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Encyclopedia > Margraviate of Brandenburg
Mark/Markgrafschaft Brandenburg
March/Margraviate of Brandenburg

State of the Holy Roman Empire
Imperial elector (1356–1806) The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ...


1157 – 1806

Coat of arms of Brandenburg Northern March (in German, Nordmark), was the Holy Roman Empires territorial organisation on the conquered areas of the Wends. ... Image File history File links Blank. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Province of Brandenburg (German: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1946. ...


Coat of arms Coat of arms of Brandenburg This article is about the coat of arms of the German state of Brandenburg. ...

Capital Brandenburg
Berlin (from 1417)
Religion Roman Catholic
Lutheran
Calvinist
Government Monarchy
Margrave
 - 1157–70 Albert I
 - 1797–1806 Frederick William III
History
 - Margraviate established 3 October1157
 - Electorate established 25 December 1356
 - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618
 - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701
 - Dissolution of the Empire 6 August1806

The Margraviate of Brandenburg (German: Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806. Also known as the March of Brandenburg (Mark Brandenburg), it played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe. This is a list of national capitals of the world in alphabetical order. ... Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... Historically the Margrave of Brandenburg was one of the most powerful titles in the Holy Roman Empire in being one of the 4 temporal electors and so being one of only 7 lords in the empire with a say in who became the next emperor. ... The seal of Albert I Albert I (c. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England April 16 — the King of the Serbian Kingdom of Raška Stefan Dušan is proclaimed Tsar (Emperor) of all Serbs, Arbanasses and Greeks in Skopje by the Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarch of a... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


Brandenburg developed out of the Northern March founded in the territory of the Slavic Wends. Its ruling margraves were established as prestigious prince-electors in the Golden Bull of 1356, allowing them to vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. The state thus became additionally known as Electoral Brandenburg (Kurfürstentum Brandenburg or Kurbrandenburg). Northern March (in German, Nordmark), was the Holy Roman Empires territorial organisation on the conquered areas of the Wends. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples. ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe, particularly the Sorbs living in modern-day Germany. ... Margrave is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet of Nuremberg) that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ...


The House of Hohenzollern came to the throne of Brandenburg in 1415. Under Hohenzollern leadership, Brandenburg grew rapidly in power during the 17th century and inherited the Duchy of Prussia. The resulting Brandenburg-Prussia was the predecessor of the Kingdom of Prussia, which became a leading German state during the 18th century. Although the electors' highest title was "King in/of Prussia", their power base remained in Brandenburg and its capitals Berlin and Potsdam. Hohenzollern redirects here. ... The Prussian Tribute, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1882, 388 x 875 cm, National Museum in Kraków. ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... It is the little word in that makes the title King in Prussia (German König in Preussen) an extraordinary one. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Sanssouci, the symbol of the city Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ...


Although the Margraviate of Brandenburg ended with the dissolution of the archaic Holy Roman Empire in 1806, it was replaced with the Prussian Province of Brandenburg in 1815. Despite its meager beginnings in the "sandbox" of the Holy Roman Empire, the Hohenzollern Kingdom of Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871. The "Mark Brandenburg" is still used informally today to refer to the federal state of Brandenburg in the Federal Republic of Germany. The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... The Province of Brandenburg (German: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1946. ... A large, loosely contained sandbox for kids A childrens sandbox For other meanings of sandbox, see Sandbox (disambiguation). ... The German Empire of 1871. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ...

Contents

Geography

Province of Brandenburg, ca. 1905.

The territory of the former margraviate, commonly known as the Mark Brandenburg, lies in present-day eastern Germany and western Poland. Geographically it encompassed the majority of the present-day German states Brandenburg and Berlin, the Altmark (the northern third of Saxony-Anhalt), and the Neumark (now divided between Poland's Lubusz and West Pomeranian Voivodeships). Parts of the present-day federal state Brandenburg, such as Lower Lusatia and territory which had been Saxon until 1815, were not parts of the Mark. Colloquially but not accurately, the federal state Brandenburg is sometimes identified as the Mark or Mark Brandenburg. Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Altmark is a region in Germany, between Hamburg and Magdeburg, the northern third of Saxony-Anhalt (the districts of Altmarkkreis Salzwedel and Stendal). ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... Neumark was a territorial unit created in the Middle Ages by Brandenburg on the border between Pomerania and Great Poland. ... Lubusz Voivodeship (Polish: województwo lubuskie) is an administrative region, or voivodeship, of western Poland. ... Capital city Szczecin Area 22,896 km² Population (2004)  - Density 1,694,865 74/km² Powiats  - Urban counties  - Land counties 3 18 Communes 114 Administrative divisions: West Pomeranian Voivodeship (Polish: województwo zachodniopomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodeship in northwestern Poland. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice, sometimes called Sorbia, is a historical region between Bóbr-Kwisa rivers and Elbe river in northeastern Germany (states of Saxony and Brandenburg), south-western Poland (voivodship of Lower Silesia and northern Czech... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ...


The region was formed during the ice age and characterized by moraines, glacial valleys, and numerous lakes. The territory is known as a Mark or march because it was a border county of the Holy Roman Empire (see also Margraviate of Meissen). Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Moraine at Mono Lake, California, United States Moraines clearly seen on a side glacier of the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Meißen, with the Albrechtsburg and the Cathedral of Sts. ...


The Mark was defined by two mountain ranges and two depressions. The latter received plain tracts with marsh and boggy soil along the shores; once used for peat mining, the shores are now for the most part dried. Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ...


The northern or Baltic land ridges of the Mecklenburg lake region extends insignificantly toward Brandenburg. The approximately 230 km-long mountain range in the Mark's south begins in the Lausitzer Bergland (near Żary (Sorau)) and continues past Trzebiel (Triebel) and Spremberg, then to the northwest through Calau and the stark and meager Fläming. The southern depression was mostly located along the northern side of the Bergland and appears strikingly in the Spreewald (between Baruth and Plaue an der Havel). The northern depression, lying almost directly along the southern shores of the Baltic, is defined by the lowlands of the Noteć and Warta Rivers, the Oderbruch, the valley of the Finow, the Havelland moor, and the Oder River. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The great coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Western-Pommerania Mecklenburg is a geographical area located in Northern Germany. ... The Lausitzer Bergland ist a mountanous region between Dresden the capital of Saxony and the german-polish border. ... Å»ary (German: Sorau) is a town in western Poland with 40,900 inhabitants (1995). ... Spremberg, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, situated partly on an island in the river Spree and partly on the west bank, 76 miles south-east of Berlin by the railway to Görlitz. ... Calau is a town in the Oberspreewald-Lausitz district, in southern Brandenburg, Germany. ... The Spreewald Biosphere Reserve is situated 100 km south-east of Berlin and designated a biosphere reserve by UNESCO in 1991. ... Baruth is a town in the Teltow-Fläming district of Brandenburg, Germany. ... Warta (Latin: Varta, German: Warthe) is a river in western-central Poland, a tributary of the Oder river. ... The Oderbruch is a region along the river Oder between the towns Oderberg and Bad Freienwalde in the north and Lebus in the south. ... Havelland is a district in Brandenburg, Germany. ... Moorland in the Pennines (England); Coarse grasses and bracken tend to dominate especially in high rainfall areas. ... The Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ...


Between these two depressions is an elevation which extends from the Poznań area westward to Brandenburg through Torzym (Sternberg), the region of the Spree River, and the Mittelmark. This elevation is intersected from southeast to northwest by the lowland of the Leniwa Obra and the Oder River until the confluence of the Lusatian Neisse, the lower Spree, and the Havel Valley. From south to north the Oder streams from the confluence of the Lusatian Neisse until the confluence of the Warta, the Bóbr, the upper Spree, the Dahme, and Plaue. Between these channels rises a series of mountains and ranges, such as the Barnim, the Semmelberg near Bad Freienwalde (157 m), the Müggelberge in Köpenick (115 m), the Havelberge (97 m), and the Rauen Mountains near Fürstenwalde (112 to 152 m). PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... The Spree (Slavic Å preva or Å preja, older form Sprevja, Sorbish Sprowja) is a river in Saxony, Brandenburg and Berlin, Germany. ... The Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ... The Lusatian Neisse (German Lausitzer Neiße, Polish Nysa Łużycka, Czech Lužická Nisa) is a river in the Czech Republic (54 km) and on Polish-German border (198 km), in total 252 km long. ... Bóbr (Czech Bobr, German Bober) is a river in the northern Czech Republic and southwestern Poland, a tributary of the Oder River, with a length of 272 kilometres (2 in Czech Republic, 270 in Poland, 10th longest Polish river) and the basin area of 5,876 sq. ... The Dahme is a 95 km long river in Brandenburg, Germany, tributary to the river Spree. ... Barnim is a district in Brandenburg, Germany. ... Bad Freienwalde is a town in the Märkisch-Oderland district, in Brandenburg, Germany. ... Köpenick is a former borough of Berlin; in 2001 it merged with Treptow to form the new borough Treptow-Köpenick. ... ...


The region is predominantly marked by sandy soil, wide stretches of which have pine trees and erica plants. The soil is loamy in elevated regions and can be used to produce agricultural commodities through appropriate methods. Patterns in the sand Sand is a granular material made up of fine rock particles. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Species Over 700 species, including: Erica arborea Erica caffra Erica carnea Erica ciliaris Erica cinerea Erica erigena Erica mackaiana Erica scoparia Erica tetralix Erica vagans Erica is a genus of over 700 species of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae; the English names, both shared with some other closely related... Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. ...


History

Northern March

Brandenburg ca. 1150.
Main article: Northern March

By the 8th century, Slavic Wends, such as the Sprevjane and Havolane, started to move into the Brandenburg area. They intermarried with Saxons and Bohemians. Northern March (in German, Nordmark), was the Holy Roman Empires territorial organisation on the conquered areas of the Wends. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples. ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe, particularly the Sorbs living in modern-day Germany. ... The Sprevjane (Slavonic name) or Sprewanen (German name) were a Slavic tribe who lived around the river Spree and where Berlin is now, in the Brandenburg area in eastern Germany from the 8th century on. ... The Havolane (Slavonic name) or Heveller (German name) were a Slavic tribe who lived around the river Havel in the Brandenburg area in eastern Germany from the 8th century onwards. ...


The Bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havelberg were established at the beginning of the 10th century (in 928 and 948, respectively).[1] They were suffragan to the Archbishopric of Mainz; the Bishopric of Brandenburg reached to the Baltic Sea. Between 780–82 and 1802 the Archbishop of Mainz was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince in the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


King Henry the Fowler started governing in the region in 928–9, allowing Emperor Otto I to establish the Northern March under Margrave Gero in 936 during the German Ostsiedlung. However, the march and the bishropics were overthrown by a Slavic rebellion in 983; until the collapse of the Liutizian alliance in the middle of the 11th century, the Holy Roman Empire government through bishoprics and marches came nearly to a standstill for approximately 150 years.[2], even though the bishopric was retained. Henry I, the Fowler (German, Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. ... Emperor Otto I Otto I the Great (November 23, 912 - May 7, 973), son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the first Holy Roman Emperor. ... Northern March (in German, Nordmark), was the Holy Roman Empires territorial organisation on the conquered areas of the Wends. ... Margrave Gero I. (the Great) (born circa 900, died 965) was since 937 Margrave of the Sächsische Ostmark, also Margraviate of Meissen. ... Ostiedlung also known as Ostkolonisation or German eastward expansion, is a term used to refer to the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples into Slavic, Baltic, Romanian and Hungarian areas beginning in the twelfth century A.D. In German scholarship, it refers especially to the reassertion of Saxon authority over Sorbian... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ...


Prince Pribislav of the Heveller (Havolanie) came to power at the castle of Brenna (Brandenburg an der Havel) in 1127. During Pribislav's reign, in which he cultivated close connections with the German nobility, Germans succeeded in binding to the Holy Roman Empire the Havolanie region from Brandenburg an der Havel to Spandau. The disputed eastern border continued between the Havolanie and the Sprewanen, recognized as the Havel-Nuthe line. Prince Jaxa of Köpenick (Jaxa de Copnic) of the Sprewaner lived in Köpenick east of the dividing line. Pribislav Henry (1127 - 1150) was a Christian and the last ruler of the Slavic tribe of the Havelles in Brandenburg. ... Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. ... German nobility was the aristocratic class in Germany. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... For the 1980s New Wave group, see Spandau Ballet. ... The Sprevjane (Slavonic name) or Sprewanen (German name) were a Slavic tribe who lived around the river Spree and where Berlin is now, in the Brandenburg area in eastern Germany from the 8th century on. ...


Ascanians

During the second phase of the German Ostsiedlung, the shrewd diplomat Albert the Bear began the expansionary eastern policy of the Ascanians. From 1123–5 Albert developed contacts with Pribislav, who served as the godfather for the Ascanian's first son, Otto, and gave the boy the Zauche region as a christening present in 1134. In the same year Emperor Lothair III named Albert Margrave of the Northern March and raised Pribislav to the status of king, although that was later rescinded. Also in 1134, Albert succeeded in securing for the Ascanians the inheritance of the childless Pribislav. After the latter's death in 1150, Albert received the Havolanie residence of Brenna, or Brandenburg. The Ascanians also began to build the castle of Spandau. Albert I (c. ... The Ascanian dynasty of the rulers of Brandenburg began with Albert the Bear who inherited the territory from its last Wendish ruler, Pribislav, in 1150. ... Lothair III of Supplinburg (1075–1137), was Duke of Saxony (1106), King of Germany (1125), and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 to 1137. ... Northern March (in German, Nordmark), was the Holy Roman Empires territorial organisation on the conquered areas of the Wends. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. ... The Spandau Citadel is the oldest remaining structure in Berlin. ... For the 1980s New Wave group, see Spandau Ballet. ...

Statue of Albert the Bear, Bishop Wigger of Brandenburg, and Bishop Otto of Bamberg.
Statue of Albert the Bear, Bishop Wigger of Brandenburg, and Bishop Otto of Bamberg.

In contrast to their leaders who had accepted Christianity, the Havolanie population still worshipped old Slavic deities and opposed Albert's assumption to power. Jaxa of Köpenick, a possible relation of Pribislav and a claim-holder to Brandenburg, occupied Brandenburg through guile, violence, and Polish help, and seized the Havelland. Older historical research dates this conquest to 1153, although there are no definite sources for the date. More recent researchers, such as Lutz Partenheimer, date it to Spring 1157, as it is doubtful that Albert would not have responded to Jaxa's actions for four years. The seal of Albert I Albert I (c. ... Otto (Otto I. of Bamberg) was born about 1060 into a noble family in Mistelbach, Swabia. ...


With bloody victories on 11 June 1157, Albert the Bear was able to reconquer Brandenburg, exile Jaxa, and found a new lordship. Because he already held the title of margrave, Albert styled himself as Margrave of Brandenburg (Adelbertus Die gratia marchio in Brandenborch) on 3 October 1157, thereby beginning the Margraviate of Brandenburg. June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... Historically the Margrave of Brandenburg was one of the most powerful titles in the Holy Roman Empire in being one of the 4 temporal electors and so being one of only 7 lords in the empire with a say in who became the next emperor. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury...


The territorial limits of the margraviate did not correspond with the area of the current Bundesland Brandenburg, consisting merely of the Havelland and Zauche regions. In the following 150 years the Ascanians succeeded in winning the Uckermark and Barnim regions east of the Havel and Nuthe, thereby extending the Mark to the Oder River. The Neumark ("New March") east of the Oder was acquired gradually through purchases, marriages, and aid to the Piast dynasty of Poland.[3]   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Uckermark is a Kreis (district) in the northeastern part of Brandenburg, Germany. ... Barnim is a district in Brandenburg, Germany. ... The Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ... Neumark was a territorial unit created in the Middle Ages by Brandenburg on the border between Pomerania and Great Poland. ... This article is about a Polish dynasty. ...


Because of the sandy soil prevalent in Brandenburg, the agriculturally meager principality was denigrated as "the sandbox of the Holy Roman Empire".[3] Albert invited colonists to settle the new territory, many of whom came from the Altmark ("Old March", a later name for the original Northern March), the Harz, Flanders (hence the Fläming region), and the Rhineland. After the capture of territory along the Elbe and Havel Rivers in the 1160s, Flemish and Dutch settlers from flooded regions in Holland used their expertise to build dikes in Brandenburg. Initially, the Ascanians protected the country by settling knights in villages; castles fortified with knights were mostly located in the border region of the Neumark. After a 14th century decline in Imperial power, however, knights began constructing castles throughout the principality, granting them more independence.[3] A large, loosely contained sandbox for kids A childrens sandbox For other meanings of sandbox, see Sandbox (disambiguation). ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Altmark is a region in Germany, between Hamburg and Magdeburg, the northern third of Saxony-Anhalt (the districts of Altmarkkreis Salzwedel and Stendal). ... The Harz is a mountain range in northern Germany. ... Flanders (Dutch: ) has several main meanings: the social, cultural and linguistical, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; some prefer to call this the Flemish community (others refer to this as the Flemish nation) which is, with over 6 million inhabitants, the majority of all Belgians; a... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The term Flemings (Dutch: ) is currently mostly used to refer to the ethnic group native to Flanders (the northern half of Belgium, historically part of the Southern Netherlands), which in total numbers about 6 million people in Belgium (the majority of all Belgians) . The term also designates, not only the... Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... Afsluitdijk, a 32 km dike in the Netherlands. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Balmoral Castle, Scotland Castle has a history of scholarly debate surrounding its exact meaning. ...


After Albert's death in 1170, his son succeeded him as Otto I, Margrave of Brandenburg. The Ascanians pursued a policy of expanding to the east and the northeast with the goal of connecting their territories through Pomerania to the Baltic Sea. This policy brought them into conflict with the Kingdom of Denmark. After the Battle of Bornhöved (1227), Margrave John I staked his claim to Pomerania, receiving it as a fief from Emperor Frederick II in 1231. The middle of the 13th century was a time of important developments for the House of Ascanian, as it won Stettin (Szczecin) and the Uckermark (1250), although the former was later lost to the Duchy of Pomerania.[2] Henry II, the last Ascanian margrave, died in 1320. Duchy of Pomerania ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greiffen) was a semi-independent state in the 17th century. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The (second) Battle of Bornhöved took place on 22 July 1227 near Bornhöved in Holstein. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Szczecin (pronounce: ; German: ; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Sztetëno; Latin: Stetinum or Scecinum, also Sedinum) is the capital city of West Pomeranian Voivodship in Poland. ... Uckermark is a Kreis (district) in the northeastern part of Brandenburg, Germany. ...


Wittelsbachs

Holy Roman Empire from 1273-1378.
Holy Roman Empire from 1273-1378.

After having defeated the Habsburgs, the Wittelsbach Emperor Louis IV, an uncle of Henry II, granted Brandenburg to his oldest son, Louis I (the "Brandenburger"), in 1323. The rule of Margrave Louis I was rejected by the domestic nobility of Brandenburg, and, after the death of Emperor Louis VI in 1347, the margrave was confronted with the False Waldemar, an imposter of the deceased Margrave Waldemar. The pretender was recognized as Margrave of Brandenburg on 2 October 1348 by the new emperor, Charles IV of Luxembourg, but was exposed as a fraud after a peace between the Wittelsbachs and Luxembourgers at Eltville. In 1351 Louis gave the Mark to his younger half-brothers Louis II (the "Roman") and Otto V in exchange for rule over Upper Bavaria. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Emperor Louis IV Louis IV of Bavaria (also known as Ludwig the Bavarian) of the House of Wittelsbach (born 1282; died October 11, 1347) was duke of Bavaria from 1294/1301 together with his brother Rudolf I, also count of the Palatinate until 1329 and, German king since 1314 and... Louis V, Duke of Bavaria, called the Brandenburger (May 1315 – 18 September 1361 in Zorneding near Munich) (German: Ludwig V der Brandenburger, Herzog von Bayern, Markgraf von Brandenburg) was Duke of Bavaria, Margrave of Brandenburg and Count of Tyrol. ... An Impostor (or Imposter) is a person who pretends to be somebody else. ... Waldemar of Brandenburg (German : Waldemar der Große) (ca. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Events April 7 - Charles University is founded in Prague. ... Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Eltville am Rhein (Eltville on the Rhine river) is a town in the Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis, Hesse, Germany. ... Louis VI the Roman (May 7, 1328 – May 17, 1365), was a son of the emperor Louis IV the Bavarian. ... Otto V, Duke of Bavaria (1346 – November 15, 1379), was the third son of the emperor Louis IV the Bavarian from his second wife Margaret of Holland. ... Oberbayern (Upper Bavaria) is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the south of Bavaria, around the city Munich. ...


Louis the Roman forced the False Waldemar to renounce his claims to Brandenburg and succeeded in establishing the Margraves of Brandenburg as prince-electors in the Golden Bull of 1356. Brandenburg therefore became a Kurfürstentum, or "electoral principality" of the Holy Roman empire, and had a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Empire. The Margrave of Brandenburg also held the ceremonial title of Arch-Chamberlain of the Empire. When Louis the Roman died in 1365, Otto took over the rule of Brandenburg, although he quickly neglected the march. He sold Lower Lusatia, which he had already pledged to the Wettin dynasty, to Emperor Charles IV in 1367. A year later he lost the town Deutsch Krone (Wałcz) to King Casimir the Great of Poland. The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet of Nuremberg) that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... The double-headed eagle A portrait of Charlemagne wearing the crown of the Holy Roman Empire (15th century painting by Albrecht Dürer) The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... Lusatia (German Lausitz, Upper Sorbian Łužica, Lower Sorbian Łužyca, Polish Łużyce, Czech Lužice, sometimes called Sorbia, is a historical region between Bóbr-Kwisa rivers and Elbe river in northeastern Germany (states of Saxony and Brandenburg), south-western Poland (voivodship of Lower Silesia and northern Czech... The Wettin dynasty of German counts, dukes, Prince Electors (Kurfürsten) and kings ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding for a time the kingship of Poland. ... WaÅ‚cz is a county town in northwestern Poland with approx. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hessen, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date...


Luxembourgs

Since the middle of the 14th century, Emperor Charles IV attempted to secure Brandenburg for the House of Luxembourg. Control over the electoral vote of Brandenburg would help assure the Luxembourgers of election to the imperial throne, as they already held the vote of Bohemia. Charles succeeded in purchasing Brandenburg from Margrave Otto for 500,000 guilders in 1373 and, at a Landtag in Guben, united Brandenburg and Lower Lusatia with the Kingdom of Bohemia. The Landbuch of Charles IV, a source for the history of medieval settlement in Brandenburg, originated during this time. Charles chose the castle of Tangermünde to be the electoral residence. The House of Luxembourg was a medieval Holy Roman Empire noble family. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Guilder is the English name for the Dutch Gulden. ... A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly, with some legislative authority, of a political entity called Land (i. ... Along with Frankfurt an der Oder and Goerlitz, Guben is one of the split cities on the eastern German/Polish border. ... Linden Street in Tangermünde Tangermünde is a small town at the Elbe in the Altmark, the northeastern region of the federal state Saxony-Anhalt. ...


The power of the Luxembourgers in Brandenburg declined during the rule of Charles' nephew Jobst of Moravia. The Neumark was pawned to the Teutonic Knights, who neglected the border region. Under the Wittelsbach and Luxembourg margraves, Brandenburg fell increasingly under the control of the local nobility as central authority declined.[4] Jobst (or Jost) of Moravia was born in 1351 as son of John Henry of Bohemia, margrave of Moravia, the brother of emperor Charles IV. Jobst was margrave of Brandenburg from 1388-1411. ... Neumark was a territorial unit created in the Middle Ages by Brandenburg on the border between Pomerania and Great Poland. ... Hermann von Salza (c. ...


Hohenzollerns

Religious situation in Central Europe, ca. 1618.
Religious situation in Central Europe, ca. 1618.

In return for supporting Sigismund as Holy Roman Emperor at Frankfurt in 1410, Frederick VI of Nuremberg, a burgrave of the House of Hohenzollern, was granted hereditary control over Brandenburg in 1411. Rebellious landed nobility such as the Quitzow family opposed his appointment, but Frederick overpowered these knights with the usage of artillery. Some nobles had their property confiscated, while the Brandenburg estates gave allegiance at Tangermünde on 20 March 1414.[5] Frederick was officially recognized as Margrave and Prince-elector Frederick I of Brandenburg at the Council of Constance in 1415. Frederick's formal investiture with the Kurmark, or electoral march, and his appointment as Archchamberlain of the Holy Roman Empire occurred on 18 April 1417, also during the Council of Constance. Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s - the only contemporary portrait. ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Frederick (German: Friedrich) I (1371–1440), Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick VI and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern. ... List of Burgraves of Nuremberg Hause von Raabs 1105–ca. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Linden Street in Tangermünde Tangermünde is a small town at the Elbe in the Altmark, the northeastern region of the federal state Saxony-Anhalt. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... // Events Council of Constance begins. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ...


Frederick made Berlin his residence, although he retired to his Franconian possessions in 1425. He granted governance of Brandenburg to his eldest son John the Alchemist, while retaining the electoral dignity for himself. The next elector, Frederick II, forced the submission of Berlin and Cölln, setting an example for the other towns of Brandenburg.[6] He reacquired the Neumark from the Teutonic Knights and began its rebuilding. The Franconian Rake is originally is a heraldic symbol of the bishops of Würzburg, who - though nominally Dukes of Franconia - only ruled in parts of Franconia. ... John, nicknamed the Alchemist (German: ; 1406 - 16 November 1464), was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and served as the peace-loving Margrave of Brandenburg after the abdication of his father, Frederick I, the first member of the House of Hohenzollern to rule Brandenburg. ... Frederick II the Iron (sometimes Irontooth) (1413-1470) of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was margrave of Brandenburg, from 1440 until his abdication in 1470. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about Cölln on an island of the Spree. ... Hermann von Salza (c. ...


Brandenburg accepted the Protestant Reformation in 1539. The population has remained largely Lutheran since, although later electors converted to Calvinism. The Reformation was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and...


The Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg sought to expand their power base from their relatively meager possessions, although this brought them into conflict with neighboring states. John William, Duke of Julich-Cleves-Berg died childless in 1609. His eldest niece, Anna, Duchess of Prussia, was the wife of John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, who promptly claimed the inheritance and sent troops to take hold of some of John William's holdings in the Rhineland. Unfortunately for John Sigismund, this effort became tied up with the Thirty Years' War and the disputed succession of Julich. At the end of the war in 1648, Brandenburg was recognized as the possessor of approximately half the inheritance, comprising the Duchy of Cleves and the Counties of Mark and Ravensberg. These territories formed the starting point of the Prussian Rhineland, although they were territorially disconnected from Brandenburg. John or Johann Sigismund Hohenzollern (1572-1619) succeeded his father Joachim Friedrich as margrave of Brandenburg and duke of Ducal Prussia in 1608. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... Mark was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Ravensberg, historical county in eastern Westphalia, Germany. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ...

Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1600–1795.
Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia, 1600–1795.

Albert Frederick, Duke of Prussia, died sonless in 1618, so his son-in-law John Sigismund inherited the Duchy of Prussia, forming the territory of Brandenburg-Prussia. In this way, the fortuitous marriage of John Sigismund to Anna of Prussia, and the sonless deaths of her maternal uncle in 1609 and her father in 1618, proved to be the key events by which Brandenburg acquired territory both in the Rhineland and on the Baltic coast. Prussia lay outside the Holy Roman Empire and the electors held it as a fief of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, to which the electors paid homage. Growth of Prussia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Growth of Prussia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Albert Frederick (7 May 1553- 28 August 1618) was duke of Ducal Prussia from 1568 until his death. ... The Prussian Tribute, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1882, 388 x 875 cm, National Museum in Kraków. ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The Electors of Brandenburg spent the next two centuries attempting to gain lands to unite their three separate territories (the Mark Brandenburg, the Rhineland, and Ducal Prussia) to form one geographically contiguous domain. Brandenburg-Prussia then acquired Farther Pomerania in the Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years' War in 1648. In the second half of the 17th century, Frederick William, the "Great Elector", developed the power of Brandenburg-Prussia. The state constructed Brandenburg's first navy (Kurbrandenburgische Marine), leading to short-lived colonies at Arguin, the Brandenburger Gold Coast, and Saint Thomas. The electors succeeded in acquiring sovereignty over Prussia in the Treaty of Wehlau in 1660. The territories of the Hohenzollerns were opened to immigration by Huguenot refugees in 1685. Farther Pomerania (Hinterpommern) in yellow. ... The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard Terborch (1648) Banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in Celebration of the Peace of Münster by Bartholomeus van der Helst, 1648 The Peace of Westphalia, also known as the Treaties of Münster and Osnabrück, refers to the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg. ... Throughout the centuries, Prussia’s military consistently concentrated on its land power, and never sought a similar power at sea. ... Arguin is an island off the west coast of Mauritania in the Bay of Arguin, at 20° 36 N., 16° 27 W. It is 6 km long by 2 broad. ... The Brandenburger Gold Coast, later Prussian Gold Coast, was a part of the Gold Coast that was colonised by Germans before the German unification. ... Saint Thomas is an island in the Caribbean Sea and a constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI), an unincorporated territory of the United States. ... The Treaty of Welawa was a political act signed in the Prussian town of Welawa (German Wehlau) between Poland and Brandenburg-Prussia during the Swedish Deluge on September 9, 1657. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ...


Kingdom of Prussia

Main article: Kingdom of Prussia

In return for aiding Emperor Leopold I during the War of the Spanish Succession, Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg was allowed to crown himself Frederick I, King in Prussia, as Prussia lay outside the Holy Roman Empire. As king was a more prestigious title than prince-elector, the territories of the Hohenzollerns became known as the Kingdom of Prussia, although their power base remained in Brandenburg. Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... Friedrich I of Prussia, Kurfürst of Brandenburg, King in Russia (Fredrick I, July 11, 1857 -- February 25, 1913), Hohenzollern, was the first King in Prussia, reigning from January 18, 2001, until his death. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Flag of Prussia (1894 - 1918) The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire. ...


From 1701-1946 Brandenburg followed the history of the state of Prussia, which established itself as a major state in Europe during the 18th century. King Frederick William I of Prussia, the "Soldier-King", modernized the Prussian Army, while his son Frederick the Great achieved glory and infamy with the Silesian Wars and Partitions of Poland. The feudal designation of the Margraviate of Brandenburg ended with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. It was replaced with the Province of Brandenburg in 1815 following the Napoleonic Wars. Brandenburg became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany. Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... A standard of the Prussian Army. ... Frederick II of Prussia (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) of Hohenzollern dynasty, ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. ... The Silesian Wars were a series of wars between Prussia and Austria (and their changing allies) for control of Silesia. ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Province of Brandenburg (German: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1946. ... Combatants Allies: Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[5] Saxony[6] Denmark [7] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... The German Empire of 1871. ...


Later years

Coat of arms of Brandenburg from 1945–52.

During the Gleichschaltung of provinces by Nazi Germany during the 1930s, the Province of Brandenburg and the state of Prussia lost practically all relevancy. The region was administered as the Gau "Mark Brandenburg". The German word Gleichschaltung â’½ â’¾ (literally synchronising, synchronization) is used in a political sense to describe the process by which the Nazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control over the individual, and tight coordination over all aspects of society and commerce. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... A Gau (plural Gaue) is a German term for a region within a country, often a (former or actual) province. ...


The state of Prussia was abolished in 1947 after the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II; the Gau "Mark Brandenburg" was replaced with the Land Brandenburg. Territory east of the Oder-Neisse Line (the Neumark region) was placed under Polish administration and separated from Germany. Its German population was expelled and replaced with Poles. Brandenburg west of the Oder-Neisse Line lay in the Soviet occupation zone, it became part of the German Democratic Republic. In 1952 the region was divided into the districts of Cottbus, Frankfurt (Oder), Potsdam, Schwerin, and Neubrandenburg; Berlin was divided between East Berlin and West Berlin. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) is the border between Germany and Poland. ... Neumark was a territorial unit created in the Middle Ages by Brandenburg on the border between Pomerania and Great Poland. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the escape and mass deportation of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... The C-Pennant Occupation zones in Germany (1945) Capital Berlin (de jure) Organizational structure Military occupation Governors (1945)  - US zone G.A. Eisenhower  - UK zone F.M. Montgomery  - French zone Gen. ... Anthem: Auferstanden aus Ruinen Capital East Berlin, in spite of status as part of an occupied city Language(s) German Government Socialist state Head of State  - 1990 Sabine Bergmann-Pohl Head of Government  - 1990 Lothar de Maizière Historical era Cold War  - Established October 7 1949  - Final Settlement September 25... Cottbus (Sorbian: ChoÅ›ebuz, archaic German: Kottbus) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany, situated around 125 km southeast of Berlin on the Spree river. ... Frankfurt (Oder) ( Sorbian/Lusatian: Frankobord ) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the city of SÅ‚ubice. ... Sanssouci, the symbol of the city Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Schwerin is a town in northern Germany. ... Neubrandenburg is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


This division of Brandenburg continued until the German reunification in 1990. The GDR districts were dissolved and replaced with the state of Brandenburg with its capital in Potsdam. The 850th anniversary of the foundation of the Mark will be officially celebrated on 11 June 2007, with preliminary celebrations having begun at the Knights' Academy of Brandenburg an der Havel on 23 June 2006. The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ... Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Margraves and Electors

Ascanians

Margraves of Brandenburg
Name Reign Comments
Albert I 1157–70 "Albert the Bear"
Otto I 1170–84
Otto II 1184–1205
Albert II 1205–20
John I 1220–66
John II
Otto III 1220–67
Albert III 1267–1300
Otto IV 1266–1308
Henry I 1304–17
Waldemar 1308–19 "Waldemar the Great"
Henry II 1319–20

The seal of Albert I Albert I (c. ... Waldemar of Brandenburg (German : Waldemar der Große) (ca. ...

Wittelsbachs

Margraves of Brandenburg, Electors of Brandenburg (since 1356)
Name Reign Comments
Louis I 1323–51 "Louis the Brandenburger"
Louis II 1351–65 "Louis the Roman"
Otto V 1365–73

Louis V, Duke of Bavaria, called the Brandenburger (May 1315 – 18 September 1361 in Zorneding near Munich) (German: Ludwig V der Brandenburger, Herzog von Bayern, Markgraf von Brandenburg) was Duke of Bavaria, Margrave of Brandenburg and Count of Tyrol. ... Louis VI the Roman (May 7, 1328 – May 17, 1365), was a son of the emperor Louis IV the Bavarian. ... Otto V, Duke of Bavaria (1346 – November 15, 1379), was the third son of the emperor Louis IV the Bavarian from his second wife Margaret of Holland. ...

Luxembourgs

Electors of Brandenburg
Name Reign Comments
Wenceslaus 1373–78
Sigismund 1378–88
Jobst of Moravia 1388–1411
Sigismund 1411–15

Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel, Czech: Václav IV; sometimes known as the Drunkard) (February 26, 1361 – August 16, 1419), of the house of Luxembourg, was king of Bohemia from 1378 to his death; until 1400, he also headed the Holy Roman Empire (as King of the Romans), and he continued to... Sigismund, aged approximately 50, depicted by unknown artist in the 1420s - the only contemporary portrait. ... Jobst (or Jost) of Moravia was born in 1351 as son of John Henry of Bohemia, margrave of Moravia, the brother of emperor Charles IV. Jobst was margrave of Brandenburg from 1388-1411. ...

Hohenzollerns

Electors of Brandenburg
Name Reign Comments
Frederick I 1415–40 His eldest son John the Alchemist was Margrave of Brandenburg after 1425
Frederick II 1440–70 "Irontooth"
Albert III Achilles 1470–86
John Cicero 1486–99
Joachim I Nestor 1499–1535 ruled with his brother Albert until 1513
Joachim II Hector 1535–71
John George 1571–98
Joachim Frederick 1598–1608
John Sigismund 1608–19
George William 1619–40
Frederick William 1640–88 "The Great Elector"
Frederick III 1688–1701 Frederick I, "King in Prussia" after 1701
Kings in/of Prussia and Electors of Brandenburg
Name Reign Comments
Frederick I 1701–1713 Frederick III of Brandenburg until 1701
Frederick William I 1713–1740 "the Soldier-King"
Frederick II 1740–1786 "Frederick the Great"; after 1772 "King of Prussia"
Frederick William II 1786–1797
Frederick William III 1797–1840 Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806

Frederick (German: Friedrich) I (1371–1440), Burgrave of Nuremberg as Frederick VI and Margrave of Brandenburg as Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern. ... John, nicknamed the Alchemist (German: ; 1406 - 16 November 1464), was a Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach and served as the peace-loving Margrave of Brandenburg after the abdication of his father, Frederick I, the first member of the House of Hohenzollern to rule Brandenburg. ... Frederick II the Iron (sometimes Irontooth) (1413-1470) of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was margrave of Brandenburg, from 1440 until his abdication in 1470. ... Albrecht Achilles Albert III (German Albrecht Achilles), (9 November 1414, Tangermunde–11 March 1486, Frankfurt am Main), Margrave of Brandenburg, given the cognomen Achilles because of his knightly qualities, was the third son of Frederick I of Brandenburg of Hohenzollern, elector of Brandenburg, later Burgrave of Nuremberg. ... John or Johann Cicero Hohenzollern, elector of Brandenburg was born 1455. ... Joachim I, nicknamed Nestor, (21 February 1484 – 11 July 1535) was an elector of Brandenburg, acceded 1499. ... Cardinal Albert of Hohenzollern, Archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg: engraved portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 Cardinal Albert of Hohenzollern (German: Albrecht; June 28, 1490 in Cölln – September 24, 1545 in Aschaffenburg), Elector and Archbishop of Mainz and Archbishop of Magdeburg, was the younger son of John Cicero, Elector... Joachim II, nicknamed Hector, was a margrave of Brandenburg and an Imperial Elector from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Johann Georg Hohenzollern (1525–1598) was the Margrave and Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia from 1571 until his death. ... Joachim Friedrich (27 January 1546 in Cölln — 18 July 1608) of the Hohenzollern dynasty succeeded his father John George as margrave and elector of Brandenburg in 1598, and was in turn succeeded at his death by his son John Sigismund. ... John or Johann Sigismund Hohenzollern (1572-1619) succeeded his father Joachim Friedrich as margrave of Brandenburg and duke of Ducal Prussia in 1608. ... George William (German: Georg Wilhelm) (13 November 1595 - December 1, 1640) of the Hohenzollern dynasty was margrave and elector of Brandenburg and duke of Prussia (1619-1640). ... Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg. ... Friedrich I of Prussia, Kurfürst of Brandenburg, King in Russia (Fredrick I, July 11, 1857 -- February 25, 1913), Hohenzollern, was the first King in Prussia, reigning from January 18, 2001, until his death. ... It is the little word in that makes the title King in Prussia (German König in Preussen) an extraordinary one. ... Friedrich I of Prussia, Kurfürst of Brandenburg, King in Russia (Fredrick I, July 11, 1857 -- February 25, 1913), Hohenzollern, was the first King in Prussia, reigning from January 18, 2001, until his death. ... Frederick William I (German: Friedrich Wilhelm I) (August 14, 1688 – May 31, 1740) of the House of Hohenzollern, was the King in Prussia from 1713 until his death. ... Frederick II of Prussia (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) of Hohenzollern dynasty, ruled the Kingdom of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. ... Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744 – November 16, 1797) was the fourth king of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Koch, p. 23.
  2. ^ a b Koch, p. 24.
  3. ^ a b c Koch, p. 25.
  4. ^ Koch, p. 28
  5. ^ Koch, p. 29.
  6. ^ Koch, p. 30.

References

This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding German Wikipedia article as of January 22, 2007. January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD (or CE) era. ...

  • H.W. Koch (1978). A History of Prussia. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 326. ISBN 0-88029-158-3. 

External links

  • Brandenburg1260.de Hochmittelalter in der Mark Brandenburg (German)
  • Der Brandenburger Landstreicher (German)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Brandenburg - ExampleProblems.com (1194 words)
Brandenburg is bordered by Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the north, Poland in the east, Saxony in the south, Saxony-Anhalt in the west and Lower Saxony in the northwest.
Brandenburg was one of the German states to switch 1539 to Protestantism in the wake of the Reformation, and generally did quite well in the century following, as the dynasty expanded its lands to include the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 and along the lower Rhine Duchy of Cleves (1614) and elsewhere.
Brandenburg was still the most important portion of the kingdom (and the state was often referred to informally as Brandenburg-Prussia) but for the purposes of accuracy, the continuation of this history can be found at Prussia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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