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Encyclopedia > Margaret Sanger
Margaret Higgins Sanger

Margaret Sanger.
Born September 14, 1879(1879-09-14)
Corning, New York
Died September 6, 1966 (aged 86)
Tucson, Arizona

Margaret Higgins Sanger (September 14, 1879September 6, 1966) was an American birth control activist, an advocate of negative eugenics, and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). Initially met with fierce opposition to her ideas, Sanger gradually won some support, both in the public as well as the courts, for a woman's choice to decide how and when she will bear children. Margaret Sanger was instrumental in opening the way to universal access to birth control. Download high resolution version (1071x1359, 162 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Rockwell Museum Corning is a city in Steuben County, New York, United States, on the Chemung River. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: The Old Pueblo Location in Pima County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: Country United States State Arizona Counties Pima Mayor Bob Walkup (R) Area    - City 505. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Birth control (disambiguation). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... The National Birth Control League had been formed by 1916. ... This article is about Planned Parenthood Federation of America. ...

Contents

Early life

Sanger was born in Corning, New York. Her mother, Anne Purcell Higgins, was a devout Roman Catholic who went through 18 pregnancies (with 11 live births)[1] before dying of tuberculosis and cervical cancer. Sanger attended Claverack College, a boarding school in Hudson for two years. Her sisters paid her tuition, and when they were unable to continue to provide this assistance, Sanger returned home in 1899. Her mother died the same year, after which Sanger enrolled in a nursing program at a hospital in White Plains, an affluent New York suburb. In 1902, she married William Sanger. Although stricken by tuberculosis, she gave birth to a son the following year, followed in later years by a second son and a daughter who died in childhood. Sanger's ill health, marriage and subsequent pregnancy prevented her from completing her third year of training and attaining a certification, though her new husband assured her that he would care for her and that she would be better off raising their children than pursuing a career.[2] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Rockwell Museum Corning is a city in Steuben County, New York, United States, on the Chemung River. ... This article is about the state. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... The City of Hudson, the first chartered city of the entire United States, is located along the west border of Columbia County and the east bank of the Hudson River in Columbia County, New York, USA. The population was 7,524 at the 2000 census. ... For other places with the same name, see White Plains (disambiguation). ...


In 1912, after a devastating fire destroyed the new home that her husband had designed, Sanger and her family moved to New York City, where she went to work in the poverty-stricken East Side slums of Manhattan. That same year, she also started writing a column for the New York Call entitled "What Every Girl Should Know." Distributing a pamphlet, Family Limitation, to poor women, Sanger repeatedly risked scandal and imprisonment by acting in defiance of the Comstock Law of 1873, which outlawed as obscene the dissemination of contraceptive information and devices. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... L.E.S. redirects here. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... The Comstock Law was a 19th century United States law that made it illegal to send any obscene, lewd, or lascivious books through the mail. ... Obscenity has several connotations. ...


Margaret separated from her husband William Sanger in 1913. In 1914, Sanger launched The Woman Rebel, an eight page monthly newsletter advocating contraception, with the slogan "No Gods and No Masters" (and coining the term "birth control") and that each woman be "the absolute mistress of her own body." She was indicted for violating postal obscenity laws in August and fled to Europe as "Bertha Watson" to escape prosecution. There, she had several affairs, including with the science-fiction author H. G. Wells and sexual psychologist Havelock Ellis. She returned to the U.S. in Oct. 1915. Her five-year-old daughter, Peggy, died November 6. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... Henry Havelock Ellis (February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939), known as Havelock Ellis, was a British doctor, sexual psychologist and social reformer. ...


Family planning clinics

On October 16, 1916, Sanger opened a family planning and birth control clinic at 46 Amboy St. in the Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn, the first of its kind in the United States. It was raided nine days later by the police. She served 30 days in prison. An initial appeal was rejected but a state appellate court in 1918 allowed doctors to prescribe contraception. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ...


In 1916, Sanger published What Every Girl Should Know, which was later widely distributed as one of the E. Haldeman-Julius "Little Blue Books." It not only provided basic information about such topics as menstruation, but also promoted an understanding of sexuality in adolescents. It was followed in 1917 by What Every Mother Should Know. She also launched the monthly periodical The Birth Control Review and Birth Control News and contributed articles on health for the Socialist Party paper, The Call. E. Haldeman-Julius, né Emanuel Julius (1889 - 1951) was a socialist reformer and publisher, most noted for publishing the Little Blue Books. ... Little Blue Books are a series of small staple-bound books published by the Haldeman-Julius Publishing Company of Girard, Kansas (1919-1978). ... Not to be confused with Mensuration. ... The Socialist Party of America is a socialist political party in the United States. ...


Sanger founded the American Birth Control League (ABCL) in 1921 with Lothrop Stoddard and C. C. Little. In 1922, she traveled to Japan to work with Japanese feminist Kato Shidzue promoting birth control; over the next several years, she would return another six times for this purpose. In this year she married the oil tycoon, James Noah H. Slee. The National Birth Control League had been formed by 1916. ... Lothrop Stoddard. ... Clarence Cook C.C. Little (October 6, 1888–1971) was an American genetics, cancer, and tobacco researcher. ... Katō Shidzue Katō Shidzue (加藤 シヅエ Katō Shidzue, March 2, 1897 - December 22, 2001) was a 20th Century Japanese feminist and one of the first women elected to the Diet of Japan. ...


In 1923, under the auspices of the ABCL, she established the Clinical Research Bureau. It was the first legal birth control clinic in the U.S. (renamed Margaret Sanger Research Bureau in her honor in 1940). It received crucial grants from John D. Rockefeller, Jr.'s Bureau of Social Hygiene from 1924 onwards, which were made anonymously to avoid public exposure of the Rockefeller name to her cause. The family also consistently supported her ongoing efforts in regard to population control.[3] John D. Rockefeller Jr. ...


Also in 1923, she formed the National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control and served as its president until its dissolution in 1937 after birth control, under medical supervision, was legalized in many states. In 1927, Sanger helped organize the first World Population Conference in Geneva. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities began funding population programs in 1969. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


Between 1921 and 1926, Sanger received over a million letters from mothers requesting information on birth control. From 1916 on, she lectured "in many places—halls, churches, women's clubs, homes, theaters" to "many types of audiences—cotton workers, churchmen, liberals, Socialists, scientists, clubmen, and fashionable, philanthropically minded women." In 1926, in what she called "one of the weirdest experiences I had in lecturing", Sanger even gave a lecture on birth control to the women's auxiliary of the Ku Klux Klan in Silver Lake, New Jersey, a group she found so ignorant she had to use only "the most elementary terms, as though I were trying to make children understand."[4] Sanger's talk was well-received by the women's auxiliary of the Ku Klux Klan and as a result "a dozen invitations to similar groups were proffered."[4] In September 1930, she received at home the Nazi anthropologist Eugen Fischer.[5][6] The WKKK or Womanss Ku Klux Klan was one of a number of auxiliaries of the Ku Klux Klan. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Eugen Fischer, circa 1938. ...


In 1928, Sanger resigned as the president of the ABCL. Two years later, she became president of the Birth Control International Information Center. In January 1932, she addressed the New History Society, an organization founded by Mirza Ahmad Sohrab and Julie Chanler; this address would later become the basis for an article entitled A Plan for Peace.[7] In 1937, Sanger became chairperson of the Birth Control Council of America and launched two publications, The Birth Control Review and The Birth Control News. From 1939 to 1942, she was an honorary delegate of the Birth Control Federation of America. From 1952 to 1959, she served as president of the International Planned Parenthood Federation; at the time, the largest private international family planning organization. Mírzá Aḥmad Sohráb (1893 - 1958) was a Persian-American author and Baháí who founded the New History Society in New York, and was excommunicated from the Baháí Faith in 1939 by Shoghi Effendi. ... Julia Lynch Olin (1882-1961) was an American author and Baháí who co-founded the New History Society in New York city, and was later expelled from the religion by Shoghi Effendi around 1939. ...


During the 1960 presidential elections, Sanger was dismayed by candidate John F. Kennedy's position on birth control (Kennedy did not believe birth control should be a matter of government policy). She threatened to leave the country if Kennedy were elected, but evidently reconsidered after Kennedy won the election. John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


In the early 1960s, Sanger promoted the use of the newly available birth control pill. She toured Europe, Africa, and Asia, lecturing and helping to establish clinics. The Pill redirects here. ...


Sanger died in 1966 in Tucson, Arizona, eight days from her 87th birthday and only a few months after the landmark Griswold v. Connecticut decision, which legalized birth control for married couples in the U.S., the apex of her 50-year struggle. Tucson (pronounced , Spanish: Tucsón ) is the seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, located 118 miles (188 km) southeast of Phoenix and 60 miles (98 km) north of the U.S.-Mexico border. ... Holding A Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. ...


Sanger's books include Woman and the New Race (1920), Happiness in Marriage (1926), My Fight For Birth Control (1931), and an autobiography (1938).


Philosophy

Although Sanger was greatly influenced by her father, her mother's death left her with a deep sense of dissatisfaction concerning her own and society's understanding of women's health and childbirth. She also criticized the censorship of her message about sexuality and contraceptives by the civil and religious authorities as an effort by men to keep women in submission. An atheist, Sanger attacked Christian leaders opposed to her message, accusing them of Obscurantism and insensitivity to women's concerns. Sanger was particularly critical of the lack of awareness of the dangers of and the scarcity of treatment opportunities for venereal disease among women. She claimed that these social ills were the result of the male establishment's intentionally keeping women in ignorance. Sanger also deplored the contemporary absence of regulations requiring registration of people diagnosed with venereal diseases (which she contrasted with mandatory registration of those with infectious diseases such as measles). Obscurantism in its current usage can imply one of two separate concepts, sometimes distinguished by capitalization: // The older sense of the term Obscurantism refers to a class of philosophies that favor limits on the extension and dissemination of scientific knowledge, believing it to be the enemy of faith. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ...


Sanger was also an avowed socialist, blaming the evils of contemporary capitalism for the unsatisfactory conditions of the young working-class women. Her very personal views on this issue are evident in the last pages of What Every Girl Should Know. Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


Psychology of sexuality

While Sanger's understanding of and practical approach to human physiology were progressive for her times, her thoughts on the psychology of human sexuality place her squarely in the pre-Freudian 19th century. Birth control, it would appear, was for her more a means to limit the undesirable side-effects of sex than a way of liberating men and women to enjoy it. In What Every Girl Should Know, she wrote: "Every normal man and woman has the power to control and direct his sexual impulse. Men and woman who have it in control and constantly use their brain cells thinking deeply, are never sensual." Sexuality, for her, was a kind of weakness, and surmounting it indicated strength: Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ...

Though sex cells are placed in a part of the anatomy for the essential purpose of easily expelling them into the female for the purpose of reproduction, there are other elements in the sexual fluid which are the essence of blood, nerve, brain, and muscle. When redirected in to the building and strengthening of these, we find men or women of the greatest endurance greatest magnetic power. A girl can waste her creative powers by brooding over a love affair to the extent of exhausting her system, with the results not unlike the effects of masturbation and debauchery.[8]

Her thoughts on human development were also laden with racism: Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...

It is said that a fish as large as a man has a brain no larger than the kernel of an almond. In all fish and reptiles where there is no great brain development, there is also no conscious sexual control. The lower down in the scale of human development we go the less sexual control we find. It is said that the aboriginal Australian, the lowest known species of the human family, just a step higher than the chimpanzee in brain development, has so little sexual control that police authority alone prevents him from obtaining sexual satisfaction on the streets.[9] Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ...

Sanger, like most of the population of her time, also considered masturbation dangerous: Woman masturbating, 1913 drawing by Gustav Klimt. ...

In my experience as a trained nurse while attending persons afflicted with various and often revolting diseases, no matter what their ailments, I have never found any one so repulsive as the chronic masturbator. It would be difficult not to fill page upon page of heartrending confessions made by young girls, whose lives were blighted by this pernicious habit, always begun so innocently, for even after they have ceased the habit, they find themselves incapable of any relief in the natural act. [...] Perhaps the greatest physical danger to the chronic masturbator is the inability to perform the sexual act naturally.[10]

For her, masturbation was not just a physical act, it was a mental state:

In the boy or girl past puberty, we find one of the most dangerous forms of masturbation, i.e., mental masturbation, which consists of forming mental pictures, or thinking obscene or voluptuous pictures. This form is considered especially harmful to the brain, for the habit becomes so fixed that it is almost impossible to free the thoughts from lustful pictures.[11]

Eugenics and euthanasia

Sanger was a proponent of eugenics, a social philosophy which gained strong support in the United States in the early 20th century that claimed that human hereditary traits can be improved through social intervention. Methods of social intervention (targeted at those seen as "genetically unfit") advocated by eugenists have included selective breeding, sterilization, and euthanasia. In "A Plan for Peace" (1932), for example, Sanger argued for: Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ...

A stern and rigid policy of sterilization and segregation to that grade of population whose progeny is already tainted or whose inheritance is such that objectionable traits may be transmitted to offspring.[12]

Sanger promoted the idea of "race hygiene" through "negative eugenics," an attempt to reduce the fertility of "dysgenic" groups. Sanger considered the unchecked multiplication of the "unfit" to be "the greatest present menace to civilization."[13] She suggested Congress set up a special department to study population problems and appoint a "Parliament of Population." One of the main objectives of the "Population Congress" would be "to raise the level and increase the general intelligence of population."[14]


Sanger saw birth control as a means to prevent "dysgenic" children from being born into a disadvantaged life, and dismissed "positive eugenics" (which promoted greater fertility for the "fitter" upper classes) as impractical. Though many leaders in the eugenics movement were calling for active euthanasia of the "unfit," Sanger spoke out against such methods. Edwin Black writes:

In [William] Robinson's book, Eugenics, Marriage and Birth Control (Practical Eugenics), he advocated gassing the children of the unfit. In plain words, Robinson insisted: 'The best thing would be to gently chloroform these children or give them a dose of potassium cyanide.' Margaret Sanger was well aware that her fellow birth control advocates were promoting lethal chambers, but she herself rejected the idea completely. 'Nor do we believe,' wrote Sanger in Pivot of Civilization, 'that the community could or should send to the lethal chamber the defective progeny resulting from irresponsible and unintelligent breeding.'[15]

When Nazi Germany adopted the principles of eugenics to create a Germanic "master race," Sanger did not publicly denounce the racist and anti-Semitic program of the Nazis. However, in a letter she wrote:

"All the news from Germany is sad & horrible, and to me more dangerous than any other war going on any where because it has so many good people who applaud the atrocities & claim its right. The sudden antagonism in Germany against the Jews & the vitriolic hatred of them is spreading underground here & is far more dangerous than the aggressive policy of the Japanese in Manchuria.."[7]

Placing the responsibility for eugenic control in the hands of individual parents rather than the state, she wrote:

"The campaign for birth control is not merely of eugenic value, but is practically identical with the final aims of eugenics.... We are convinced that racial regeneration, like individual regeneration, must come 'from within.' That is, it must be autonomous, self-directive, and not imposed from without."[16]

We maintain that a woman possessing an adequate knowledge of her reproductive functions is the best judge of the time and conditions under which her child should be brought into the world. We further maintain that it is her right, regardless of all other considerations, to determine whether she shall bear children or not, and how many children she shall bear if she chooses to become a mother... Only upon a free, self-determining motherhood can rest any unshakable structure of racial betterment.[17]

She nevertheless advocated certain instances of coercion, in cases where she considered the parents unfit to decide whether they should bear children:

"The undeniably feeble-minded should, indeed, not only be discouraged but prevented from propagating their kind."[18]

Freedom of speech

Sanger was an avid defender of free speech who was arrested at least eight times for expressing her views in a time when speaking publicly in favor of birth control was illegal. She stated in interviews that she had been influenced by the agnostic orator Robert G. Ingersoll, who spoke in her hometown when she was 12 years old.[19] NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ NAHNERZ...


"We should hire three or four colored ministers, preferably with social-service backgrounds, and with engaging personalities. The most successful educational approach to the Negro is through a religious appeal. We don't want the word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population. and the minister is the man who can straighten out that idea if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members." Margaret Sanger's December 19, 1939 letter to Dr. Clarence Gamble, 255 Adams Street, Milton, Massachusetts. Original source: Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College, North Hampton, Massachusetts. Also described in Linda Gordon's Woman's Body, Woman's Right: A Social History of Birth Control in America. New York: Grossman Publishers, 1976.


Legacy

Sanger remains a controversial figure. While she is widely credited as a leader of the modern birth control movement, and remains an iconic figure for the American reproductive rights movements, she also is reviled by some who condemn her as "an abortion advocate." (Though abortion was illegal throughout Sanger's lifetime, and Planned Parenthood did not then support the procedure or lobby for its legalisation.) Pro-life groups have frequently condemned Sanger for her views, attributing her efforts to promote birth control to a desire to "purify" the human race through eugenics, and even to eliminate minority races by placing birth control clinics in minority neighborhoods.[20] For this reason, Sanger is often quoted selectively or out of context, and her history and involvement with socialism and eugenics have often been rationalized or even ignored by her defenders and biographers. Despite allegations of racism, Sanger's work with minorities earned the respect of civil rights leaders such as Martin Luther King, Jr.[21] In their biographical article about Margaret Sanger, Planned Parenthood notes: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... This article is about Planned Parenthood Federation of America. ...

In 1930, Sanger opened a family planning clinic in Harlem that sought to enlist support for contraceptive use and to bring the benefits of family planning to women who were denied access to their city's health and social services. Staffed by a black physician and black social worker, the clinic was endorsed by The Amsterdam News (the powerful local newspaper), the Abyssinian Baptist Church, the Urban League, and the black community's elder statesman, W.E.B. DuBois.[22] National Urban League Logo The National Urban League is a non-profit, nonpartisan, civil rights and community-based movement that advocates on behalf of Black Americans and against racial discrimination. ... W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ...

Although Sanger's views on abortion changed throughout the course of her life,[citation needed] in her early years she was acutely aware of the problem of abortion, typically self-induced or with the aid of a midwife. Her opposition to abortion stemmed primarily from a concern for the dangers to the mother, and less so from legal concerns or the welfare of the unborn child.[23] She wrote in a 1916 edition of Family Limitation, "no one can doubt that there are times when an abortion is justifiable," though she framed this in the context of her birth control advocacy, adding that "abortions will become unnecessary when care is taken to prevent conception. (Care is) the only cure for abortions." Sanger consistently regarded birth control and abortion as the responsibility and burden first and foremost of women, and as matters of law, medicine and public policy second.[24] Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ...


Sanger's 1938 autobiography notes her 1916 opposition to abortion as the taking of life: "To each group we explained what contraception was; that abortion was the wrong way—no matter how early it was performed it was taking life; that contraception was the better way, the safer way—it took a little time, a little trouble, but was well worth while in the long run, because life had not yet begun."[25]


Notes

  1. ^ Steinem.
  2. ^ Chesler.
  3. ^ Crucial, anonymous Rockefeller grants to the Clinical Research Bureau and support for population control - see John Ensor Harr, and Peter J. Johnson. The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988. (pp.191, 461-62)
  4. ^ a b Sanger, Margaret (1938). Margaret Sanger, An Autobiography. New York: W. W. Norton, pp. 361, 366-7. 
  5. ^ François-Marie Algoud, La Peste et le choléra: Marx, Hitler, et leurs héritiers, Chiré, 2000, p.68
  6. ^ Désiré Dutonnerre, La Marée noire de la pornographie, Chiré, 1992, pp.213-214
  7. ^ a b Pouzzner.
  8. ^ Sanger, "What Every Girl Should Know", 1920, p. 46
  9. ^ Sanger, "What Every Girl Should Know", 1920, p. 47
  10. ^ Sanger, "What Every Girl Should Know", 1920, pp. 39-40
  11. ^ Sanger, "What Every Girl Should Know", 1920, p. 39
  12. ^ Sanger, "A Plan For Peace", Birth Control Review, April 1932, p. 106
  13. ^ Margaret Sanger. "The Eugenic Value of Birth Control Propaganda", Birth Control Review, October 1921, page 5
  14. ^ Margaret Sanger. "The Function of Sterilization." Birth Control Review, October 1926, p. 299
  15. ^ Black (The War Against the Weak), 251.
  16. ^ Margaret Sanger. "The Eugenic Value of Birth Control Propaganda." Birth Control Review, October 1921, page 5
  17. ^ Sanger, "Birth Control and Racial Betterment." The Birth Control Review, 3(2), 11-12
  18. ^ Sanger, quoted in Charles Valenza: "Was Margaret Sanger a Racist?" Family Planning Perspectives, January-February 1985, page 44.
  19. ^ "The Child Who Was Mother to a Woman" from The New Yorker, April 11, 1925, page 11.
  20. ^ Marshall.
  21. ^ Planned Parenthood Federation of America.
  22. ^ Knowles.
  23. ^ Streitmatter, Rodger (2001). Voices of Revolution: The Dissident Press in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 169. ISBN 0-231-12249-7. 
  24. ^ Gray.
  25. ^ Sanger, Margaret (1938). Margaret Sanger, An Autobiography. New York: W. W. Norton, p. 217. 

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ...

References

  • Black, Edwin [September 2003]. The War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race. New York City, NY: Four Walls Eight Windows. ISBN 1-56858-258-7. 
  • Chesler, Ellen [1992]. Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America. New York City, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-60088-5. 
  • Gray, Madeline [1979]. Margaret Sanger: A Biography of the Champion of Birth Control. New York City, NY: Richard Marek Publishers, 280. ISBN 0-399-90019-5. 
  • Knowles, Jon (2004). The Truth About Margaret Sanger. Katharine Dexter McCormick Library.
  • Marshall, Robert G.; Donovan, Chuck (October 1991). Blessed Are the Barren: The Social Policy of Planned Parenthood. San Francisco, CA: Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-353-0. 
  • Sanger, Margaret (1920). What Every Girl Should Know. Springfield, Ill.: United Sales co.. 
  • Sanger, Margaret (1938). An Autobiography. New York, NY: Cooper Square Press. ISBN 0-8154-1015-8. 

Edwin Black is an American author and journalist. ... Robert G. Bob Marshall (born May 3, 1944 in Takoma Park, Maryland) is a member of the Virginia House of Delegates representing the 13th District, currently serving his 7th term. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Portrait of Anthony Comstock Anthony Comstock (March 7, 1844 - September 21, 1915) was a former United States Postal Inspector and politician dedicated to ideas of Victorian morality. ... Clarence Cook C.C. Little (October 6, 1888–1971) was an American genetics, cancer, and tobacco researcher. ... Theory Issues Culture By region Lists Anarchism Portal Politics Portal ·        Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) aka Red Emma, was a Lithuanian-born anarchist known for her writings and speeches. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Henry Havelock Ellis (February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939), known as Havelock Ellis, was a British doctor, sexual psychologist and social reformer. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... The Houghton Family is a prominent New England and Upstate New York business family. ... Lothrop Stoddard. ... Mary Coffin Ware Dennett (April 4, 1872 - July 25, 1947) was an American birth control activist and pacifist. ...

Further reading

Works by Margaret Sanger

is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Katharine Dexter McCormick (August 27, 1875 – December 28, 1967) was a U.S. biologist, suffragette, philanthropist and, after her husbands death, heir to a substantial part of the McCormick fortune. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

Works by other authors

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Margaret Sanger
Persondata
NAME Sanger, Margaret Higgins
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American Birth Control Activist
DATE OF BIRTH September 14, 1879
PLACE OF BIRTH Corning, New York
DATE OF DEATH September 6, 1966
PLACE OF DEATH Tucson, Arizona

  Results from FactBites:
 
Margaret Sanger (2836 words)
Margaret Sanger dedicated her life to making birth control available to all women in the world and thereby increased the quality and length of women's and children's lives.
Sanger had seen enough women, including her own mother, die due to lack of birth control information and access, and she was determined to bring both to the poor women of the world.
Sanger chose the poor Brownsville section of Brooklyn as the sight of the first birth control clinic in the United States because she knew it was the poor and middle class women who most needed birth control information.
Margaret Sanger: Biography and Much More from Answers.com (6233 words)
Sanger's ill health, marriage and subsequent pregnancy prevented her from completing her third year of training and attaining a certification, though her new husband assured her that he would care for her and that she would be better off raising their children than pursuing a career.
Sanger was particularly critical of the lack of awareness of the dangers of and the scarcity of treatment opportunities for venereal disease among women.
For this reason, Sanger is often quoted selectively or out of context by detractors (a practice known as quote mining), and her history and involvement with socialism and eugenics have often been rationalized or even ignored by her defenders and biographers (a practice known as spin doctoring).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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