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Encyclopedia > Marguerite de Navarre
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Marguerite of Navarre
Born 11 April 1492
Angoulême, France
Died 21 December 1549
Odos, France
French Literature

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Marguerite of Navarre (April 11, 1492 - December 21, 1549), also known as Marguerite of Angouleme and Margaret of Navarre, was the queen consort of King Henry II of Navarre. As patron of humanists and reformers, and as an author in her own right, she was an outstanding figure of the French Renaissance. Samuel Putnam called her "The First Modern Woman". Jump to: navigation, search April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search Events January 2 - Boabdil, the last Moorish King of Granada, surrenders his city to the army of Ferdinand and Isabella after a lengthy siege. ... Jump to: navigation, search December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... Henry II (1503 - May 25, 1555), titular King of Navarre, was the eldest son of Jean dAlbret (d. ... Jump to: navigation, search By region Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance French Renaissance German Renaissance English Renaissance The Renaissance, also known as Il Rinascimento (in Italian), was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ...


Marguerite's father, Charles of Orléans, Count of Angoulême, was a direct descendant of Charles V, and a claimant to the crown, if both Charles VIII of France and the presumptive heir, Louis, Duke of Orléans, failed to produce male offspring. In 1491, Charles married 15-year-old Louise of Savoy, daughter of Marguerite of Bourbon, sister of the Duke of Beaujeu—considered one of the most brilliant feminine minds in France. Louise named her first-born "Marguerite" after her maternal grandmother, Marguerite of Bourbon. Angouleme (Angoumois) in western France was part of the Carolingian empire as the kingdom of Aquitaine. ... Charles V the Wise (French: Charles V le Sage) (January 31, 1338 – September 16, 1380) was king of France (1364 to 1380) and a member of the Valois Dynasty. ... Jump to: navigation, search Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ...


Two years after Marguerite's birth, the family moved from Angoulême to Cognac, "where the Italian influence reigned supreme, and where Boccaccio was looked upon as a little less than a god". Marguerite's brother, Francis—to become King Francis I of France—was born there on September 12, 1494. Jump to: navigation, search Francis I (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – July 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (French: le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ...


Thanks to her mother Louise, Marguerite's mind was tutored from her earliest childhood by excellent teachers. She learnt Latin and read the Bible and Sophocles in their original languages. The young princess was to be called "the Maecenas to the learned ones of her brother's kingdom". Jump to: navigation, search Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Bible (sometimes The Book, Good Book, Word of God, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, plural of βιβλιον, biblion, book, originally a diminutive of βιβλος, biblos, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos, meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported this... Jump to: navigation, search A Roman bust of Sophocles. ... Gaius or Cilnius Maecenas (70 - 8 BC) was a confidant and political advisor to Augustus Caesar, as well as an important sponsor of young poets. ...


Louise of Savoy became a widow at 20, with a daughter nearing four and a son only one year old, who was now (as a result of his father's death) heir presumptive to the throne of France. When Marguerite was 10, Louise tried to marry her to the Prince of Wales, later Henry VIII of England; but this was "declined with thanks". An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... Jump to: navigation, search Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


Someone wrote of her that Marguerite needed to love more than to be loved. "Never", she wrote, "shall a man attain to the perfect love of God who has not loved to perfection some creature in this world." Perhaps the one real love in her life was Gaston de Foix, nephew of King Louis XI. But Gaston went to Italy and died a hero at Ravenna, when the French defeated Spanish and Papal forces. Gaston de Foix, Duc de Nemours (1489-1512) was a nephew of Louis XII of France. ... Louis XI the Prudent WAS A FART (French: Louis XI le Prudent) (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), also informally nicknamed luniverselle aragne (old French for universal spider), was a King of France (1461 - 1483). ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the major historical states of Italy before the boot-shaped peninsula was unified under the Piedmontese crown of Savoy (later a republic). ...


Marguerite was married at 17 to Charles, Duke of Alençon, 20, by decree of King Louis XII of France (who also arranged the marriage of his 10-year-old daughter, Claude, to Francis). This charming, intelligent, remarkably educated girl was forced to marry a generally kind, but practically illiterate man for political expediency—"the radiant young princess of the violet-blue eyes ... had become the bride of a laggard and a dolt". She had been bartered to save Louis' royal pride, by keeping the County of Armagnac in the family. Jump to: navigation, search Louis XII the Father of the People (French: Louis XII le Père du Peuple) (June 27, 1462 – January 1, 1515) was King of France 1498 – January 1, 1515. ... The following is a list of Counts of Armagnac: William Count of Fezensac and Armagnac  ?- 960 Bernard the Suspicious, First count privative of Armagnac 960- ? Gerald I Trancaléon ? -1020 Bernard I Tumapaler 1020-1061 Gerald II 1061-1095 Arnauld-Bernard II (associated 1072 for about ten years) Bernard III...


After the death of her first husband in 1525, Marguerite married Henry II of Navarre. (Now a principality of Spain, the capital of Navarre, Pamplona, is famous for the annual running of the bulls). Marguerite bore Henry a daughter, Jeanne d'Albret (mother of the future Henry IV of France). Henry II (1503 - May 25, 1555), titular King of Navarre, was the eldest son of Jean dAlbret (d. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pamplona (Basque: Irunea / Iruñea / Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain. ... Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 – June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV) (December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), called the Great (French: le Grand), was the first of the Bourbon kings of France, reigning from 1589 until 1610. ...


Her first and only son, Jean, was born in Blois in July, 1530, when Marguerite was 38, middle-aged if not already old by 16th century standards. But the child died on Christmas Day the same year. Scholars believe that her grief motivated writing her most controversial work, Miroir de l'âme pécheresse in 1531. Sorbonne theologians condemned this as heresy. A monk said Marguerite should be sewn into a sack and thrown into the Seine. Students at the College of Navarre satirized her in a play as "a fury from Hell". But her brother forced the dropping of the charge and an apology from the Sorbonne. Blois is a city in France, the préfecture (capital) city of the Loir-et-Cher département, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours. ... This article is about the river in France. ...


Marguerite became the most influential woman in France, with the exception of her mother, when her brother acceded to the crown as Francis I in 1515. Her salon became famously known as the "New Parnassus". The writer, Pierre Brantôme, said of her: "She was a great princess. But in addition to all that, she was very kind, gentle, gracious, charitable, a great dispenser of alms and friendly to all." The Dutch humanist, Erasmus, wrote to her: "For a long time I have cherished all the many excellent gifts that God bestowed upon you; prudence worth of a philosopher; chastity; moderation; piety; an invincible strength of soul, and a marvelous contempt for all the vanities of this world. Who could keep from admiring, in a great King's sister, such qualities as these, so rare even among the priests and monks?" Jump to: navigation, search Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ...


Marguerite wrote many poems and plays and the classic collection of stories, the Heptameron. Anne Boleyn, before becoming the second wife of King Henry VIII of England, was lady-in-waiting to Queen Marguerite, who gave her the original manuscript of Marguerite's most controversial poem (condemned by Sorbonne theologians), Mirror of a Sinful Soul. Later Anne's daughter, Elizabeth—to become Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603)—at age twelve, translated this poem for publication in English. The Heptameron is a collection of 72 stories written in French by Marguerite of Navarre and patterened after the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio. ... Jump to: navigation, search A portrait of Anne painted some years after her death Anne Boleyn, 1st Marquess of Pembroke (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


As a generous patron of the arts, Marguerite befriended and protected many artists and writers, among them François Rabelais (1483-1553), Clement Marot (1496-1544), and Pierre de Ronsard (1524-85); also, Marguerite was mediator between Roman Catholics and Protestants (including John Calvin (1509-64)). Although Margaret espoused reform within the Catholic Church, she was not a Calvinist. She did, however, do her best to protect the Reformers and dissuaded Francis I from intolerant measures as long as she could. Jump to: navigation, search François Rabelais (ca. ... Cl ment Marot (1496-1544), was a French poet of the Renaissance period. ... Pierre de Ronsard, commonly referred to as Ronsard (September 11, 1524 – December, 1585), was a French poet and prince of poets (as his own generation in France called him). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Jump to: navigation, search Protestantism is a movement within Christianity, representing a split from within the Roman Catholic Church during the mid-to-late Renaissance in Europe —a period known as the Protestant Reformation. ... Jump to: navigation, search John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a prominent Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology advanced by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and further developed by his followers, associates and admirers. ...


After her death, six "Catholic Wars" occurred, including the terrible "St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre" of 1572. Eminent American historian Will Durant wrote: "In Marguerite the Renaissance and the Reformation were for a moment one. Her influence radiated throughout France. Every free spirit looked upon her as protectoress and ideal .... Marguerite was the embodiment of charity. She would walk unescorted in the streets of Pau [Navarre], allowing any one to approach her and would listen at first hand to the sorrows of the people. .... She called herself, 'The Prime Minister of the Poor'." Henri, her husband, King of Navarre, believed in what she was doing, even to the extent of setting up a public works system that became a model for France. Together he and Marguerite financed the education of needy students. Jump to: navigation, search The St. ... Jump to: navigation, search William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885—November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher and writer. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ...


Jules Michelet (1798-1874), the most celebrated historian of his time, wrote of her: "Let us always remember this tender Queen of Navarre, in whose arms our people, fleeing from prison or the pyre, found safety, honor, and friendship. Our gratitude to you, Mother of our [French] Renaissance! Your hearth was that of our saints, your heart the nest of our freedom." Jules Michelet (August 21, 1798–February 9, 1874) was a French historian. ...


Pierre Bayle (1647-1706), French philosopher and critic, whose Dictionnaire historique et critique (Historical and Critical Dictionary, 1697) greatly influenced the French Encyclopedists and the rationalist philosophers of the 18th century, such as Voltaire and Diderot, esteemed her highly, writing: "... for a queen to grant her protection to people persecuted for opinions which she believes to be false; to open a sanctuary to them; to preserve them from the flames prepared for them; to furnish them with a subsistence; liberally to relieve the troubles and inconveniences of their exile, is an heroic magnanimity which has hardly any precedent ..." Pierre Bayle (November 18, 1647 – December 28, 1706) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Jump to: navigation, search Fig. ... Jump to: navigation, search The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia. ... Denis Diderot Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 - July 31, 1784) was a French writer and philosopher. ...


Marguerite's most remarkable adventure involved freeing her brother, King François, captured in the Battle of Pavia, Italy, 1525, and held prisoner in Spain by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor who had once been rejected by her uncle, King Louis, as Marguerite's suitor. (A Venetian ambassador of that time praised Marguerite as knowing all the secrets of diplomatic art, hence to be treated with deference and circumspection.) In a critical period of the negotiations, Queen Marguerite rode horseback twelve hours a day, for many days, through wintery woods, to meet a safe-conduct deadline, writing letters at night. In 1525 during the Battle of Pavia, Charles V (1500-1558), The Holy Roman Emperor, defeated Francis I (1494-1547), King of France, taking him prisoner after the hurting of his horse by Cesare Hercolani, and confining him in Spain. ... Jump to: navigation, search Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V (Spanish: Carlos I, Dutch: Karel V, German: Karl V.) (24 February 1500–21 September 1558) is considered (the first) King of Spain though in fact his son was the first to use that title. ... Jump to: navigation, search Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ...


Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) died while guest of Marguerite and her brother, after designing a large chateau for them. Jump to: navigation, search Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. ...


In 1550, one year after Marguerite's death, a tributary poem, Annae, Margaritae, Ianae, sororum virginum heroidum Anglarum, in mortem Diuae Margaritae Valesiae, Nauarrorum Reginae, Hecatodistichon, was published in England. It was written by the nieces of Jane Seymour (1505-37), third wife of King Henry VIII. Jump to: navigation, search Jane Seymour was strict and formal compared to her flamboyant predecessor, Anne Boleyn. ...


References

  • Durant, Will, The Story of Civilization, v. VI, The Reformation, p. 501, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1953.
  • Jourda, Pierre, Une princesse de Renaissance, Marguerite d'Amgulême, reine de Navarre, 1492-1549, Genève, Slatkine Reprints, 1973.
  • Michelet, Jules, Histoire de France, n.d., 5 v.
  • Putnam, Samuel, Marguerite of Navarre, Grosset & Dunlap, New York, 1936.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Marguerite of Navarre - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1263 words)
Marguerite of Navarre (April 11, 1492 - December 21, 1549), also known as Marguerite of Angouleme and Margaret of Navarre, was the queen consort of King Henry II of Navarre.
Marguerite's father, Charles of Orléans, Count of Angoulême, was a direct descendant of Charles V, and a claimant to the crown, if both Charles VIII of France and the presumptive heir, Louis, Duke of Orléans, failed to produce male offspring.
Marguerite was married at 17 to Charles, Duke of Alençon, 20, by decree of King Louis XII of France (who also arranged the marriage of his 10-year-old daughter, Claude, to Francis).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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