1816, Vienna - 8 August 1867, Albano) was the second Queen consort of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a woman monarch possessing and exercising all of the monarchal powers of a king, in contrast with a queen consort, who is the wife of a reigning king, and in and of her... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ...


Maria Theresa was the oldest daughter of Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Emperor Charles VI, who promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction to allow her to succeed to the Habsburg monarchy. Opposition to her acceding to the throne led to the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740. After Emperor Charles VII, who claimed the throne, died in 1745, Maria Theresa obtained the imperial crown for her husband, Francis I. Though she was technically empress consort, Maria Theresa was the de facto ruler of the nation, and she began styling herself Holy Roman Empress in 1745. Maria Theresa had in fact already begun her rule in 1740 during the Austrian War of Succession. Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was empress of the Holy Roman Empire and mother of Maria Theresa of Austria. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... The Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a legal mechanism designed to ensure that the Austrian throne and Habsburg lands would be inherited by Emperor Charles VIs daughter, Maria Theresa. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... Etching of the Crown of the Holy Roman Empire by Johann Adam Delsenbach The Imperial Crown (in German: Reichskrone), is the crown of the Kings and Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


Maria Theresa helped initiate financial and educational reforms, promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, and reorganized the army, all of which strengthened Austria's resources. Continued conflict with the Kingdom of Prussia led to the Seven Years' War and later to the War of the Bavarian Succession. She became dowager empress after the death of Francis and accession of her son Joseph as emperor in 1765. Maria Theresa criticized many of Joseph's actions but agreed to the First Partition of Poland (1772). A key figure in the power politics of 18th century Europe, Maria Theresa brought unity to the Habsburg Monarchy and was considered one of its most capable rulers. Her 16 children also included Marie Antoinette, queen consort of France, and Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... The War of the Bavarian Succession was a war that occurred in 1778 and 1779. ... A dowager is a widow who holds a title or property, or Dower, derived from her deceased husband. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ...

Contents

Family life

Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was born in Vienna, the eldest daughter of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, whose sole male heir - his son Leopold Johann - died as an infant in 1716. In 1713 Charles issued the Pragmatic Sanction which guaranteed his daughter the right to succeed to the Austrian throne and inherit his united lands on his death. Initially, many Northern European monarchs agreed to the Pragmatic Sanction when it was issued. One of the few not to sign was Frederick the Great of Prussia who, soon after Maria Theresa assumed the throne upon Charles' death on October 20, 1740, began the War of Austrian Succession. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was empress of the Holy Roman Empire and mother of Maria Theresa of Austria. ... The Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a legal mechanism designed to ensure that the Austrian throne and Habsburg lands would be inherited by Emperor Charles VIs daughter, Maria Theresa. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748). ...

Maria Theresa as a child

Maria Theresa was married to Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor, Duke of Lorraine. She had 16 children by him. Their eleven daughters all had the first name "Maria" [1]). They also had five sons. The youngest daughter was Maria Antonia, better known under her French name, Marie Antoinette, who would be promised in marriage to the future King Louis XVI of France. Image File history File links Maria_Theresia_as_child. ... Image File history File links Maria_Theresia_as_child. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ...


After her husband's death, Maria Theresa's son, Joseph II, succeeded in the elective monarchy of the Holy Roman Empire, maintaining the imperial Crown in the Habsburg line, in accordance with tradition. Maria Theresa then made Joseph II co-regent of her Austrian dominions, but she actually kept most of the power to herself, which led to tension between her and her son. It was not until her death that Joseph could fully exercise his powers.


Her children were:

Maria Theresa with her family
Maria Theresa with her family

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An heir presumptive is one who is first in line to inherit a title or property, such as a monarchy, because there is not yet an heir apparent. ... Portrait of Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria Archduchess Maria Anna (October 6, 1738 – November 19, 1789) was the second and eldest surviving daughter of Emperor Francis I and Maria Theresa of Austria. ... An heir presumptive is one who is first in line to inherit a title or property, such as a monarchy, because there is not yet an heir apparent. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Maria Isabella painted by Jean-Marc Nattier Isabella Maria of Parma, (December 31, 1741 – November 27, 1763), was the daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma and his wife Louise-Elisabeth. ... Maria Josepha (Marie Josephe Antonie Walburga Felicitas Regula, 30 March 1679 - 28 May 1767), Princess of Bavaria, was the daughter of Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria and Maria Amalia of Austria. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Země koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... Archduchess Marie Christine of Austria, Duchess of Teschen Marie Christine Johanna Josephe Antonie of Austria (born Maria Christina Johanna Josepha Antonia) (3 May 1742 - 24 June 1798), (→Family Tree) called Mimi, was the fourth girl and fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Prince Albert Casimir August of Saxony, Duke of Teschen (11 July 1738 in the Moritzburg near Dresden - 10 February 1822 in Vienna) was a German art collector who married into the Habsburg imperial family. ... Maria Amalia of Austria, duchess of Parma, Plaisance and Guastalla Maria Amalia of Austria (Feb 26, 1746, Vienna - Jun 18, 1804, Prague). ... Ferdinand, Duke of Parma. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Maria Louisa(Spanish: Maria Luisa, German: Maria Ludovika) (24 November 1745 - 15 May 1792) was Empress consort to Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II. Maria Louisa was born in Portici, in Campania, the site of the summer palace of her parents, King Charles VII and Queen Maria Amalia of Naples and... Unofficial Medici Rulers of Florence, 1434_1531 Cosimo de Medici 1434_1464 Piero I de Medici 1464-1469 (The Gouty) Lorenzo I de Medici 1469-1492 (The Magnificent) Giuliano de Medici 1469-1478 Piero II de Medici 1492-1494 Republic restored 1494-1512 Cardinal Giovanni de Medici 1512_1513 Lorenzo II de Medici... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Země koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... Archduchess Maria Johanna Gabriela Josefa Antonia of Austria (15 February 1750 Vienna, Austria - 23 December 1762 Vienna, Austria). ... Archduchess Maria Josepha Gabriella Johana Antonia Ana of Austria (19 March 1751 Vienna, Austria) - (15 October 1767 Vienna, Austria). ... HM Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily Her Majesty Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily née Her Imperial & Royal Highness Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria (13 August 1752- 8 September 1814) was queen consort and de facto ruler of Naples from 1768 to 1799 and from 1799... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ... Archduke Ferdinand Karl Anton Joseph Johann Stanislaus of Austria-Este (1 June 1754-24 December 1806), was the fourth son and fourteenth child of Franz I and Maria Theresa, became heir to the Duchies of Modena and Reggio through his marriage on 15 October 1771 to Beatrice dEste, the... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Austria-Este is now the surname, and a sort of title, which purports to continue the tradition of the extinguished Italian princely and feudal family of Este, as well as their Duchy of Modena. ... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Maximilian Franz visits with his sister Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI. Painting by Josef Hauzinger Maximilian Franz (1756-1801) was the 16th and the last child of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Archbishopric of Cologne was one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ...

Reign

Early years

"The world's most famous coin," a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780. The Latin inscription is M[ARIA] THERESIA D[EI] G[RATIA] R[OMANORVM] IMP[ERATRIX] HV[NGARIAE] BO[HEMIAE] REG[INA], or in English, "Maria Theresa, by the Grace of God, Empress of the Romans, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia."
"The world's most famous coin," a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780. The Latin inscription is M[ARIA] THERESIA D[EI] G[RATIA] R[OMANORVM] IMP[ERATRIX] HV[NGARIAE] BO[HEMIAE] REG[INA], or in English, "Maria Theresa, by the Grace of God, Empress of the Romans, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia."

Maria Theresa's father had not given her any training in government, leaving her to learn for herself. Additionally, the army was weak and the treasury depleted as a result of two wars near the end of her father's reign. The War of the Austrian Succession began when Frederick II of Prussia invaded and occupied Silesia. While Bavaria and France also invaded Austria's western territories, it was "Frederick the Great" who became Maria Theresa's primary foe during her reign. Therefore, she focused her internal and external policies towards the defeat of Prussia, which would help her regain the lands which had been taken from Austria. In the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), France gave the Austrian Netherlands that it conquered back to Maria Theresa. In exchange, Maria Theresa ceded Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla to the Infante Philip of Spain. By giving up these lands, Maria Theresa revealed her vulnerability. After having been defeated in the First and Second Silesian Wars, Maria Theresa began to modernize her realms with the assistance of Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Haugwitz. Defeat, however, reduced her morale and effectiveness as a ruler.[citation needed] She increased the size of the army by 200% and increased taxes in order to guarantee a steady income for the government, and in particular for the military. She centralized the government by combining the Austrian and Bohemian chancellaries, formerly separate, into one administrative office. Before these changes, justice and administration had been overseen by the same officials- afterwards, she created a supreme court with the sole responsibility of upholding justice in her lands. These reforms strengthened the economy and the state in general. Image File history File links MariaTheresa2. ... Image File history File links MariaTheresa2. ... Combatants Prussia France Spain Bavaria Naples and Sicily Sweden (1741 — 1743) Austria Great Britain Hanover Dutch Republic Saxony Kingdom of Sardinia Russia Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Charles Emil Lewenhaupt Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Ślůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The second Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) of 1748 ended the War of the Austrian Succession. ... The Southern Netherlands were a part of the Low Countries controlled by Spain (Spanish Netherlands, 1579-1713), Austria (Austrian Netherlands, 1713-1794) and France (1794-1815). ... The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered around the city of Parma. ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... Guastalla is a town and commune in the province of Reggio Emilia in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Philip of Bourbon, Duke of Parma (March 15, 1720–July 18, 1765) was duke of Parma from 1748 to 1765. ... The Silesian Wars were a series of wars between Prussia and Austria (and their changing allies) for control of Silesia. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Haugwitz (1700-1765) was Supreme Chancellor of the United Court Chancery and the head of Directorium in publicis et cameralibus under Maria Theresa of Austria. ...


Maria Theresa, like the other Habsburgs, was a devout Roman Catholic. She was educated by Jesuits at Mariazell, and in later life lacked the religious cynicism of royal contemporaries such as Frederick II of Prussia. Her conservative outlook involved an intolerant view of other faiths. In 1741, she expelled the Jews from Prague. Her political distrust of Great Britain rested in part on her view of the established Church of England, whom she regarded as Protestant heretics. “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Mariazell is a small city in Austria, in Styria, well known for winter sports, 143 km N. of Graz. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Look up Heretic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Maria Theresa dropped Great Britain as an ally on the advice of her state chancellor, Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz, and allied with Russia and France. She established the Theresian Military Academy (the first worldwide) in 1752 and an academy of engineering science in 1754. She also demanded that the University of Vienna be given money to make the medical faculty more efficient. When she felt her army was strong enough, she prepared an attack on Prussia in 1756. However, it was Frederick II who attacked first, invading Saxony, another ally of Austria, thus initiating the Seven Years' War. The war ended in 1763 when Maria Theresa signed the Treaty of Hubertusburg, recognizing Prussian ownership of most of Silesia. Wenzel Anton Graf (Count) von Kaunitz-Rietberg (February 2, 1711 - June 27, 1794), born into Germanized Moravian family, was an Austrian statesman. ... The Theresian Military Academy is an academy, where the Austrian Armed Forces trains its officers. ... The University of Vienna (German: ) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... The Treaty of Hubertusburg, signed on 15 February 1763, together with the Treaty of Paris signed on 10 February 1763, marked the end of the French and Indian War and of the Seven Years War. ...

Maria Theresa I of Austria
Maria Theresa I of Austria

Her husband Francis died two years later. Maria Theresa's devotion to him was so great that she dressed in mourning until her own death 15 years later. During this time, she became more closeted from her people. Her focus changed from attempting to regain Silesia to maintaining the peace. She also recognized Joseph II, her eldest son, as coregent and Emperor. However, she allowed him only limited powers because she felt that he was too rash and arrogant. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Later years: civil reforms

In the 1760s, smallpox claimed several victims in the royal family. Maria Theresa was infected and received last rites in 1767, although she recovered. Afterward, Maria Theresa became a strong supporter of inoculation (a predecessor immunisation method to smallpox vaccination), setting a strong example by requiring all of her children to be inoculated. The Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and some Protestant churches. ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Immunization (AmE) or Immunisation (BE) has a number of meanings: In medicine immunization is the process by which an individual is exposed to a material that is designed to prime his or her immune system against that material. ... Smallpox vacinne being administered. ...


In the later years of her reign, Maria Theresa focused on reforming laws along the lines of enlightened absolutism, especially to strengthen the economy of the Habsburg territories, especially after the loss of Silesia. enlightened desportism is the act when a prist lies in order to become better in the eyes of the churchEnlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ...


In 1771, she and Joseph II issued the Robot Patent, a reform that regulated a serf's labor payments in her lands, which provided some relief. Other important reforms included outlawing witch-burning and torture, and, for the first time in Austrian history, taking capital punishment off the penal code, as it was replaced with forced labor. It was later reintroduced, but the progressive nature of these reforms remains noted. In 1772 Maria Theresa founded the Imperial and Royal Academy of Science and Literature in Brussels. Mandatory education was introduced in 1774; the goal was to form an educated class from which civil servants could be recruited. The Robot Patent was a labour rent abolished by Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor who had carried out a register of all land with a division between peasant and noble holdings. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Another installation of Maria Theresa's was a decency police which was to patrol everywhere, especially Vienna, and apprehend anyone suspected of doing something that could be deemed indecent (possibly due to her husband's supposed infidelity). Arrested prostitutes, for example, would be sent into villages in the eastern parts of the realm, leading some contemporary writers to note that these villages had 'exceptionally beautiful women' living there. For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


Maria Theresa died in Vienna in 1780, the only female to rule during the 650-year-long Habsburg dynasty. She is buried in tomb number 56 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. Her son Joseph II succeeded her. She was a very strongwilled woman and was a leader of all sorts. She was generous and kind to animals, and she is remembered with affection for her good ruling. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... An ornament of the sarcophagus of Emperor Karl VI: a deaths head with the crown of the Holy Roman Empire Tomb of Franz Josef I, flanked by wife Elisabeth and son Rudolf. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ...


Titles from birth to death

Austrian Royalty
House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Maria Theresa & Francis I
Children include
   Joseph II
   Archduchess Maria Christina
   Archduchess Marie Amalie
   Leopold II
   Archduchess Marie Caroline
   Archduke Ferdinand
   Archduchess Marie Antoinette
   Archduke Maximilian
Grandchildren include
   Francis IV of Modena
   Archduke Ferdinand Karl
Joseph II
Leopold II
Children include
   Archduchess Maria Theresia
   Francis II
   Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany
   Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen
   Archduke Alexander Leopold
   Archduke Joseph, Palatine of Hungary
   Archduke Johann
   Archduke Rainer
   Archduke Louis
   Archduke Rudolph
Grandchildren include
   Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany
   Archduchess Maria Theresa
   Archduke Albert, Duke of Teschen
   Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska
Francis II

Maria Theresa was actually proclaimed King, rather than Queen, of Hungary upon her ascension to the Hungarian throne. Normally, however, she was styled Queen of Hungary. Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Francis I Silver coin of Francis I, dated 1754. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Archduchess Marie Christine of Austria, Duchess of Teschen Marie Christine Johanna Josephe Antonie of Austria (born Maria Christina Johanna Josepha Antonia) (3 May 1742 - 24 June 1798), (→Family Tree) called Mimi, was the fourth girl and fifth child of Maria Theresa of Austria and Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Maria Amalia of Austria, duchess of Parma, Plaisance and Guastalla Maria Amalia of Austria (Feb 26, 1746, Vienna - Jun 18, 1804, Prague). ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... HM Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily Her Majesty Queen Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily née Her Imperial & Royal Highness Archduchess Marie Caroline of Austria (13 August 1752- 8 September 1814) was queen consort and de facto ruler of Naples from 1768 to 1799 and from 1799... Archduke Ferdinand Karl Anton Joseph Johann Stanislaus of Austria-Este (1 June 1754-24 December 1806), was the fourth son and fourteenth child of Franz I and Maria Theresa, became heir to the Duchies of Modena and Reggio through his marriage on 15 October 1771 to Beatrice dEste, the... Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France and Archduchess of Austria (born November 1755 – executed 16 October 1793) Daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XVI and mother of Louis XVII. She was guillotined at the height of the French Revolution. ... Maximilian Franz visits with his sister Marie Antoinette and King Louis XVI. Painting by Josef Hauzinger Maximilian Franz (1756-1801) was the 16th and the last child of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria and her husband, Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Francis IV of Modena with the Austrian Golden Fleece. ... Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este (April 25, 1781-November 5, 1850) was the third son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and of his wife Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda dEste, last member and heiress of the house of Este. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Archduchess Maria Theresia Josepha Charlotte Johanna of Austria (January 14, 1767 - November 7, 1827) was the second wife of King Anthony Clement of Saxony. ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... Archduke Charles of Austria, Duke of Teschen (de: Erzherzog Karl von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen, also known as Karl von Österreich-Teschen) (September 5, 1771–April 30, 1847) was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747–1792) and his wife Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (1745–1792). ... Archduke Alexander Leopold of Austria (born Alexander Leopold Johann Joseph August 14, 1772 in Florence, Italy; died Laxenburg, Austria July 12, 1795) was the fourth son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Maria Louisa of Spain. ... Archduke Joseph c. ... Archduke Johann (or John) of Austria (January 20, 1782 - May 11, 1859) was the 13th child of Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, who later became Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Rainer Joseph Johann Michael Franz Hieronymus, Archduke of Austria (Pisa 30 September 1783 - Bolzano 16 January 1853), son of Emperor Leopold II. Married at Prague on 28 May 1820 Princess Elisabeth of Savoy-Carignano (Paris 13 April 1800 - Bozen 25 December 1856). ... Archduke Louis Joseph Anton Johann of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia and Tuscany (born 13 December 1784 at Florence, Italy – died 21 December 1864 at Vienna, Austria) was the 15th son of Emperor Leopold II of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Grand Duke of Tuscany and... Erzherzog Rudolph of Austria, Fürsterzbischof von Olmütz. ... Portrait of Leopold II Leopold II (October 3, 1797 – January 29, 1870), of Habsburg-Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Prince Imperial and Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia. ... Maria Theresia Isabella, queen consort of Naples and Sicily Archduchess Maria Theresa (Isabella) of Austria (31 July 1816, Vienna - 8 August 1867, Albano) was the second Queen consort of Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies. ... Albrecht Friedrich Rudolf, Prince Imperial and Archduke of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia, Duke of Teschen (born August 3, 1817 in Vienna; died February 2, 1895, Arco (Italy) was an Austrian Habsburg general. ... Elisabeth Franziska Maria, Archduchess of Austria, Princess of Hungary and Bohemia (17 January 1831 - 14 February 1903). ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Her title after the death of her husband:


Maria Theresa, by the Grace of God, Dowager Holy Roman Empress; Queen of Hungary, of Bohemia, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, of Slavonia, of Galicia, of Lodomeria, etc; Archduchess of Austria; Duchess of Burgundy, of Styria, of Carinthia and of Carniola; Grand Princess of Transylvania; Margravine of Moravia; Duchess of Brabant, of Limburg, of Luxemburg, of Guelders, of Württemberg, of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Milan, of Mantua, of Parma, of Piacenza, of Guastalla, of Auschwitz and of Zator; Princess of Swabia; Princely Countess of Habsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, of Hennegau, of Kyburg, of Gorizia and of Gradisca; Margravine of Burgau, of Upper and Lower Lusatia; Countess of Namur; Lady on the Wendish Mark and of Mechlin; Dowager Duchess of Lorraine and Bar, Dowager Grand Duchess of Tuscany.


Maria Theresia von Gottes Gnaden Römische Kaiserin Wittib, Königin zu Hungarn, Böheim, Dalmatien, Croatien, Slavonien, Gallizien, Lodomerien, usw. usw., Erzherzogin zu Österreich, Herzogin zu Burgund, zu Steyer, zu Kärnten und zu Crain, Großfürstin zu Siebenbürgen, Marggräfin zu Mähren, Herzogin zu Braband, zu Limburg, zu Luxenburg und zu Geldern, zu Württemberg, zu Ober- und Nieder-Schlesien, zu Mailand, zu Mantua, zu Parma, zu Piacenza, zu Guastala, zu Auschwitz und Zator, Fürstin zu Schwaben, gefürstete Gräfin zu Habsburg, zu Flandern, zu Tirol, zu Hennegau, zu Kyburg, zu Görz und zu Gradisca, Marggräfin des Heiligen Römischen Reiches, zu Burgau, zu Ober- und Nieder-Laußnitz, Gräfin zu Namur, Frau auf der Windischen Mark und zu Mecheln, verwittibte Herzogin zu Lothringen und Baar, Großherzogin zu Toskana.


Names in other languages

“Hebrew” redirects here. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...

Ancestry

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
8. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9. Maria Anna of Spain
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10. Philip William, Elector Palatine
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5. Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
11. Landgravine Elisabeth Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Maria Theresa of Austria
Queen of Hungary & Bohemia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
12. Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6. Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13. Duchess Elisabeth Juliana of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3. Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14. Albert Ernest I, Prince of Oettingen-Oettingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
7. Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
15. Duchess Christine Friederike of Württemberg
 
 
 
 
 
 

Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Maria Anna (18 August 1606 – 13 May 1646), also known as Maria Anna of Austria, Infanta of Spain, was the youngest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... Philip William (German: ) of Neuburg, Elector Palatine (24 November 1615 – 2 September 1690), was Count Palatine of Neuburg from 1653 to 1690, Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1653 to 1679 and Elector of the Palatinate from 1685 to 1690. ... Eleonore-Magdalena of Neuburg or Eleonore of Pfalz-Neuburg (January 6, 1655, Düsseldorf - January 19, 1720, Vienna) was empress of Austria as wife of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Elisabeth Amalie von Hessen-Darmstadt (Giessen, March 20, 1635 – Neuburg an der Donau, August 4, 1709) was a princess of Hesse-Darmstadt and wife of the Prince-elector of the Palatinate. ... Anthony Ulrich of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, Portrait by Bernhard Francke Anthony Ulrich (German: Anton Ulrich; 4 October 1633, Hitzacker – 27 March 1714, Salzdahlum) was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruled over the Wolfenbüttel subdivision of the duchy from 1685 until 1702 jointly with his brother, and solely from... Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Louis Rudolph (German Ludwig Rudolf; 22 July 1671 – 1 March 1735), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruled over the Wolfenbüttel subdivision of the duchy from 1731 until his death. ... Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was empress of the Holy Roman Empire and mother of Maria Theresa of Austria. ... Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen (Oettingen, March 20, 1671 - Blankenberg September 3, 1747) was Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the maternal grandmother of Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria. ...

Media portrayals

Marianne Faithfull portrayed Maria Theresa in the 2006 film Marie Antoinette. Marianne Faithfull (born 29 December 1946) is an English singer and actress whose career spans over four decades. ... Marie Antoinette is an Academy Award-winning 2006 film written and directed by Sofia Coppola about the life of Marie Antoinette, Queen of France. ...

Maria Theresa of Austria
Born: 13 May 1717 Died: 29 November 1780
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Maria Amalia of Austria
Holy Roman Empress
17451765
Succeeded by
Maria Josepha of Bavaria
German Queen
1745-1764
Preceded by
Charles VI
Duchess regnant of Parma and Piacenza
1741-1748
Succeeded by
Philip, Duke of Parma
Archduchess regnant of Austria
1740-1780
Succeeded by
Joseph II
Queen regnant of Hungary, Queen regnant of Croatia and Slavonia
1741-1780
Preceded by
Charles VII
Queen regnant of Bohemia
1743–1780 (claimed throne since 1741)
Preceded by
Anna Maria Franziska
Grand Duchess consort of Tuscany Succeeded by
Maria Louisa of Spain
Preceded by
Charles
Count of Flanders
1740-1780
Succeeded by
Joseph

Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Marie Amelie in Hunting Dress Marie Amalie or Maria Amalia, Archduchess of Austria (October 22, 1701 - December 11, 1756) was the daughter of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and Wilhelmina Amalia, daughter of Duke Frederick of Brunswick-Lüneburg. ... Empress Marguerite (1311–1356), Countess of Hainaut and Holland. ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Maria Josepha (Marie Josephe Antonie Walburga Felicitas Regula, 30 March 1679 - 28 May 1767), Princess of Bavaria, was the daughter of Charles Albert, Elector of Bavaria and Maria Amalia of Austria. ... Empress Marguerite (1311–1356), Countess of Hainaut and Holland. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... The Duchy of Parma was a small Italian state between 1545 and 1802, and again from 1814 to 1860. ... Philip of Bourbon, Duke of Parma (March 15, 1720–July 18, 1765) was duke of Parma from 1748 to 1765. ... This is a list of margraves, dukes, archdukes, and emperors of Austria. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... // The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII Emperor Charles VII Albert (Brussels August 6, 1697 – January 20, 1745 in Munich), a member of the Wittelsbach family, was Prince-elector of Bavaria from 1726 and Holy Roman Emperor from January 24, 1742 until his death in 1745. ... The Lands of the Bohemian Crown (Czech Země koruny české, Latin Corona regni Bohemiae) (e. ... Unofficial Medici Rulers of Florence, 1434_1531 Cosimo de Medici 1434_1464 Piero I de Medici 1464-1469 (The Gouty) Lorenzo I de Medici 1469-1492 (The Magnificent) Giuliano de Medici 1469-1478 Piero II de Medici 1492-1494 Republic restored 1494-1512 Cardinal Giovanni de Medici 1512_1513 Lorenzo II de Medici... Maria Louisa(Spanish: Maria Luisa, German: Maria Ludovika) (24 November 1745 - 15 May 1792) was Empress consort to Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II. Maria Louisa was born in Portici, in Campania, the site of the summer palace of her parents, King Charles VII and Queen Maria Amalia of Naples and... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... The counts of Flanders ruled over the county of Flanders from the 9th century. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Maria Theresa of Austria
  • Entry in aeiou.at
  • Baroque Absolutism Country Studies - Austria
  • Book by M. Goldsmith (1936) about Maria Theresia (eLibrary Austria Project - eLib at)
Persondata
NAME Maria Theresa
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Holy Roman Empress consort
DATE OF BIRTH May 13, 1717
PLACE OF BIRTH Vienna
DATE OF DEATH November 29, 1780
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Maria Theresa of Austria (782 words)
Maria Theresa (German: Maria Theresia) (May 13, 1717 - 1780) was a Habsburg and Holy Roman Empress, Archduchess of Austria and the Queen of Hungary and Bohemia from 1740 to 1780.
At the time, Maria Theresa was married to Francis Stephen of Lorraine with whom she had sixteen children, the youngest daughter of the sixteen was Marie Antoinette who would be promised in marriage to Louis, the Dauphin of France who would become King Louis XVI.
Maria Theresa's fame has been considerably extended by the Maria Theresa Thaler coin, which has been used in world trade continuously since it was first minted in 1782.
Maria Theresa of Austria Summary (3209 words)
Maria Theresa (1717-1780) was Holy Roman empress from 1740 to 1780.
Her Royal Highness Maria Theresa, Archduchess of Austria, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia was the eldest daughter of Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Charles VI, whose sole male heir - his son Leopold Johann - died as an infant in 1716.
Maria Theresa was married to Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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