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Encyclopedia > Margaret Thatcher
The Right Honourable
 The Baroness Thatcher
 LG, OM, PC, FRS
Margaret Thatcher

In office
4 May 1979 – 28 November 1990
Monarch Elizabeth II
Deputy William Whitelaw (1979–1988)
Geoffrey Howe (1989–1990)
Preceded by James Callaghan
Succeeded by John Major

In office
20 June 1970 – 4 March 1974
Prime Minister Edward Heath
Preceded by Edward Short
Succeeded by Reginald Prentice

Member of Parliament
for Finchley
In office
8 October 1959 – 9 April 1992
Preceded by John Crowder
Succeeded by Hartley Booth

Born 13 October 1925 (1925-10-13) (age 82)
Grantham, Lincolnshire, England
Political party Conservative
Spouse Sir Denis Thatcher, Bt (1951-2003)
Alma mater Somerville College, Oxford
Profession Scientist (Chemist)
Lawyer
Religion Methodist
Signature Margaret Thatcher's signature

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. The Right Honourable (abbreviated Rt Hon, The Rt Hon, The Right Hon, Right Hon) is an honorific prefix that is traditionally applied to certain people in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Anglophone Caribbean and in other Commonwealth Realms, and elsewhere. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... Download high resolution version (421x640, 33 KB)Picture of Margeret Thatcher Source: http://memory. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, KT, CH, MC, PC, DL (June 28, 1918 - July 1, 1999), commonly known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative politician. ... Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH, PC, QC (born 20 December 1926), known until 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, is a senior British Conservative politician. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... The Secretary of State for Education and Skills is the chief minister of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom government. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... Edward Watson Short, Baron Glenamara (born 17 December 1912), is a former Labour MP for Newcastle upon Tyne, who was a minister during the Labour Governments of Harold Wilson. ... Reginald Ernest Prentice, Baron Prentice, PC (July 16, 1923 - January 18, 2001) was a UK politician, representing the Labour Party and later the Conservative Party. ... Finchley (full name: Finchley and Friern Barnet) was formerly a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... John Crowder was the Conservative Member of Parliament for Finchley from its creation in the 1950 general election until the 1959 general election, when he was succeeded by Margaret Thatcher. ... (Vernon Edward) Hartley Booth was the Conservative Member of Parliament for Finchley from the 1992 general election until the constituency was abolished in the 1997 general election and replaced by Finchley and Golders Green Categories: | | ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Grantham is a medium sized market town in Lincolnshire, England with about 35,000 inhabitants (40,000 including Great Gonerby), situated on the River Witham. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... Major Sir Denis Thatcher, 1st Baronet, MBE, TD (10 May 1915 – 26 June 2003) was a businessman, and the husband of the former British Prime Minister, Baroness Thatcher. ... Full name Somerville College Motto Donec rursus impleat orbem Named after Mary Somerville Previous Names Somerville Hall Established 1879 Sister College Girton College Principal Dame Fiona Caldicott JCR President Simon Bruegger MCR President Allen Middlebro Location Woodstock Road, Oxford Undergraduates 396 Graduates 88 Homepage Boat Club Somerville College is one... This article is about the profession. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Image File history File links Thatcherautograph. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Thatcher's tenure as Prime Minister was the longest since that of Lord Salisbury and was the longest continuous period in office since the tenure of Lord Liverpool who was prime minister in the early 19th century. She was the first woman to lead a major political party in the UK, and the first of only three women to have held any of the four great offices of state. She currently has a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire, which allows her to sit in the House of Lords. Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC (3 February 1830 – 22 August 1903), known as Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and as Viscount Cranborne from 1865 until 1868, was a British statesman and Prime Minister on three occasions, for a total of over 13 years. ... The son of George IIIs close adviser Charles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of Liverpool and his part-Indian first wife, Amelia Watts, Robert Jenkinson was educated at Charterhouse School and Christ Church, Oxford. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...

Contents

Early life and education

Born Margaret Hilda Roberts, she grew up in the town of Grantham in Lincolnshire, England. She was delivered by Nicholas Parsons' father, who was a local General Practitioner.[1] Her father, Alfred Roberts, owned a grocery shop in the town and was active in local politics and religion, serving as an Alderman and Methodist lay preacher. Roberts came from a Liberal family but stood—as was then customary in local government—as an Independent. He lost his post as Alderman in 1952 after the Labour Party won its first majority on Grantham Council in 1950. He married Beatrice Stephenson, and they had two daughters (Margaret and her older sister Muriel, 1921-2004).[2] Margaret was brought up a devout Methodist and has remained a Christian throughout her life.[3] Thatcher performed well academically, attending Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School and subsequently attending Somerville College, Oxford in 1944 to study Chemistry, specifically crystallography. She became President of the Oxford University Conservative Association in 1946, the third woman to hold the post. She graduated and then worked as a research chemist for British Xylonite and then J. Lyons and Co., where she helped develop methods for preserving ice cream. She was a member of the team that developed the first soft frozen ice cream. Thatcher was also a member of the Association of Scientific Workers. Grantham is a small market town in Lincolnshire, England with about 40,000 inhabitants. ... For other places with the same name, see Lincolnshire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Christopher Nicholas Parsons OBE, normally known as Nicholas Parsons (born October 10, 1923) is a British actor, radio and television presenter. ... A general practitioner (GP), family physician or family practitioner (FP) is a medical doctor who provides primary care. ... Alfred Roberts (18 April 1892 – 10 February 1970) was a grocer, a lay preacher, an alderman and a Mayor of Grantham. ... An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons, i. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Kesteven and Grantham Girls School (KGGS) is a grammar school for girls in Grantham, Lincolnshire. ... Full name Somerville College Motto Donec rursus impleat orbem Named after Mary Somerville Previous Names Somerville Hall Established 1879 Sister College Girton College Principal Dame Fiona Caldicott JCR President Simon Bruegger MCR President Allen Middlebro Location Woodstock Road, Oxford Undergraduates 396 Graduates 88 Homepage Boat Club Somerville College is one... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Crystallography (from the Greek words crystallon = cold drop / frozen drop, with its meaning extending to all solids with some degree of transparency, and graphein = write) is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in solids. ... The Oxford University Conservative Association (OUCA) is a student political organization founded in 1924 whose members are drawn from Oxford University. ... Joseph Lyons and Co. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Soft ice cream was invented by A chemical research team in Britain (of which a young Margaret Thatcher was a member) discovered a method of doubling the amount of air in ice cream, which allowed manufacturers to use less of the actual ingredients, thereby reducing costs. ... The Association of Scientific Workers (AScW) was a trade union in the UK. It was founded as the National Union of Scientific Workers in 1918, changing its name to the Association of Scientific Workers in 1927. ...


Political career between 1950 and 1970

At the 1950 and 1951 elections, Margaret Roberts fought the safe Labour seat of Dartford, and was at the time the youngest ever female Conservative candidate for office. While active in the Conservative Party in Kent, she met Denis Thatcher, whom she married in 1951. Denis was a wealthy divorced businessman (whose first wife coincidentally had also been named Margaret) and he funded his wife's studies for the Bar. She qualified as a barrister in 1953, the same year that her twin children Carol and Mark were born. As a lawyer she specialised in tax law. The United Kingdom general election in 1950 was the first general election ever after a full term of a Labour government. ... The 1951 election was held soon after the UK general election, 1950, which Labour won, but with an unworkable majority. ... A safe seat is a seat in a legislature which is regarded as fully secured by a certain political party with very little chance of an election upset because of the nature of the electorate in the constituency concerned. ... Dartford is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Major Sir Denis Thatcher, 1st Baronet, MBE, TD (10 May 1915 – 26 June 2003) was a businessman, and the husband of the former British Prime Minister, Baroness Thatcher. ... // Artists impression of an English and Irish barrister A barrister is a lawyer found in many common law jurisdictions which employ a split profession (as opposed to a fused profession) in relation to legal representation. ... Carol Thatcher (born 15 August 1953), styled The Hon. ... Sir Mark Thatcher, 2nd Baronet (born 15 August 1953) is the only son of Sir Denis Thatcher and Baroness Thatcher, the former British Prime Minister, and twin brother of Carol Thatcher. ...


Thatcher then began to look for a safe Conservative seat and was narrowly rejected as candidate for Orpington in 1954. She had several other rejections before being selected for Finchley in April 1958. She won the seat easily in the 1959 election and took her seat in the House of Commons. Unusually, her maiden speech was in support of her Private Member's Bill (Public Bodies (Admission to Meetings) Act 1960) to force local councils to hold meetings in public, which was successful. In 1961 she went against the Conservative Party's official position by voting for the restoration of birching. Orpington is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Finchley (full name: Finchley and Friern Barnet) was formerly a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... This United Kingdom general election was held on October 8, 1959, and marked a third successive victory for the ruling Conservative party, led by Harold MacMillan. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected representative in such bodies as the House of Commons or the United States House of Representatives. ... A Private Members Bill is a proposed law introduced by a backbench member of parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side, to that legislature or parliament. ... The Public Bodies (Admission to Meetings) Act was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1960 which allowed members of the public and press to attend meetings of certain public bodies. ... Birching is corporal punishment with a birch rod, typically a spanking (i. ...


She was given early promotion to the front bench as Parliamentary Secretary at the Ministry of Pensions and National Insurance in September 1961, retaining the post until the Conservatives lost power in the 1964 election. When Sir Alec Douglas-Home stepped down Thatcher voted for Edward Heath in the leadership election over Reginald Maudling, and was rewarded with the job of Conservative spokesman on Housing and Land. In this role she adopted the policy of allowing tenants to buy their council houses, an idea first developed by her colleague James Allason. The policy would prove popular.[4] She moved to the Shadow Treasury team after 1966. The Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Pensions was a junior Ministerial office at Parliamentary Secretary rank in the United Kingdom Government, supporting the Minister for Pensions. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1964 result was a very slim majority for the Labour Party, of 4, and led to their first government since 1951. ... Alexander Frederick Douglas-Home, Baron Home of the Hirsel,[1] KT, PC (2 July 1903 - 9 October 1995) 14th Earl of Home from 1951 to 1963, was a British Conservative (actually SUP) politician, and served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for a year from October 1963 to October... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... The Conservative Party leadership election of July 1965 was held to find a successor to Sir Alec Douglas-Home. ... Rt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Lt. ... The new eastern entrance to HM Treasury HM Treasury, in full Her Majestys Treasury, informally The Treasury, is the United Kingdom government department responsible for developing and executing the UK Governments financial and economic policy. ...


Thatcher was one of few Conservative MPs to support Leo Abse's Bill to decriminalise male homosexuality, and she voted in favour of David Steel's Bill to legalise abortion. She supported retention of capital punishment and voted against the relaxation of divorce laws. Thatcher made her mark as a conference speaker in 1966, with a strong attack on the high-tax policies of the Labour Government as being steps "not only towards Socialism, but towards Communism". She won promotion to the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Fuel Spokesman in 1967, and was then promoted to shadow Transport and, finally, Education before the 1970 election. Leopold Abse (born April 22, 1917) is a British politician from Wales. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... David Martin Scott Steel, Baron Steel of Aikwood, KT, KBE, PC (born 31 March 1938) is a British and Scottish politician and a Liberal Democrat member of the UK House of Lords. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The Official Loyal Opposition Shadow Cabinet (normally referred to simply as The Shadow Cabinet) is, in British parliamentary practice, a group of members from Her Majestys Loyal Opposition whose job it is to scrutinise their opposite numbers in government and come up with alternative policies. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1970 was held on June 18, 1970, and resulted in a surprise loss of power for Labour under Harold Wilson, who was replaced as Prime Minister by the Conservative leader, Edward Heath. ...


In Heath's Cabinet

When the Conservative party under Edward Heath won the 1970 general election, Thatcher became Secretary of State for Education and Science. In her first months in office, forced to administer a cut in the Education budget, she was responsible for the abolition of universal free milk for school-children aged seven to eleven (Labour had already abolished it for secondary schools). This provoked a storm of public protest, and led to one of the more unflattering names for her: "Thatcher Thatcher, Milk Snatcher". However, papers later released under the Thirty Year Rule show that she spoke against such a move in Cabinet, but was forced, due to the concept of collective responsibility, to implement the will of her fellow ministers.[5] She also successfully resisted the introduction of library book charges. Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... The Secretary of State for Education and Skills is the chief minister of the Department for Education and Skills in the United Kingdom government. ... The thirty year rule is the popular name given to a law in the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland and Australia that states that the yearly cabinet papers of a government will be released publicly thirty years after they were created. ...


Her term was marked by support for several proposals for more local education authorities to close grammar schools and adopt comprehensive secondary education; support for this change in education policy was not restricted to the left. Thatcher also saved the Open University from being abolished. The Chancellor Anthony Barber actually wanted to abolish it as a budget-cutting measure, for he viewed it as a gimmick by Harold Wilson. Thatcher believed it was a relatively inexpensive way of extending higher education and insisted that the University should experiment with admitting school-leavers as well as adults. In her memoirs, Thatcher wrote that she was not part of Heath's inner circle, and had little or no influence on the key government decisions outside her department. A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom. ... A comprehensive school is a secondary school that does not select children on the basis of academic attainment or aptitude. ... Affiliations Alliance of Non-Aligned Universities, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European Association of Distance Teaching Universities, Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools Website http://www. ... The Right Honourable Anthony Perrinott Lysberg Barber, Baron Barber, PC (4 July 1920 - 16 December 2005), was a Conservative member of the House of Lords. ... James Harold Wilson, Baron Wilson of Rievaulx, KG, OBE, FRS, PC (11 March 1916 – 24 May 1995) was one of the most prominent British politicians of the 20th century. ...


After the Conservative defeat in February 1974, Heath appointed her Shadow Environment Secretary. In this position she promised to abolish the rating system that paid for local government services, which proved a popular policy within the Conservative Party. The UK general election of February 1974 was held on February 28, 1974. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ...


As Leader of the Opposition

Thatcher agreed with Sir Keith Joseph and the CPS that the Heath Government had lost control of monetary policy — and had lost direction — following its 1972 U-turn. After her party lost the second election of 1974, Joseph decided to challenge Heath's leadership but later withdrew after an unwise speech seen as supporting eugenics. Thatcher then decided that she would enter the race on behalf of the Josephite/CPS faction. Unexpectedly she out-polled Heath on the first ballot, forcing him to resign the leadership. On the second ballot, she defeated Heath's preferred successor William Whitelaw, by 146 votes to 79, and became Conservative Party leader on 11 February 1975.[6] She appointed Whitelaw as her deputy. Heath remained disenchanted with Thatcher to the end of his life for what he (and many of his supporters) perceived as her disloyalty in standing against him. Keith Sinjohn Joseph, Baron Joseph, Bt, CH , PC (17 January 1918–10 December 1994) was a British barrister, politician, and Conservative Cabinet Minister under three different Ministries. ... The Centre for Policy Studies is a United Kingdom-based think tank. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Monetary policy is the process by which the government, central bank... A flip-flop (used mostly in the United States) or a U-turn (used in the United Kingdom) is a sudden real or apparent change of policy or opinion. ... Harold Wilson Edward Heath The United Kingdom general election of October 1974 took place on 10 October 1974. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... The Conservative Party Leadership Election was held during early February, 1975. ... William Stephen Ian Whitelaw, 1st Viscount Whitelaw, KT, CH, MC, PC, DL (June 28, 1918 - July 1, 1999), commonly known as Willie Whitelaw, was a British Conservative politician. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 19 January 1976, she made a speech in Kensington Town Hall in which she made a scathing attack on the Soviet Union. The most famous part of her speech ran: is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Kensington (disambiguation). ...

"The Russians are bent on world dominance, and they are rapidly acquiring the means to become the most powerful imperial nation the world has seen. The men in the Soviet Politburo do not have to worry about the ebb and flow of public opinion. They put guns before butter, while we put just about everything before guns." Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ... In economics, the guns versus butter model is the classic example of the production possibility frontier. ...

In response, the Soviet Defence Ministry newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda (Red Star) gave her the nickname "Iron Lady", which was soon publicised by Radio Moscow. She took delight in the name and it soon became associated with her image as having an unwavering and steadfast character. Her reaction to her other chief nickname, "Attila the Hen" (thought to have been coined by Tory grandee Sir Ian Gilmour) is unrecorded. The Soviet military newspaper Krasnaya Zvezda (Кра́сная звезда́, Red Star) was founded on January 1, 1924. ... Iron Lady is a nickname that has frequently been used to describe female heads of government around the world. ... A 1969 Radio Moscow QSL card Radio Moscow was the official international broadcasting station of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. ... Ian Hedworth John Little Gilmour, Baron Gilmour of Craigmillar, PC, Bt. ...


Thatcher appointed many Heath supporters to the Shadow Cabinet, for she had won the leadership as an outsider and had little power base of her own within the party. One, James Prior got the important brief of shadow Employment Secretary. Thatcher had to act cautiously to convert the Conservative Party to her monetarist beliefs. She reversed Heath's support for devolved government for Scotland. In an interview for Granada Television's World in Action programme in January 1978, she said "people are really rather afraid that this country might be rather swamped by people with a different culture", arousing particular controversy at the time.[7] Critics regarded the comment as a veiled reference to people of colour - and thus pandering to xenophobia and reactionary sentiment. She received 10,000 letters thanking her for raising the subject and the Conservatives gained a lead against Labour in the opinion polls, from both parties at 43% before the speech to 48% for Conservative and 39% for Labour immediately after.[8] James Michael Leathes Prior, Baron Prior, PC, is a British politician, and was Conservative MP for Lowestoft and Waveney. ... Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Devolution. ... This article is about the country. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... World in Action was an investigative current affairs series produced by Granada Television in the United Kingdom from 1963 to 1998. ...


The Labour Government ran into difficulties with the industrial disputes, strikes, increasing unemployment, and collapsing public services during the winter of 1978-9, dubbed the 'Winter of Discontent'. The Conservatives used campaign posters with slogans such as "Labour Isn't Working"[9] to attack the government's record over unemployment and its over-regulation of the labour market. James Callaghan's Labour government fell after a successful Motion of No Confidence in spring 1979. The Winter of Discontent is a nickname given to the British winter of 1978–79, during which there were widespread strikes by Trade unions demanding larger pay rises for their members. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


In the run up to the 1979 General Election, most opinion polls showed that voters preferred James Callaghan as Prime Minister even as the Conservative Party maintained a lead in the polls. The Conservatives would go on to win a 44-seat majority in the House of Commons and Margaret Thatcher became the United Kingdom's first female Prime Minister. On arriving at 10 Downing Street, she famously said, in a paraphrase of St. Francis of Assisi: The United Kingdom general election of 1979 was held on 3 May 1979 and is regarded as a pivotal point in 20th century British politics. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ... Saint Francis of Assisi, St. ...

Where there is discord, may we bring harmony. Where there is error, may we bring truth. Where there is doubt, may we bring faith. And where there is despair, may we bring hope.

As Prime Minister

Main article: Premiership of Margaret Thatcher

The Premiership of Margaret Thatcher began on 4 May 1979, with a mandate to reverse the UKs economic decline and to reduce the role of the state in the economy. ...

1979–1983

Thatcher with close ally and friend, United States President Ronald Reagan, 1981
Thatcher with close ally and friend, United States President Ronald Reagan, 1981

Thatcher became Prime Minister on 4 May 1979, with a mandate to reverse the UK's economic decline and to reduce the role of the state in the economy. Thatcher was incensed by one contemporary view within the Civil Service, that its job was to manage the UK's decline from the days of Empire, and she wanted the country to assert a higher level of influence and leadership in international affairs. She became a very close ally, philosophically and politically, with President Ronald Reagan, elected in 1980 in the United States. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 421 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (736 × 1047 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 421 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (736 × 1047 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Her Majestys Civil Service is the permanent bureaucracy of Crown employees that supports UK Government Ministers. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ...


In 1981, a number of Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Irish National Liberation Army prisoners in Northern Ireland's Maze Prison (known by republicans as 'Long Kesh', due to its previous official name) went on hunger strike to regain the status of political prisoners, which had been revoked five years earlier under the preceding Labour government. Bobby Sands, the first of the strikers, was elected as a Member of Parliament (MP) for the constituency of Fermanagh and South Tyrone a few weeks before he died. Thatcher refused at first to countenance a return to political status for republican prisoners, famously declaring "Crime is crime is crime; it is not political."[10] However, after nine more men had starved themselves to death and the strike had ended, some rights relating to political status were restored to paramilitary prisoners. Thatcher's public hard line on the treatment of paramilitaries was reinforced during the 1981 Iranian Embassy Siege where for the first time in 70 years British armed forces were authorised to use lethal force in Great Britain. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA) is an Irish republican paramilitary organization which was formed on December 8, 1974. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The personnel gate to the main guard office. ... Irish republicanism is an ideology based on the Irish nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a single independent republic, whether as a unitary state, a federal state or as a confederal arrangement. ... RAF Long Kesh was a Royal Air Force station near Lisburn, Northern Ireland from 1941, until 1971. ... A mural in Derrys Bogside, commemorating Irish hunger strikers. ... A political prisoner is anyone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image either challenge or pose a real or potential threat to the state. ... Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: [1][2]), commonly known as Bobby Sands, (9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981), was a Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteer and member of the UK parliament who died on hunger strike whilst in HM Prison Maze (also known as Long Kesh) for the possession of firearms. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Fermanagh & South Tyrone is a Parliamentary Constituency in the British House of Commons and also an Assembly constituency in the Northern Ireland Assembly. ... The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a terrorist siege of the Iranian embassy in London, United Kingdom. ...


As a monetarist, Thatcher started out in her economic policy by increasing interest rates to slow the growth of the money supply and thus lower inflation. She had a preference for indirect taxation over taxes on income, and value added tax (VAT) was raised sharply to 15%, with a resultant actual short-term rise in inflation.[11] These moves hit businesses – especially the manufacturing sector – and unemployment quickly passed two million, doubling the one million unemployed under the previous Labour government. Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... An indirect tax (such as sales tax, value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST)) is collected from the person who bears the tax by intermediaries and the proceeds passed on to government. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST), is...


Political commentators harked back to the Heath Government's "U-turn" and speculated that Mrs Thatcher would follow suit, but she repudiated this approach at the 1980 Conservative Party conference, telling the party: "To those waiting with bated breath for that favourite media catch-phrase—the U-turn—I have only one thing to say: you turn if you want to; the Lady's not for turning."[12] That she meant what she said was confirmed in the 1981 budget, when, despite concerns expressed in an open letter from 364 leading economists,[13] taxes were increased in the middle of a recession. In January 1982, the inflation rate had dropped back to 8.6% from earlier highs of 18%, and interest rates were then allowed to fall. Unemployment continued to rise, reaching an official figure of 3.6 million. By 1983, manufacturing output had dropped 30% from 1978, while overall economic growth was stronger, and inflation and mortgage rates were at their lowest levels since 1970.[14][15] An interest rate is the price a borrower pays for the use of money he does not own, and the return a lender receives for deferring his consumption, by lending to the borrower. ...


The Falklands

Main article: Falklands War

On 2 April 1982, a ruling military junta in Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, a British overseas territory that Argentina had claimed since an 1830s dispute on the British settlement. Within days Thatcher sent a naval task force to recapture the islands. Despite the huge logistical difficulties the operation was a success, resulting in a wave of patriotic enthusiasm and support for her government, with Newsweek declaring "The Empire Strikes Back". There were also several controversies that arose as a result of the Falklands War and Thatcher's handling of the conflict. Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper ( Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... The sovereignty of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas in Spanish) [1] has been the subject of dispute between the United Kingdom, Spain, France and Argentina (all controlling the Falkland Islands at some point), lasting more than two centuries. ... A task force (TF) is a temporary unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ...


1983 General Election

The 'Falklands Factor', along with an economic recovery in early 1983, bolstered the government's popularity. The Labour party at this time had split, and there was a new challenge in the SDP-Liberal Alliance, formed by an electoral pact between the Social Democratic Party and the Liberal Party. However, this grouping failed to make its intended breakthrough, despite briefly holding an opinion poll lead.[citation needed] In the June 1983 general election, the Conservatives won 42.4% of the vote, the Labour party 27.6% and the Alliance 25.4% of the vote. Although the Conservatives' share of the vote had fallen slightly (1.5%) since 1979, Labour's vote had fallen by far more (9.3%) and in Britain's first past the post system, the Conservatives won a landslide victory even though it had the support of less than 43% of the electorate. This resulted in the Conservative Party having an overall majority of 144 MPs. The SDP-Liberal Alliance was an electoral alliance of the Social Democratic Party and the Liberal Party in the UK that ran from 1981 to 1988, when the bulk of the two parties merged to form the Social and Liberal Democrats, later referred to as simply the Liberal Democrats. ... The Social Democratic Party (SDP) was a political party of the United Kingdom that existed nationwide between 1981 and 1988. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The UK general election, 1983 was held on June 9, 1983 and gave the Conservatives and Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of Labour in 1945. ... The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... In politics, a landslide victory (or just a landslide) is the victory of a candidate or political party by an overwhelming majority in an election. ...


1983–1987

Thatcher became an iconic figure during the UK miners' strike

Thatcher was committed to reducing the power of the trades unions. Several unions launched strikes in response to legislation introduced to curb their power, but these actions eventually collapsed, and gradually Thatcher's reforms reduced the power and influence of the unions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 439 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (562 × 768 pixel, file size: 378 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN OF MY POSTER I COLLECTED WHEN I PLAYED WITH DEFIANT POSE PUNK BAND. I WOULD NOT BE SURPRISED IF THIS LIKE MANY... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 439 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (562 × 768 pixel, file size: 378 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) THIS PHOTO WAS TAKEN OF MY POSTER I COLLECTED WHEN I PLAYED WITH DEFIANT POSE PUNK BAND. I WOULD NOT BE SURPRISED IF THIS LIKE MANY... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...


The confrontation over strikes, ordered illegally without a national ballot in 1984-85 by the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) in opposition to proposals to close a large number of mines, proved decisive. Police tactics during the strikes came under criticism from civil libertarians,[citation needed] but the images of crowds of militant miners attempting to prevent other miners from working proved a shock even to some supporters of the strikes[citation needed]. Two miners, Dean Hancock and Russell Shankland, were convicted of the murder of David Wilkie, a taxi driver, whom they killed by throwing a 46 lb (21 kg) slab of concrete through the windscreen of his car from a bridge as he drove beneath it. He was driving a colleague of theirs, David Williams, to work. Both were sentenced to life imprisonment [16]. A group of workers, resigned to the impending failure of the actions, worn down by months of protests, and angry at the NUM's failure to hold a national strike ballot, began to defy the Union's rulings, starting splinter groups and advising workers that returning to work was the only viable option. The Miners' Strike lasted a full year before the NUM leadership conceded without a deal. The Conservative government proceeded to close all but 15 of the country's pits, with the remaining 15 being sold off and privatised in 1994. The defeat of the miners' strike led to a long period of demoralization in the whole of the trade union movement.[citation needed] The National Union of Mineworkers is a trade union for coal miners in the United Kingdom. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... The miners strike of 1984-5 was a major piece of industrial action affecting the British coal industry. ...


At the end of March 1984, four South Africans were arrested in Coventry, remanded in custody, and charged with contravening the UN arms embargo, which prohibited exports to apartheid South Africa of military equipment. Mrs Thatcher took a personal interest in the Coventry Four, and 10 Downing Street requested daily summaries of the case from the prosecuting authority, HM Customs and Excise.[17] Within a month, the Coventry Four had been freed from jail and allowed to travel to South Africa – on condition that they returned to England for their trial later that year. In April 1984, Thatcher sent senior British diplomat, Sir John Leahy, to negotiate the release of 16 Britons who had been taken hostage by the Angolan rebel leader, Jonas Savimbi. At the time, Savimbi's UNITA guerrilla movement was financed and supported militarily by the apartheid regime of South Africa. On 26 April 1984, Leahy succeeded in securing the release of the British hostages at the UNITA base in Jamba, Angola.[18] In June 1984 Thatcher invited apartheid South Africa's president, P. W. Botha, and foreign minister, Pik Botha, to Chequers in an effort to stave off growing international pressure for the imposition of economic sanctions against South Africa, where Britain had invested heavily. She reportedly urged President Botha to end apartheid; to release Nelson Mandela; to halt the harassment of black dissidents; to stop the bombing of African National Congress (ANC) bases in front-line states; and to comply with UN Security Council resolutions and withdraw from Namibia.[19] However Botha ignored these demands. In an interview with Hugo Young for The Guardian in July 1986, Thatcher expressed her belief that economic sanctions against South Africa would be immoral because they would make thousands of black workers unemployed.[20] In August 1984, foreign minister, Pik Botha, decided not to allow the Coventry Four to return to stand trial, thereby forfeiting £200,000 bail money put up by the South African embassy in London. The Coventry Four affair, and Mrs Thatcher's alleged involvement in it, would hit the headlines four years later when British diplomat, Patrick Haseldine, wrote a letter to the Guardian newspaper on 7 December 1988.[21] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... Professor Cloete Four South African military personnel were arrested by HM Customs & Excise officers in Coventry in March 1984 for allegedly conspiring to export arms from Britain to apartheid South Africa in contravention of the mandatory UN Security Council arms embargo. ... Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ... Her Majestys Customs and Excise (HMCE) was a department of the British Government in the UK. It was responsible for the collection of Value-added tax, Customs Duties, Excise Duties, and other indirect taxes such as Air Passenger Duty, Climate Change Levy, Insurance Premium Tax, Landfill Tax and Aggregates... Sir John Leahy KCMG (born February 7, 1928) is a former senior British diplomat. ... Jonas Malheiro Savimbi (August 3, 1934–February 22, 2002) was a rebel leader in Angola who founded the UNITA movement in 1966, and ultimately proved a central figure in 20th century Cold War politics. ... A UNITA sticker The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, commonly known by the acronymn, UNITA, derived from its Portuguese name União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola, is an Angolan political faction and a former rebel force. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Jamba! or JAMBA can refer to several things: Jamba!, a ringtone vendor owned by VeriSign (known as Jamster! in some countries) Japan Australia Migratory Bird Agreement Jamba, Angola Jamba Juice As a colloquializaiton of the smoothies produced by Jamba Juice This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated... P.W. Botha Pieter Willem Botha, (born January 12, 1916) commonly known as P.W. and as die groot krokodil (the great crocodile) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and State President of South Africa from 1984 to 1989. ... Pik Botha in 1984, with (right to left) State President P W Botha, and President Samora Machel of Mozambique and Mrs Graça Machel, at the signing of the Nkomati Accord. ... Chequers, or Chequers Court, is a large house to the south east of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, England, that sits at the foot of the Chiltern Hills. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... Hugo John Smelter Young (October 13, 1938 – September 22, 2003) was a British journalist and columnist and senior political commentator at The Guardian. ... Patrick Haseldine at N°10 Downing Street in July 1994 Patrick Haseldine (born July 11, 1942) is a former British diplomat who was dismissed by the then foreign secretary, John Major, in August 1989. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


On the early morning of 12 October 1984, the day before her 59th birthday, Thatcher escaped injury in the Brighton hotel bombing during the Conservative Party Conference when her hotel room was bombed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army. Five people died in the attack. A prominent member of the Cabinet, Norman Tebbit, was injured, and his wife Margaret was left paralysed. Thatcher herself would have been injured if not for the fact that she was delayed from using the bathroom (which suffered more damage than the room she was in at the time the IRA bomb detonated). Thatcher insisted that the conference open on time the next day and made her speech as planned in defiance of the bombers, a gesture which won widespread approval across the political spectrum.[22] is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Grand Hotel, Brighton, 2004 Night View of the Grand Hotel, Brighton, 2006 The Brighton hotel bombing was the attack by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on the Grand Hotel in the English resort city of Brighton in the early morning of October 12, 1984. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... Norman Beresford Tebbit, Baron Tebbit, CH, PC (born 29 March 1931) is a British Conservative politician and former Member of Parliament (MP) for Chingford, who was born in Southgate in Enfield. ...


On 15 November 1985, Thatcher signed the Hillsborough Anglo-Irish Agreement with Irish Taoiseach Garret FitzGerald, the first time a British government gave the Republic of Ireland a say (albeit advisory) in the governance of Northern Ireland. The agreement was greeted with fury by Northern Irish unionists. is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Anglo-Irish Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland which aimed to bring an end to the Troubles in Northern Ireland. ... The Taoiseach (IPA: , phonetic: TEE-shock — plural: Taoisigh ( or ), also referred to as An Taoiseach [1], is the head of government or prime minister of the Republic of Ireland . ... Garret FitzGerald (Irish: ; born February 9, 1926) was the seventh Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland, serving two terms in office; July 1981 to February 1982, and December 1982 to March 1987. ...


Thatcher's political and economic philosophy emphasised reduced state intervention, free markets, and entrepreneurialism. After the 1983 election, the Government sold off most of the large utilities, starting with British Telecom, which had been in public ownership since the late 1940s. Many people took advantage of share offers, although many sold their shares immediately for a quick profit and therefore the proportion of shares held by individuals rather than institutions did not increase. The policy of privatisation, while anathema to many on the left, has become synonymous with Thatcherism. Wider share-ownership and council house sales became known as "popular capitalism" to its supporters (a term coined by John Redwood). A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... An entrepreneur (a loanword from French introduced and first defined by the Irish economist Richard Cantillon) is a person who operates a new enterprise or venture and assumes some accountability for the inherent risks. ... BT Group plc (which trades as just BT, and is commonly known by its former name, British Telecom) is the privatised former British state telecommunications operator. ... For other uses, see Stock (disambiguation). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Margaret Thatcher Thatcherism is the system of political thought attributed to the governments of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. ... John Alan Redwood (born 15 June 1951 in Dover, Kent) is a British Conservative Party politician and Member of Parliament for Wokingham. ...


In the Cold War, Mrs Thatcher supported United States President Ronald Reagan's policies of deterrence against the Soviets. This contrasted with the policy of détente which the West had pursued during the 1970s, and caused friction with allies who still adhered to the idea of détente. US forces were permitted by Mrs. Thatcher to station nuclear cruise missiles at British bases, arousing mass protests by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. However, she later was the first Western leader to respond warmly to the rise of the future reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, declaring that she liked him and describing him as "a man we can do business with" after a meeting in 1984, three months before he came to power. This was a start of a move by the West back to a new détente with the USSR under Gorbachev's leadership, which coincided with the final erosion of Soviet power prior to its eventual collapse in 1991. Thatcher outlasted the Cold War, which ended in 1989, and those who share her views on it credit her with a part in the West's victory, by both the deterrence and détente postures. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Deterrence theory is a defensive strategy developed after World War II and used throughout the Cold War. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... CND redirects here. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


In 1985, as a deliberate snub, the University of Oxford voted to refuse her an honorary degree in protest against her cuts in funding for higher education. [23] This award had always previously been given to all Prime Ministers who had been educated at Oxford. The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ...


Her liking for defence ties with the United States was demonstrated in the Westland affair when she acted with colleagues to allow the helicopter manufacturer Westland, a vital defence contractor, to refuse to link with the Italian firm Agusta in order for it to link with the management's preferred option, Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation of the United States. Defence Secretary Michael Heseltine, who had pushed the Agusta deal, resigned in protest after this, and remained an influential critic and potential leadership challenger. He would eventually prove instrumental in Thatcher's fall in 1990. The Westland affair was a political scandal for the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher in 1986. ... Westland Aircraft was a British aircraft manufacturer located in Yeovil in Somerset, formed just before the start of World War II. During the war the company produced a number of generally unsuccessful designs, but their Lysander would serve as an important liaison aircraft with the RAF. After the war the... A South African Air Force A109LUH Agusta (now part of AgustaWestland) is an Italian helicopter manufacturer. ... Sikorsky is an American aircraft and helicopter manufacturer. ... The Secretary of State for Defence is the senior United Kingdom government minister in charge of the Ministry of Defence. ... Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, CH, PC (born 21 March 1933) is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. ...


In 1986, her government controversially abolished the Greater London Council (GLC), then led by the strongly left-wing Ken Livingstone, and six Metropolitan County Councils (MCCs). The government claimed this was an efficiency measure. However, Thatcher's opponents held that the move was politically motivated, as all of the abolished councils were controlled by Labour, had become powerful centres of opposition to her government, and were in favour of higher local government taxes and public spending. Several of them had however rendered themselves politically vulnerable by committing scarce public funds to causes widely seen as political and even extreme.[specify][citation needed] Arms of the Greater London Council The Greater London Council (GLC) was the top-tier local government administrative body for Greater London from 1965 to 1986. ... Kenneth Robert Livingstone (born June 17, 1945) became Mayor of London on the creation of the post in 2000 having previously been Labour Leader of the Greater London Council from 1981 until it was abolished in 1986. ... The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ...


Two notable foreign policy developments occurred in her second term.

  • In 1984, she visited China and signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration with Deng Xiaoping on 19 December, which committed the People's Republic of China to award Hong Kong the status of a "Special Administrative Region". Under the terms of the One Country, Two Systems agreement, which Deng himself proposed, China agreed to leave Hong Kong's economic status unchanged after the handover on 1 July 1997 for a period of fifty years – until 2047. Britain agreed to leave, unconditionally, in 1997.
  • At the Dublin European Council in November 1979, Mrs Thatcher argued that the United Kingdom paid far more to the European Economic Community than it received in spending. She declared at the summit: "We are not asking the Community or anyone else for money. We are simply asking to have our own money back". Her arguments were successful and at the June 1984 Fontainebleau Summit, the EEC agreed on an annual rebate for the United Kingdom, amounting to 66% of the difference between Britain's EU contributions and receipts. This still remains in effect, although Tony Blair later agreed to significantly reduce the size of the rebate. It periodically causes political controversy among the members of the European Union.[citation needed]

The Sino-British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Peoples Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by the Prime Ministers of the Peoples... Deng Xiaoping   (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... One country, two systems (Simplified Chinese: 一国两制; Traditional Chinese: 一國兩制; pinyin: yì; guó liÇŽng zhì; Jyutping: jat1 gwok3 loeng5 zai3; Yale: yāt gwok leúhng jai), is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping, then Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), for the unification of China. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Fontainebleau Canton Fontainebleau (chief town) Intercommunality Communauté de communes de Fontainebleau-Avon Mayor Frédéric Valletoux (2005-2008) Statistics Altitude 42–150 (avg. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...

1987–1990

By leading her party to victory in the 1987 general election with a 101 seat majority, riding an economic boom against a weak Labour opposition advocating unilateral nuclear disarmament, Margaret Thatcher became the longest continuously serving Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since Lord Liverpool (1812 to 1827). Most United Kingdom newspapers supported her—with the exception of The Daily Mirror, The Guardian and The Independent—and were rewarded with regular press briefings by her press secretary, Bernard Ingham. She was known as "Maggie" in the tabloids, and her opponents on their marches were given to chanting the slogan "Maggie Out!" Her unpopularity on the left is evident from the lyrics of several contemporary pop-music songs.[24] Margaret Thatcher David Steel Election 1987 Titles The United Kingdom general election of 1987 was held on 11 June 1987 and was the third consecutive victory for the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher. ... Robert Banks Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool (June 7, 1770 - December 4, 1828) was a British statesman, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1812 to 1827. ... National newspapers Traditionally newspapers could be split into quality, serious-minded newspapers (usually reffered to as Broadsheets due to their large size) and tabloid, less serious newspapers. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a British tabloid daily newspaper. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... Sir Bernard Ingham (born June 21, 1932) is a journalist best known as Margaret Thatchers former press secretary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Maggie Out protest song was one of the popular songs sung during the Miners Strike, student grant protests, Poll Tax protests and other public demonstrations that fell within the time when Margaret Thatcher was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


Though an early backer of decriminalization of male homosexuality (see above), Thatcher, at the 1987 Conservative party conference, issued the statement that "Children who need to be taught to respect traditional moral values are being taught that they have an inalienable right to be gay". Backbench Conservative MPs and Peers had already begun a backlash against the 'promotion' of homosexuality and, in December 1987, the controversial 'Section 28' was added as an amendment to what became the Local Government Act 1988. This legislation has since been abolished by Tony Blair's Labour administration. Sir Ian McKellen with Michael Cashman at the 1988 Gay Rights March on Manchester in protest against Section 28. ... The United Kingdom Local Government Act of 1988 was famous for introducing the controversial Section 28 into law. ...

The Thatchers with the Reagans standing at the North Portico of the White House prior to a state dinner, 16 November 1988
The Thatchers with the Reagans standing at the North Portico of the White House prior to a state dinner, 16 November 1988

Thatcher, the former chemist, became publicly concerned with environmental issues in the late 1980s. In 1988, she made a major speech [25] communicating the problems of supposed global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution‎ (823 × 552 pixels, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 537 pixelsFull resolution‎ (823 × 552 pixels, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... State dinners in different countries follow different rules and are governed by different protocols. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ...


At Bruges, Belgium, in 1988, Thatcher made a speech in which she outlined her opposition to proposals from the European Community for a federal structure and increasing centralisation of decision-making. Although she had supported British membership, Thatcher believed that the role of the EC should be limited to ensuring free trade and effective competition, and feared that new EC regulations would reverse the changes she was making in the UK: "We have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the state in Britain, only to see them re-imposed at a European level, with a European super-state exercising a new dominance from Brussels". The speech caused an outcry from other European leaders, and exposed for the first time the deep split that was emerging over European policy inside her Conservative Party. This article is about the city in Belgium. ... EU redirects here. ...


Thatcher's popularity once again declined, in 1989, as the economy suffered from high interest rates. She blamed her Chancellor, Nigel Lawson, who had been following an economic policy which was a preparation for monetary union; in an interview for the Financial Times, in November 1987, Thatcher claimed not to have been told of this and did not approve.[26] Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, PC (born March 11, 1932), was a British politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer between June 1983 and October 1989. ...


At a meeting before the Madrid European Community summit in June 1989, Lawson and Foreign Secretary Geoffrey Howe persuaded Thatcher to agree to the circumstances under which she would join the Exchange Rate Mechanism, a preparation for monetary union and the abolition of the Pound Sterling. At the meeting, they both said they would resign if their demands were not met.[27] Thatcher responded by demoting Howe and by listening more to her adviser Sir Alan Walters on economic matters. Lawson resigned that October, feeling that Thatcher had undermined him. This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH, PC, QC (born 20 December 1926), known until 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, is a senior British Conservative politician. ... The European exchange rate mechanism (or ERM) was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange-rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single... GBP redirects here. ... Professor Sir Alan Arthur Walters (June 17, 1926) is a British economist, best known as the former Chief Economic Adviser to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher from 1981 to 1984 and again in 1989 after he had returned from America. ...


That November, Thatcher was challenged for the leadership of the Conservative Party by Sir Anthony Meyer. As Meyer was a virtually unknown backbench MP, he was viewed as a "stalking horse" candidate for more prominent members of the party. Thatcher easily defeated Meyer's challenge, but there were sixty ballot papers either cast for Meyer or abstaining, a surprisingly large number for a sitting Prime Minister. Her supporters in the Party, however, viewed the results as a success, claiming that after ten years as Prime Minister and with approximately 370 Conservative MPs voting, the opposition was surprisingly small.[28] The 1989 Conservative Party leadership election took place on 5 December 1989. ... Sir Anthony John Charles Meyer, 3rd Baronet, (October 27, 1920 – December 24, 2004) was a British soldier, diplomat, and Conservative Party politician, best known for standing against Margaret Thatcher for the party leadership in 1989. ... A backbencher is a Member of Parliament or a legislator who does not hold governmental office and is not a Front Bench spokesperson in the Opposition. ... Look up Stalking horse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Margaret Thatcher was also a strong opponent of the German reunification that was developing at unexpected speed since 1989, however she failed to halt it.[29] This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ...


Thatcher's new system to replace local government taxes, outlined in the Conservative manifesto for the 1987 election, was introduced in Scotland in 1989 and in England and Wales in 1990. The rates were replaced by the Community Charge or 'Poll Tax', which applied the same amount to every individual resident, with discounts for low earners. This was to be the most universally unpopular policy of her premiership. Individuals seeking to avoid paying their share of the costs of local government effectively disenfranchised themselves by removing themselves from the electoral register. This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ...


Additional problems emerged when many of the tax rates set by local councils proved to be much higher than predicted. Opponents of the Community Charge banded together to resist bailiffs and disrupt court hearings of Community Charge debtors. The Labour MP, Terry Fields, was jailed for 60 days for refusing on principle to pay his Community Charge. As the Prime Minister continued to refuse to compromise on the tax and as many as one in five people had still not paid, unrest mounted and culminated in a number of riots. The most serious of these happened in London on 31 March 1990, during a protest at Trafalgar Square, London, which more than 100,000 protesters attended. The huge unpopularity of the tax was seen as a major factor in Thatcher's downfall.[30] Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian (cf. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... Terry Fields (born 8 March 1937) is a British politician and a former Labour Member of Parliament for Liverpool Broadgreen from 1983 until 1992. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


One of Thatcher's acts in her last half year in office was to put pressure on US President George H. W. Bush to deploy troops to the Middle East to drive Saddam Hussein's (Iraqi) army out of Kuwait. Bush was somewhat apprehensive about the plan, but Thatcher's memoirs summarise her advice to him during a telephone conversation with the words, "this was no time to go wobbly!" [31]Thatcher's government provided military forces to the international coalition in the Gulf War to pursue the ouster of Iraq from Kuwait.[32] George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


On the Friday before the Conservative Party conference in October 1990, Thatcher ordered her new Chancellor of the Exchequer John Major to reduce interest rates by 1%. Major persuaded her that the only way to maintain monetary stability was to join the Exchange Rate Mechanism at the same time, despite not meeting the 'Madrid conditions'. The Conservative Party conference that year saw a large degree of unity; few who attended could have imagined that Mrs Thatcher had only a matter of weeks left in office. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ...


Fall from power

See also: Conservative Party (UK) leadership election, 1990

Thatcher's political "assassination" was, according to witnesses such as Alan Clark, one of the most dramatic episodes in British political history. The idea of a long-serving prime minister — undefeated at the polls — being ousted by an internal party ballot might at first sight seem bizarre. However, by 1990, opposition to Thatcher's policies on local government taxation (the community charge, or poll tax) [33], her Government's mishandling of the economy (in particular the high interest rates of 15% that eroded her support among home owners and business people), and the divisions opening in the Conservative Party over European integration made her seem increasingly politically vulnerable and her party increasingly divided. Her distaste for consensus politics and willingness to override colleagues' opinions, including that of Cabinet, emboldened the backlash against her when it did occur.[34]Others cited her strong uncompromising personality. The dislike for Thatcher that had previously come primarily from her political opponents was now being expressed by some members of her own party. The 1990 Conservative Party leadership election in the United Kingdom took place in November 1990 following the decision of former Trade and Industry Secretary Michael Heseltine to stand against the incumbent Conservative leader and Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher. ... Alan Kenneth Mackenzie Clark (13 April 1928 - 5 September 1999) was a British Conservative politician, historian and diarist. ... A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... An interest rate is the rental price of money. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ...


On 1 November 1990, Sir Geoffrey Howe, one of Thatcher's oldest and staunchest supporters, resigned from his position as Deputy Prime Minister in protest at Thatcher's European policy. In his resignation speech in the House of Commons two weeks later, he suggested that the time had come for "others to consider their own response to the tragic conflict of loyalties" with which he stated that he had wrestled for perhaps too long. Her former cabinet colleague Michael Heseltine subsequently challenged her for the leadership of the party, and attracted sufficient support in the first round of voting to prolong the contest to a second ballot. Though she initially stated that she intended to contest the second ballot, Thatcher decided, after consulting with her Cabinet colleagues, to withdraw from the contest. On 22 November, at just after 9.30 a.m., she announced to the Cabinet that she would not be a candidate in the second ballot. Shortly afterwards, her staff made public what was, in effect, her resignation statement: is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH, PC, QC (born 20 December 1926), known until 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, is a senior British Conservative politician. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Having consulted widely among my colleagues, I have concluded that the unity of the Party and the prospects of victory in a General Election would be better served if I stood down to enable Cabinet colleagues to enter the ballot for the leadership. I should like to thank all those in Cabinet and outside who have given me such dedicated support.

Neil Kinnock, Leader of the Opposition, proposed a motion of no confidence in the government, and Margaret Thatcher seized the opportunity this presented on the day of her resignation to deliver one of her most memorable performances: Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, PC (born 28 March 1942) is a British politician. ...

...a single currency is about the politics of Europe, it is about a federal Europe by the back door. So I shall consider the proposal of the Honourable Member for Bolsover (Mr. Skinner). Now where were we? I am enjoying this."

She supported John Major as her successor and he duly won the leadership contest, although in the years to come her approval of Major would fall away. After her resignation a MORI poll found that 52% agreed with the proposition that "On balance she had been good for the country", while 48% disagreed thinking she had not.[35] In 1991, she was given a long and unprecedented standing ovation at the party's annual conference, although she politely rejected calls from delegates for her to make a speech. She did, however, occasionally speak in the House of Commons after she was Prime Minister. She retired from the House at the 1992 election, at the age of 66 years. Her continued presence in the House of Commons after the resignation was thought to be a destabilising influence on the Conservative government. Skinner in the House of Commons. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... Mori (森) is a Japanese family name. ... This article is about the word proposition as it is used in logic, philosophy, and linguistics. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1992 was held on 9 April 1992. ...


Post-political career

In 1992, Margaret Thatcher was raised to the House of Lords by the conferment of a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher, of Kesteven in the County of Lincolnshire. She did not take an hereditary title, as she had recommended for Harold Macmillan, later Earl of Stockton, on his ninetieth birthday in 1984. By virtue of the life barony, she entered the House of Lords. She made a series of speeches in the Lords criticising the Maastricht Treaty, describing it as "a treaty too far" and in June 1993 told the Lords: "I could never have signed this treaty".[36] She had also advocated a referendum on the treaty when she returned to the back benches in 1991. She cited A. V. Dicey, to the effect that, since all three main parties were in favour of revisiting the treaty, the people should have their say.[37] In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... Parts of Kesteven is a traditional subdivision of Lincolnshire, England. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Albert Venn Dicey (February 4, 1835 – April 7, 1922) was a British jurist and constitutional theorist who wrote An Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (1885). ...


In August 1992, she called for NATO to stop the Serbian assault on Gorazde and Sarajevo in order to end ethnic cleansing and to preserve the Bosnian state. She claimed what was happening in Bosnia was "reminiscent of the worst excesses of the Nazis".[38] In December of that same year she warned that there could be a "holocaust" in Bosnia and, after the first massacre at Srebrenica in April 1993, Thatcher thought it was a "killing field the like of which I thought we would never see in Europe again". She reportedly said to Douglas Hurd, the Foreign Secretary: "Douglas, Douglas, you would make Neville Chamberlain look like a warmonger".[39] Goražde is a city in eastern Bosnia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8... Srebrenica (Cyrillic: Сребреница; IPA: /srÉ›.brÉ›.ni. ... This article is about the British prime minister. ...


Margaret Thatcher had already been honoured by the Queen in 1990, shortly after her resignation as Prime Minister, when awarded the Order of Merit, one of the UK's highest distinctions. In addition, her husband, Denis Thatcher, had been given a baronetcy in 1991 (ensuring that their son Mark would inherit a title). This was the first creation of a baronetcy since 1965. In 1995, Thatcher was raised to the Order of the Garter, the United Kingdom's highest order of Chivalry. The Order of Merit is a British and Commonwealth Order bestowed by the Monarch. ... For the brush-footed butterfly species, see Euthalia nais. ... Sir Mark Thatcher, 2nd Baronet (born 15 August 1953) is the only son of Sir Denis Thatcher and Baroness Thatcher, the former British Prime Minister, and twin brother of Carol Thatcher. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ...


In July 1992, she was hired by tobacco company Philip Morris Companies, now the Altria Group, as a "geopolitical consultant" for US$250,000 per year and an annual contribution of US$250,000 to her Foundation. Altria Group, Inc. ... Altria Group, Inc. ...


From 1993 to 2000, she served as Chancellor of the College of William and Mary, Virginia, USA, which was established by Royal Charter in 1693. She was also Chancellor of the University of Buckingham, the UK's only private university. She retired from the post in 1998. The College of William and Mary (also known as William & Mary, W&M or The College) is a small, selective, coeducational public university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. ... For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ... The University of Buckingham has come into prominence in recent years by being ranked first and then second in the National Student Survey, the league-table of student satisfaction. ...


She wrote her memoirs in two volumes, The Path to Power and The Downing Street Years. In 1993 The Downing Street Years were turned into a documentary series by the BBC, in which she described the Cabinet rebellion that brought about her resignation as "treachery with a smile on its face". As a literary genre, a memoir (from the French: mémoire from the Latin memoria, meaning memory) forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ...


Although she remained supportive in public, in private she made her displeasure with many of John Major's policies plain, and her views were conveyed to the press and widely reported. She was critical of the rise in public spending under Major, his tax increases, and his support of the European Union. After Tony Blair's election as Labour Party leader in 1994, Thatcher gave an interview in May 1995 in which she praised Blair as "probably the most formidable Labour leader since Hugh Gaitskell. I see a lot of socialism behind their front bench, but not in Mr Blair. I think he genuinely has moved".[40] For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... A leadership election was held in 1994 for the Labour Party in the United Kingdom, after the death of incumbent leader John Smith. ... Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell (April 9, 1906 – January 18, 1963) was a British politician, leader of the Labour Party from 1955 until his death in 1963. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...


In the Conservative leadership election in the aftermath of the Conservatives' landslide defeat at the hands of New Labour, Thatcher voiced her support for William Hague after Kenneth Clarke entered into an alliance with John Redwood. Thatcher reportedly then toured the tea room of the House of Commons, urging Conservative MPs to vote for Hague. Final round William Hague - 90 Kenneth Clarke - 72 Hague becomes Leader ... The UK general election, 1997 was held on 1 May 1997. ... New Labour is an alternative name of the British political Labour Party. ... William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... This article is about Kenneth Clarke, the English politician. ... John Alan Redwood (born 15 June 1951 in Dover, Kent) is a British Conservative Party politician and Member of Parliament for Wokingham. ...


In 1998, Thatcher made an unofficial visit to the former Chilean president Augusto Pinochet, while he was under house arrest in Surrey. Pinochet was fighting extradition for human rights abuses committed during his tenure. Thatcher expressed her support and friendship for Pinochet.[41] Pinochet had been a key ally of Britain during the Falklands War. Also in 1998, she made a £2,000,000 donation to Cambridge University for the endowment of a Margaret Thatcher Chair in Entrepreneurial Studies. She also donated the archive of her personal papers to Churchill College, Cambridge where the collection continues to be expanded. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile as a military dictator [2] from 1974 to 1990, and head of the military junta from 1973 to 1974. ... This article is about the English county. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... College name Churchill College Motto Forward Named after Sir Winston Churchill Established 1960 Location Storey’s Way Admittance Men and women Master Sir David Wallace Undergraduates 440 Graduates 210 Sister college Trinity College, Oxford Official website Boat Club website Churchill College Main Entrance Churchill College is one of the constituent...


Margaret Thatcher actively supported the Conservative general election campaign in 2001. In the Conservative leadership election shortly after, Lady Thatcher came out in support of Iain Duncan Smith because she believed he would "make infinitely the better leader" than Kenneth Clarke due to Clarke's "old-fashioned views of the role of the state and his unbounded enthusiasm for European integration".[42] Tony Blair William Hague Charles Kennedy The UK general election, 2001 was held on 7 June 2001 and was dubbed the quiet landslide by the media. ... The 2001 Conservative leadership election was held after the United Kingdom Conservative Party failed to make inroads into the Labour governments lead in the 2001 general election. ... Rt. ...


In 2002, she published Statecraft: Strategies for a Changing World detailing her thoughts on international relations since her resignation in 1990. The chapters on the European Union were particularly controversial; she called for a fundamental renegotiation of Britain's membership to preserve the UK's sovereignty and, if that failed, for Britain to leave and join NAFTA. These chapters were serialised in The Times on Monday, 18 March and caused a political furore for the rest of the week until Friday, 22 March when it was announced she had been advised by her doctors to make no more public speeches on health grounds, having suffered several small strokes.[43] According to her former press spokesman Bernard Ingham, Thatcher has no short-term memory as a result of the strokes.[44] Foreign affairs redirects here. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


She remains active in various groups, including Conservative Way Forward, the Bruges Group and the European Foundation. She was widowed on 26 June 2003. Conservative Way Forward (CWF) is a campaigning group within the British Conservative Party. ... The Bruges Group is a euro-sceptic think tank which is often associated with the British Conservative Party (although this has been disputed). ... The European Foundation is a leading Eurosceptic think tank based in the United Kingdom. ... Margaret and Denis Thatcher Arms of Sir Denis Thatcher Major Sir Denis Thatcher, 1st Baronet, MBE (May 10, 1915 – June 26, 2003) was a businessman, and the husband of the former British Prime Minister, Baroness Thatcher. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 11 June 2004, Thatcher attended the funeral of, and delivered a tribute via videotape to, former United States President Ronald Reagan at his state funeral at the National Cathedral in Washington, D.C. In view of her failing mental faculties following several small strokes, the message had been pre-recorded several months earlier. Thatcher then flew to California with the Reagan entourage, and attended the memorial service and interment ceremony for President Reagan at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan kisses the casket of her husband, Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the week long state funeral honoring him in June of 2004. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is the presidential library of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. ...

Thatcher attends the official Washington, D.C. memorial service marking the 5th anniversary of the 9/11 terror attacks, pictured with Vice President Dick Cheney and his wife Lynne Cheney.
Thatcher attends the official Washington, D.C. memorial service marking the 5th anniversary of the 9/11 terror attacks, pictured with Vice President Dick Cheney and his wife Lynne Cheney.

In December 2004, it was reported that Thatcher had told a private meeting of Conservative MPs that she was against the British Government's plan to introduce identity cards. She is said to have remarked that ID cards were a "Germanic concept and completely alien to this country".[45] Image File history File linksMetadata Thatcher_2006_September_11_event. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Thatcher_2006_September_11_event. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Lynne Ann Vincent Cheney (born August 14, 1941) , is a novelist, conservative scholar, and former talk-show host who is the wife of Vice President Dick Cheney. ... Enabling legislation for the British national identity card was passed under the Identity Cards Act 2006. ...


On 13 October 2005, Thatcher marked her 80th birthday with a party at the Mandarin Oriental Hotel in Hyde Park where the guests included Queen Elizabeth II, The Duke of Edinburgh, and Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy. There, Geoffrey Howe, now Lord Howe of Aberavon, commented on her political career: "Her real triumph was to have transformed not just one party but two, so that when Labour did eventually return, the great bulk of Thatcherism was accepted as irreversible." is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group (MOHG) is a hotel management company that is part of Jardines. ... “Hyde Park” redirects here. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Prince Philip redirects here. ... Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy (Alexandra Helen Elizabeth Olga Christabel; born 25 December 1936), is a member of the British Royal Family, a granddaughter of George V. She was married to the late Sir Angus Ogilvy. ...


In September 2006, Thatcher attended the official Washington, D.C. memorial service marking the 5th anniversary of the September 11th terror attacks . She attended as a guest of the U.S. Vice President, Dick Cheney, and met with U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice during her visit. It marked her first visit to the United States since the funeral for former U.S. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger in April 2006.[46] For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ...


On 12 November 2006, she appeared at the Remembrance Day parade at the Cenotaph in London, leaning heavily on the arm of former Prime Minister, John Major. One week later, she released an effusive statement of condolence on the death of her friend and economic mentor, Milton Friedman, the man often described as the inspiration behind Thatcherism. On 10 December she announced she was "deeply saddened" by the death of the former Chilean dictator General Pinochet.[47] is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wreaths of artificial poppies used as a symbol of remembrance Remembrance Day (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom), also known as Poppy Day (Malta and South Africa), Veterans Day (United States), and Armistice Day (France, New Zealand, and many other Commonwealth countries; and the original name of the day internationally) is a... The Cenotaph, London A ceremony at the Cenotaph, London, on Sunday 12th June 2005, remembering Irish war dead Memorial Cenotaph, Hiroshima, Japan A cenotaph is a tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... Margaret Thatcher Thatcherism is the system of political thought attributed to the governments of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile as a military dictator [2] from 1974 to 1990, and head of the military junta from 1973 to 1974. ...


On 21 February 2007 as a statue of her was unveiled in the British Houses of Parliament, Lady Thatcher made a rare and brief speech in the members' lobby of the House of Commons. She said: "I might have preferred iron - but bronze will do... It won't rust. And, this time I hope, the head will stay on." (A previous statue in stone had been attacked and decapitated while on public exhibition.[48]) is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


On 17 June 2007 Lady Thatcher attended a ceremony marking the 25th anniversary of the end of the Falklands War, taking her place on a podium outside Buckingham Palace along with then Prime Minister Tony Blair, the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York. is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ... “Prince Charles” redirects here. ... The Prince Andrew, The Duke of York (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British Royal Family, the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has held the title of Duke of York since 1986. ...


On 13 September 2007, Lady Thatcher was invited to 10 Downing Street to have tea with Prime Minister Gordon Brown and his wife, Sarah. Gordon Brown referred to Lady Thatcher as a: is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... Sarah Brown née Macaulay (born October 1963) is the wife of Gordon Brown, the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...

"conviction politician. I'm a conviction politician just like her".[49]

Legacy

Thatcher may be remembered most of all for her remark "There is no such thing as society" [50] to the reporter Douglas Keay, for Woman's Own magazine, 23 September 1987. This remark has frequently been quoted out of its full context and the surrounding remarks were as follows: Womans Own is a British lifestyle magazine aimed at women. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...

"I think we've been through a period where too many people have been given to understand that if they have a problem, it's the government's job to cope with it. 'I have a problem, I'll get a grant.' 'I'm homeless, the government must house me.' They're casting their problem on society. And, you know, there is no such thing as society. There are individual men and women, and there are families. And no government can do anything except through people, and people must look to themselves first."[51]

In 1996, the Scott Inquiry into the Arms-to-Iraq affair investigated the Thatcher government's record in dealing with Saddam Hussein. It revealed how £1bn of Whitehall money was used in soft loan guarantees for British exporters to Iraq. The judge found that during Baghdad's protracted invasion of Iran in the 1980s, officials destroyed documents relating to the export of Chieftain tank parts to Jordan which ended up in Iraq. Ministers clandestinely relaxed official guidelines to help private companies sell machine tools which were used in munitions factories. The British company Racal exported sophisticated Jaguar V radios to the former Iraqi dictator's army on credit. Members of the Conservative cabinet refused to stop lending guaranteed funds to Saddam even after he executed a British journalist, Farzad Bazoft, Thatcher’s cabinet minuting that they did not want to damage British industry. The Scott Report was a judicial inquiry commissioned in 1992 after reports of arms sales in the 1980s to Iraq by British companies surfaced. ... The Arms-to-Iraq affair concerned the uncovering of the government-endorsed sale of arms by British companies to Saddam Husseins Iraq. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Combatants  Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft... The FV 4201 Chieftain was the Main battle tank of the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s. ... Racal Electronics plc was a British defence electronics firm purchased by Thomson-CSF (now Thales Group) in 2000. ... Farzad Bazoft was an 32-year-old Iran-born British journalist working as a freelance reporter for The Observer. ...


New Labour and Blairism have incorporated much of the economic, social and political tenets of "Thatcherism" in the same manner as, in a previous era, the Conservative Party from the 1950s until the days of Edward Heath accepted many of the basic assumptions of the welfare state instituted by Labour governments. The curtailing and large-scale dismantling of elements of the welfare state under Thatcher have largely remained. As well, Thatcher's program of privatising state-owned enterprises has not been reversed. Indeed, successive Tory and Labour governments have further curtailed the involvement of the state in the economy and have further dismantled public ownership. New Labour is an alternative name of the British political Labour Party. ... The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953 in Edinburgh, Scotland) is the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. ... Sir Edward Richard George Heath, KG, OBE (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ...


Thatcher's impact on the trade union movement in Britain has been lasting, with the breaking of the miners' strike of 1984-1985 seen as a watershed moment, or even a breaking point, for a union movement which has been unable to regain the degree of political power it exercised up through the 1970s. Unionisation rates in Britain have permanently declined since the 1980s, and the legislative instruments introduced to curtail the impact of strikes have not been reversed. The Labour Party has worked to loosen its ties to the trade union movement[citation needed]. Although the power of trade unions is still significantly lower than it was before Thatcher came to power, the Employment Relations Act 2004 was introduced under the Blair government to make statutory recognition of trade unions accessible and to further protect workers taking industrial action. A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... The miners strike of 1984-5 was a major piece of industrial action affecting the British coal industry. ...


Thatcher's legacy has continued to strongly influence the Conservative Party itself. Successive leaders, starting with John Major, and continuing in opposition with William Hague, Iain Duncan Smith and Michael Howard, have struggled with real or perceived factions in the Parliamentary and national party to determine what parts of her heritage should be retained or jettisoned. One cannot yet determine what the role of Thatcherism will be under the leadership of David Cameron. For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... Rt. ... The Rt Hon. ... For the Canadian ice hockey player, see Dave Cameron. ...


Thatcher is credited by Ronald Reagan with persuading him that Mikhail Gorbachev was sincere in his desire to reform and liberalize the Soviet Union. The resulting thaw in East-West relations helped to end the Cold War. In recognition of this, Lady Thatcher was awarded the 1998 Ronald Reagan Freedom Award by Mrs. Nancy Reagan. The award is only given to those who "have made monumental and lasting contributions to the cause of freedom worldwide," and "embody President Reagan's life long belief that one man or woman can truly make a difference." President Ronald Reagan, who was not able to attend the ceremony, was a longtime friend of Lady Thatcher.[52] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Nancy Reagan presents the 2007 Ronald Reagan Freedom Award to former United States President George Bush. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


In a list compiled by New Statesman in 2006, she was voted fifth in the list of "Heroes of our time".[53] She was also named a "Hero of Freedom" by the libertarian magazine Reason.[54] The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... A Hero of Freedom is one of the 35 individuals who were recognized by the Libertarian Magazine Reason for helping advance the cause of freedom through their actions, either intentionally or unintentionally Those who were recognised in 2003 include: Attorney General John Ashcroft Amazon. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ...


In February 2007, she became the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to be honoured with a statue in the House of Commons while still alive. The statue is made of bronze and stands opposite her political hero and predecessor, Winston Churchill.[55] The statue, by sculptor Antony Dufort, shows her as if she were addressing the House of Commons, with her right arm outstretched.[56] Thatcher said she was thrilled with it.[57]


In March, 2007, Variety reported that a film from the makers of the Oscar-winning drama The Queen were planning a film on Thatcher's days leading up to the Falklands War. As of late summer 2007, no stars have been attached to the project, which is still in planning stages. [2] Variety is a daily magazine for the entertainment industry. ... This article is about the film. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed...


On 30 September 2007, William Hague at the Conservative Party Conference, referred to Lady Thatcher as "the Greatest Prime Minister". William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ... ...


Titles and honours

The arms of Margaret Thatcher. The admiral represents the Falklands War, the image of Sir Isaac Newton her background as a chemist and her birth town Grantham.

Thatcher, Lady This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Thatcher, Lady This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Combatants Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner 75 fixed... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Grantham is a medium sized market town in Lincolnshire, England with about 35,000 inhabitants (40,000 including Great Gonerby), situated on the River Witham. ...

Titles from birth

Titles Baroness Thatcher has held from birth, in chronological order:

is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...

Honours

The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... For other Orders see Order of Merit (disambiguation). ... Her Majestys Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... The noted gentlemans Reform Club A Gentlemens club is a members club originally designed for male members of the English upper class. ... The Carlton Club is a gentlemens club in London. ...

Foreign honours

The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... The United States Republican Senatorial Medal of Freedom, is the highest and most prestigious award United States Republican Party senators can bestow on an individual. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... Nancy Reagan presents the 2007 Ronald Reagan Freedom Award to former United States President George Bush. ... Gallups List of Widely Admired People, a poll of United States citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals whom they most admire, is a list compiled annually by The Gallup Organization. ...

Chancellorships

The University of Buckingham is the UKs first and only independent university. ... Wren Building with a snow-covered statue of Lord Botetourt. ...

Commemorations

Map of the Falkland Islands showing position of Stanley. ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... Central South Georgia: Cumberland Bay; Thatcher Peninsula with King Edward Cove (Grytviken); Allardyce Range with the summit Mt. ...

See also

Euroscepticism has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ... The Thatcher effect or Thatcher illusion is a phenomenon where it becomes difficult to detect local feature changes in an upside down face, despite identical changes being obvious in an upright face. ... The Ministry Categories: British ministries ... The Sermon on the Mound is the name given by the British press to an address made by Margaret Thatcher to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1988. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Nicholas Parsons on "Desert Island Discs", BBC Radio 4, 9th November, 2007.
  2. ^ The Sunday Times, in a 30 October 2006 article by Maurice Chittenden that has been posted on the website of the Margaret Thatcher Foundation, reported that the British Labour politician Woodrow Wyatt strongly believed that Beatrice Roberts's natural father was the Edwardian rake and publisher Harry Cust. Beatrice's mother, Phoebe Stephenson, was a married servant who worked at Cust's estate, Belton House, which was located near Lady Thatcher's birthplace, Grantham, in Lincolnshire. Cust also was the biological father of the 1920s beauty Lady Diana Cooper, through an affair with the married Duchess of Rutland.
  3. ^ Modern History Sourcebook, Excerpts from a speech in which Thatcher discusses her Christian faith in relation to her politics (Aug 1997) Retrieved March 29, 2007
  4. ^ The Hot Seat, James Allason, Blackthorn, London 2006
  5. ^ BBC News article 1 January 2001
  6. ^ Press Conference after winning Conservative leadership (Grand Committee Room) www.margaretthatcher.org. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  7. ^ TV Interview for Granada World in Action with journalist Gordon Burns(January 27, 1978),Rather Swamped, Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  8. ^ John Campbell, Margaret Thatcher: The Grocer's Daughter (Jonathan Cape, 2000), p. 400.
  9. ^ BBC News education article
  10. ^ BBC "On This Day", 3 October 1981
  11. ^ Does VAT lead to inflation?.
  12. ^ Margaret Thatcher, Party Conference Speech, October 1980
  13. ^ Letter to The Times, 23 March 1981
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ http://eh.net/hmit/ukgdp/
  16. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/may/16/newsid_2512000/2512469.stm
  17. ^ Richard Norton-Taylor and David Pallister, Commons test for SA arms row The Guardian December 9, 1988
  18. ^ UPI Report, New York Times May 14, 1984
  19. ^ John Campbell, Margaret Thatcher: The Iron Lady (Jonathan Cape, 2003), p. 324.
  20. ^ Hugo Young, Supping with the Devils (Atlantic, 2003), p.6.
  21. ^ 'Fifth man' professor identified in South African weapons ring
  22. ^ Extract from Margaret Thatcher The Downing Street Years, pp379-83(1993), Northern Ireland: The Brighton Bomb [memoirs extract], Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  23. ^ BBC News "On this day archive" 29 January 1985, Thatcher snubbed by Oxford dons, BBC News. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  24. ^ Exploited is at least one of the bands opposing Thatcher's political rule, as evident from their harsh lyrics in "Let's start a war" and "Maggie."
  25. ^ Speech to the Royal Society(September 27, 1988), Public Statement, Speech Archive, Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  26. ^ Interview for Financial Times with journalists Malcolm Rutherford, Geoffrey Owen, and Peter Riddell(November 20, 1987), Thatcher stands firm against full EMS role, Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  27. ^ Margaret Thatcher, The Downing Street Years (HarperCollins, 1993), p. 712.
  28. ^ BBC News "On this day archive" 5 December 1989, Thatcher beats off leadership rival, BBC News. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  29. ^ The view of Kohl
  30. ^ BBC News "On this day archive" 31 March 1990, Violence flares in poll tax demonstration, BBC News. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
  31. ^ Margaret Thatcher The Downing Street Years , pp.823-24(August 26, 1990), Gulf War: Bush-Thatcher phone conversation (no time to go wobbly) [memoirs extract], Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved June 25, 2007.
  32. ^ "The Second Gulf War, 1990-1991" se2.isn.ch/.../FileContent?serviceID=ISFPub&fileid=FB678761-6586-38F1-EFA6-21799C0D073E&lng=en
  33. ^ 1990: Violence flares in poll tax demonstration BBC News 31/03/1990
  34. ^ Foster, C, British Government in Crisis, Hart Publishing, 2005
  35. ^ Dennis Kavangah, The Reordering of British Politics: Politics after Thatcher (OUP, 1997), p. 134.
  36. ^ House of Lords European Communities (Amendment) Bill Speech(June 7, 1993), Public Statement, Speech Archive, Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  37. ^ House of Commons European Community debate(November 20, 1991), Public Statement, Speech Archive, Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  38. ^ (Campbell, The Iron Lady, p. 769)
  39. ^ (Campbell, The Iron Lady, p. 770)
  40. ^ http://www.fifthinternational.org/index.php?id=50,201,0,0,1,0
  41. ^ BBC News Report 26 March 1999, Thatcher stands by Pinochet, BBC News. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  42. ^ Letter supporting Iain Duncan Smith for the Conservative leadership published in the Daily Telegraph (August 21, 2001), Public Statement, Archive, Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  43. ^ Statement on Margaret Thatcher's health as she abandons public speaking (March 22, 2002), Statement from the office off the RT Hon. Baroness Thatcher LG OM FRS, Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  44. ^ John Harris, Into the void, The Guardian, 3 February 2007.
  45. ^ George Jones, Howard fights to head off Tory revolt over ID cards, The Daily Telegraph, 21 December 2004.
  46. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20060908/wl_uk_afp/usattacks5years
  47. ^ BBC News Report 11 December 2006, Pinochet death 'saddens' Thatcher, BBC News. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  48. ^ BBC News Report 21 February 2007, Iron Lady is honoured in bronze, BBC News. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  49. ^ Brown welcomes Thatcher at No 10. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-09-14.
  50. ^ Full text of Margaret Thatcher's quotation to Women's Own magazine, 31 October 1987, quoted in Epitaph for the eighties? 'there is no such thing as society', briandeer.com, undated, Retrieved 10 April 2007
  51. ^ Interview for Woman's Own("no such thing as society") with journalist Douglas Keay(September 23, 1987), "Aids, education and the year 2000!", Margaret Thatcher Foundation. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
  52. ^ Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation and Library The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award Recipients Retrieved April 10, 2007
  53. ^ Jason Cowley, Heroes of our time - the top 50, New Statesman, 22 May 2006. Retrieved April 10, 2007
  54. ^ 35 Heroes of Freedom Reason, December 2003 Retrieved April 10, 2007
  55. ^ BBC News Report 21 February 2007, Iron Lady is honoured in bronze, BBC News. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
  56. ^ UK Parliament: Baroness Thatcher statue. Includes official .pdf booklet.
  57. ^ Statue of Margaret Thatcher Unveiled. Associated Press, February 21, 2007.

The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... Woodrow Lyle Wyatt, Baron Wyatt of Weeford (July 4, 1918 – December 7, 1997), was a British Labour politician, published author, journalist and broadcaster. ... Henry (Harry) John Cockayne Cust (1861 – 1917) was an English journalist and poet, and a Member of Parliament for the Unionist Party (i. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Richard Norton Taylor (born June 6, 1944) is Security Affairs Editor of The Guardian. ... David Pallister is an investigative journalist with The Guardian. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Exploited logo skull with the skeletal mohawk cut as seen on the Beat the Bastards album cover The Exploited are a seminal punk rock/thrash group, from the second wave of U.K. punk. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

References

Books

  • Statecraft: Strategies for Changing World by Margaret Thatcher (HarperCollins, 2002) ISBN 0-06-019973-3
  • The Collected Speeches of Margaret Thatcher by Margaret Thatcher, Robin Harris (editor) (HarperCollins, 1997) ISBN 0-00-255703-7
  • The Path to Power by Margaret Thatcher (HarperCollins, 1995) ISBN 0-00-255050-4
  • The Downing Street Years by Margaret Thatcher (HarperCollins, 1993) ISBN 0-00-255354-6
  • The Falklands and South Georgia Island by Tony Wheeler (Lonely Planet)

Dr. Robin Harris is a British author and journalist. ...

Biographies

  • Abse, Leo (1989). Margaret, daughter of Beatrice. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-02726-3. 
  • Campbell, John (2000). Margaret Thatcher; Volume One: The Grocer's Daughter. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-7418-7. 
  • Campbell, John (2003). Margaret Thatcher; Volume Two: The Iron Lady. Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6781-4. 
  • Dale, Iain (ed.) (2000). Memories of Maggie. Politicos. ISBN 1-902301-51-X. 
  • Jenkins, Peter (1987). Mrs. Thatcher's Revolution: Ending of the Socialist Era. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-02516-3. 
  • Letwin, Shirley Robin (1992). The Anatomy of Thatcherism. Flamingo. ISBN 0-00-686243-8. 
  • Pugh, Peter; Paul Flint (1997). Thatcher for Beginners. Icon Books. ISBN 1-874166-53-6. 
  • Seldon, Anthony; Collings, Daniel (1999). Britain Under Thatcher. Longman. ISBN 0-582-31714-2. 
  • Young, Hugo (1986). The Thatcher Phenomenon. BBC. ISBN 0-563-20472-9. 
  • Young, Hugo (1989). One of Us: Life of Margaret Thatcher. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-34439-1. 
  • Young, Hugo (1989). The Iron Lady: A Biography of Margaret Thatcher. Farrar Straus & Giroux. ISBN 0-374-22651-2. 

Leopold Abse (born April 22, 1917) is a British politician from Wales. ... Iain Dale is a British Conservative politician and pundit, broadcaster and owner of Politicos Bookstore and Publishing. ... Peter Jenkins (11 May, 1934 - 27 May, 1992) was a British journalist. ... Dr Anthony F. Seldon MA, PhD, FRSA, MBA, FRHisS is a political commentator best known as Tony Blairs biographer and the Master of Wellington College. ... Hugo John Smelter Young (October 13, 1938 – September 22, 2003) was a British journalist and columnist and senior political commentator at The Guardian. ... Hugo John Smelter Young (October 13, 1938 – September 22, 2003) was a British journalist and columnist and senior political commentator at The Guardian. ... Hugo John Smelter Young (October 13, 1938 – September 22, 2003) was a British journalist and columnist and senior political commentator at The Guardian. ...

Ministerial autobiographies

  • Howe, Geoffrey (1994). Conflict of Loyalty. Macmillan. 
  • Lawson, Nigel (1992). The View from No. 11: Memoirs of a Tory Radical. Bantam. 
  • Major, John (1999). The Autobiography. HarperCollins. 
  • Parkinson, Cecil (1992). Right at the Centre. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 
  • Ridley, Nicholas (1991). 'My Style of Government': The Thatcher Years. Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-175051-2. 
  • Tebbit, Norman (1988). Upwardly Mobile. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 

Richard Edward Geoffrey Howe, Baron Howe of Aberavon, CH, PC, QC (born 20 December 1926), known until 1992 as Sir Geoffrey Howe, is a senior British Conservative politician. ... Nigel Lawson, Baron Lawson of Blaby, PC (born March 11, 1932), was a British politician, Chancellor of the Exchequer between June 1983 and October 1989. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Nicholas Ridley (February 17, 1929 - March 4, 1993) was a British politician. ... Norman Beresford Tebbit, Baron Tebbit, CH, PC (born 29 March 1931) is a British Conservative politician and former Member of Parliament (MP) for Chingford, who was born in Southgate in Enfield. ...

External links

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Political offices
Preceded by
Patricia Hornsby-Smith
Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Pensions
1961 – 1964
with Richard Sharples (1961–1962)
Lynch Maydon (1962–1964)
Succeeded by
Harold Davies
Norman Pentland
Preceded by
Edward Short
Secretary of State for Education and Science
1970 – 1974
Succeeded by
Reginald Prentice
Preceded by
Edward Heath
Leader of the Opposition
1975 – 1979
Succeeded by
James Callaghan
Preceded by
James Callaghan
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
4 May 1979 – 28 November 1990
Succeeded by
John Major
Preceded by
Ronald Reagan
United States
Chair of the G8
1984
Succeeded by
Helmut Kohl
Germany
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
John Crowder
Member of Parliament for Finchley
19591992
Succeeded by
Hartley Booth
Party political offices
Preceded by
Edward Heath
Leader of the British Conservative Party
1975 – 1990
Succeeded by
John Major
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Edward Heath
Oldest UK Prime Minister still living
17 July 2005 – present
Incumbent
Awards
Preceded by
Bob Hope
Recipient of The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award
1998
Succeeded by
Billy Graham
Persondata
NAME Thatcher, Margaret Hilda
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
DATE OF BIRTH 13 October 1925
PLACE OF BIRTH Grantham, England
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Grantham is a small market town in Lincolnshire, England with about 40,000 inhabitants. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Margaret Thatcher (2633 words)
Margaret Roberts, the daughter of a grocer, was born in Grantham, Lincolnshire, on 13th October, 1925.
In November 1979 Thatcher attended a summit meeting of the European Economic Community where she attempted to renegotiate Britain's contribution to the EEC budget.
Thatcher was returned to power for a third time when she won the 1987 General Election with a majority of 102 seats.
Margaret Thatcher - MSN Encarta (1231 words)
Margaret Thatcher, born in 1925, British politician and the first woman to hold the office of prime minister of the United Kingdom.
Thatcher was educated at Kesteven and Grantham Girls’ School and went on to earn a degree in chemistry at the University of Oxford’s Somerville College.
Thatcher also led a legislative assault on the powers and freedoms of British trade unions, which had helped bring down the previous Labour government by staging a series of unpopular strikes during the infamous “winter of discontent” of 1978 to 1979.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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