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Encyclopedia > Margrave

Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark "march" and Graf "count") and certain equivalent nobiliary ("princely") titles in other languages. The wife of a margrave is called a margravine or in German Markgräfin. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to a border region, e. ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title derived from the Viking title Jarl). ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ...


History

A Markgraf, or margrave, originally functioned as the military governor of a Carolingian mark, a medieval border province. A margrave had jurisdiction over a march (German Mark), which also become known, after his title, as a margraviate or margravate, strictly speaking the correct word for his office. As outlying areas tended to have great importance to the central realms of kings and princes, and they often became larger than those nearer the interior, margraves assumed quite inordinate powers over those of other counts of a realm. For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to a border region, e. ... Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ...


Most Marks and, consequently, their margraves had their base on the Eastern border of the Carolingian and later Holy Roman Empire; the Breton Mark on the Atlantic and the border of peninsular Britanny, and the Spanish Mark on the Muslim frontier, including what is now Catalonia, are notable exceptions. The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... The Marca Hispanica (Spanish Mark) were a series of buffer states set up Charlemagne to keep the Muslim Moors from advancing into the Frankish Empire. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ...


In the modern Holy Roman Empire, two original marches developed into the two most powerful states in Central Europe: the Mark Brandenburg (the nucleus of the later Kingdom of Prussia) and Austria (which became heir to various, mainly 'Hungarian' and 'Burgundian' principalities). Austria was originally called Marchia Orientalis in Latin, the "eastern borderland", as (originally roughly the present Lower -) Austria formed the eastern outpost of the Holy Roman Empire, on the border with the Magyars and the Slavs. During the 19th and 20th centuries the term was sometimes translated as Ostmark by some Germanophones, but medieval documents attest only the vernacular name Ostarrîchi. Another Mark in the south-east, Styria, still appears as Steiermark in German today.   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Ostmark (Eastern March) is a modern German term to translate the term Ostarrîchi a vernacular for marcia orientalis that appears in a single later 10th century document. ... A Germanophone is someone who speaks the German language either natively or by adoption. ... Document in which ostarrichi was first mentioned 996 (red circle) Ostarrîchi is an Old High German name found to the famous Ostarrîchi document of 996, where it refers to the Margraviate ruled by the Babenberg Count Henry I located mostly in what is today Lower Austria. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Styria, crowned with the ducal hat, today state coat The Duchy of Styria (German: Herzogtum Steiermark, Slovenian Å tajerska) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until its dissolution in 1918. ...


In the late Middle Ages, as marches lost their military importance, margraviates developed into hereditary monarchies, comparable in all but name to duchies. A unique case was the Golden Bull of 1356, recognizing the Margrave of Brandenburg as an elector of the Holy Roman Empire, membership of the highest college within the Imperial diet carrying the politically significant privilege of being the sole electors of the non-hereditary Emperor, which was previously de facto restricted to dukes and three prince-archbishops (Cologne, Mainz and Trier); other non-ducal lay members would be the King of Bohemia and the Palatine of the Rhenish Kurpfalz. A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... The golden seal that earned the decree the name Golden Bull The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet of Nuremberg) that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A palatinate is an area administered by a count palatine, originally the direct representative of the sovereign but later the hereditary ruler of the territory subject to the crowns overlordship. ...


As the title of margrave lost its military connotation, it became more and more used as a mere 'peerage' rank (higher than any Graf (count and peculiar comital compound titles such as Landgraf, Gefursteter Graf and Reichsgraf) but lower than a Herzog i.e. duke). At the end of the monarchies in Germany, Italy and Austria, not a single margraviate remained, since they all had been raised to higher titles. Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title derived from the Viking title Jarl). ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is also still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count or an earl. ... Graf is a German noble title equal in rank to a count (derived from the Latin Comes, with a history of its own) or a British earl (an Anglo-Saxon title derived from the Viking title Jarl). ...


The etymological heir of the margrave, also introduced in countries that never had any margraviates, the marquess (see that article; their languages may use one or two words, e.g. French margrave and marquis), still ranks in the British peerage between duke and earl (equivalent to a continental count). A marquess (British English spelling) or marquis (North American English and the original French spelling) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies and some of their colonies. ... For other uses, see Earl (disambiguation). ...


Margravial titles in various European languages

Languages with a specific title for the margrave (distinct from the later marquess, for which all have a word, if different given in parentheses) include (but often no actual marches existed there, so it only refers to foreign cases) : A marquess (British English spelling) or marquis (North American English and the original French spelling) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European monarchies and some of their colonies. ...

Hungarian (magyar nyelv  ) is a Finno-Ugric language (more specifically an Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. ...

Furthermore

  • The late-medieval commanders, fiefholders, of Viipuri castle in Finland, the bulwark of the then Swedish realm, at the border against Novgorod/Russia, did in practice function as margraves having feudal privileges and keeping all the crown's incomes from the fief to use for the defense of the realm's eastern border. Its fiefholders were (almost always) descended from, or married to, the noble family of Baat from Småland in Sweden.
  • The German word "Mark" also has other meanings than the margrave's territorial border area, often with a territorial component, which occur far more numerously then margraviates; so its occurrence in composite placenames does not imply whether it was part of a 'margraviate' as such, although 'margrave', or Markgraf, translates as the "count of the marches", originally ruling an area on the border or outlying area of a larger feudal state. Uses of "Mark" in German names are commonly more local, as in the context of a Markgenossenschaft, which means a partially self-governing association of agricultural users of an area; the German name-component Mark can also be a truncated form of Markt 'market', as in the small town of Marksuhl in the Eisenach area of Thuringia, meaning 'market town on the river Suhl'. The non-margravial origin even applies to the County of Mark and the country of Denmark (meaning 'march of the Danes', in the sense of border area, yet never under a Margrave but the Danish national kingdom, outside the Holy Roman Empire).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Margrave - LoveToKnow 1911 (198 words)
The margraves had their origin in the counts established by Charlemagne and his successors to guard the frontier districts of the empire, and for centuries the title was always associated with this function.
The margraves had within their own jurisdiction the authority of dukes, but at the outset they were subordinate to the dukes in the feudal army of the empire.
In the 12th century, however, the margraves of Brandenburg and Austria (the north and east marks) asserted their position as tenants-in-chief of the empire; with the break-up of the great duchies the others did the same; and the margraves henceforward took rank with the great German princes.
Margrave (354 words)
Margrave version 3, which supports rules with rich predicate-based conditions, is nearing release.
Margrave can then be used to ask queries about the given policy.
Please note that Margrave is not for verification of the correctness of the syntax of an XACML file.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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