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Encyclopedia > Margaret Mahler
Margaret Schönberger Mahler
Born May 10, 1897
Sopron, Hungary
Died 1985
New York, United States of America
Residence New York
Nationality Hungarian
Field Psychoanalysis, child development
Institutions Margaret S. Mahler Psychiatric Research Foundation
Known for theory of child development
Notable prizes APA Agnes Purceil McGavin Award

Margaret Schönberger Mahler (May 10, 1897October 2, 1985) was a Hungarian physician, who later became interested in psychiatry. She was a central figure on the world stage of psychoanalysis. Her main interest was in normal childhood development, but she spent much of her time with psychiatric children and how they arrive at the "self." Mahler developed the Separation-Individuation theory of child development. May 10 is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Soprons Fire Tower Sopron (pronounced shop-ron), historically also known by the German name Ödenburg, is the name of a city in Hungary. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NY redirects here. ... NY redirects here. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Look up self in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Biography

Margaret Schönberger was born on 10 May 1897 into a Jewish family in Sopron, a small town in western Hungary. She and a younger sister had a difficult childhood as a result of their parents' troubled marriage. Margaret's father, however, encouraged her to excel in mathematics and other sciences. After completing the High School for Daughters, she attended Vaci Utaci Gimnazium in Budapest, even though it was unusual at the time for a woman to continue formal education. Budapest was of great influence on her life and career. [1] She met the influential Hungarian psychoanalyst Sándor Ferenczi, became fascinated by the concept of the unconscious, and was encouraged to read Sigmund Freud. [2] 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Soprons Fire Tower Sopron (pronounced shop-ron), historically also known by the German name Ödenburg, is the name of a city in Hungary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud) May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939; (IPA: ) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ...


In September 1916, Schönberger began Art History studies at the University of Budapest, but in January 1917 she switched to Medical School. Three semesters later she began medical training at the University of Munich, but was forced to leave because of tensions toward Jews. In spring 1920 she transferred to the University of Jena and it was there that she began to realize how important play and love were for infants in order for them to grow up mentally and physically healthy. Schönberger graduated cum laude in 1922. She left for Vienna to get her license to practice medicine. There she turned from pediatrics to psychiatry and, in 1926, started her training analysis with Helene Deutsch. Seven years later, Margaret was accepted as an analyst. Schönberger loved working with children; it was her passion. She loved the way the children gave her their attention and showed their joy in cooperating with her. [3] 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga [1]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... This article is about the German town of Jena. ... Romeo and Juliet by Ford Madox Brown A play, written by a playwright, or dramatist, is a form of literature, almost always consisting of dialog between characters, and intended for performance rather than reading. ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Clinical Examination Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics) is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16-21, depending on the country). ... Psychiatry is a medical specialty dealing with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of the mind and mental illness. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ... Look up Analysis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary An analysis is a critical evaluation, usually made by breaking a subject (either material or intellectual) down into its constituent parts, then describing the parts and their relationship to the whole. ... Helene Deutsch (née Rosenbach; born 9 October 1884 in PrzemyÅ›l; died 29 March 1982 in Cambridge, Massachusetts) was an Austrian-American psychoanalyst and colleague of Sigmund Freud. ... A fairly broad term for a person or tool with a primary function of information analysis, generally with a more limited, practical and short term set of goals than a researcher. ...


In 1936 she married Paul Mahler. Following the Nazis' rise to power, the couple moved to Britain and then, in 1938, to the United States. After receiving a New York medical license, Schönberger Mahler set up private practice in a basement and began to rebuild her clientele. In 1939 she met Benjamin Spock and, after giving a child analysis seminar in 1940, she became senior teacher of child analysis. She joined the Institute of Human Development, the Educational Institute and the New York Psychoanalytic Society. In 1948 she worked on clinical studies on Benign and Malignant Cases of Childhood Psychosis. 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... NY redirects here. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Spock with his grand-daughter Susannah in 1967 Benjamin McLane Spock (May 2, 1903 - March 15, 1998) was an American pediatrician whose book Baby and Child Care, published in 1946, is one of the biggest best-sellers of all time. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration...


Barnard College, at its 1980 commencement ceremonies, awarded Schönberger Mahler its highest honor, the Barnard Medal of Distinction. Barnard College, founded in 1889, is one of the four undergraduate divisions of Columbia University. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The following is a list of notable alumnae and faculty from Barnard College. ...


Schönberger Mahler died on October 2, 1985.


Work

Margaret Mahler worked as a psychoanalyst with young disturbed children. In 1950 she and Manuel Furer founded the Masters Children’s Centre in Manhattan. There she developed the Tripartite Treatment Model, in which the mother participated in the treatment of the child. [4] Mahler initiated a more constructive exploration of severe disturbances in childhood and emphasized the importance of the environment on the child. She was especially interested in mother-infant duality and carefully documented the impact of early separations of children from their mothers. This documentation of separation-individuation was her most important contribution to the development of psychoanalysis. Mahler shed light on the normal and abnormal features of the developmental ego psychology. She worked with psychotic children, while psychosis hadn’t been covered in the psychoanalytic treatment yet. [5] Symbiotic child psychosis struck her. The symptomatology she saw as a derailment of the normal processes whereby self- and object representations become distinct. [6] Her most important work is The psychological birth of the human infant : symbiosis and individuation, written in 1975 with Fred Pine and Anni Bergman. Psychoanalysis is the revelation of unconscious relations, in a systematic way through an associative process. ... The term attachment has multiple meanings: An e-mail attachment. ... Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis that originated in Freuds ego-id-superego model. ... Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration... Psychoanalysis is the revelation of unconscious relations, in a systematic way through an associative process. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a loss of contact with reality. Stedmans Medical Dictionary defines psychosis as a severe mental disorder, with or without organic damage, characterized by derangement of personality and loss of contact with reality and causing deterioration... Most generally, a representation is a performing of selected functions or roles of another physical or abstract object/person/organization in predefined circumstances and it is based on the consensus of the group/community involved. ...


Separation-Individuation Theory of child development

In Mahler’s theory, child development takes place in phases, each with their own sub phases: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • Normal Autistic Phase - First few weeks of life. The infant is detached and self absorbed. Spends most of his/her time sleeping. Mahler later abandoned this phase, based on new findings from her infant research. [7] She believed it to be non-existent. The phase still appears in many books on her theories.
  • Normal Symbiotic Phase - Lasts until about 5 months of age. The child is now aware of his/her mother but there is not a sense of individuality. The infant and the mother are one, and there is a barrier between them and the rest of the world.
  • Separation-Individuation Phase - The arrival of this phase marks the end of the Normal Symbiotic Phase. Separation refers to the development of limits, the differentiation between the infant and the mother, whereas individuation refers to the development of the infant's ego , sense of identity, and cognitive abilities. Mahler explains how a child with the age of a few months breaks out of an “autistic shell” into the world with human connections. This process, labeled separation-individuation, is divided into subphases, each with its own onset, outcomes and risks. The following subphases proceed in this order but overlap considerably.
    • Hatching – first months. The infant ceases to be ignorant of the differentiation between him/her and the mother. "Rupture of the shell". Increased alertness and interest for the outside world. Using the mother as a point of orientation.
    • Practicing – 9-about 16 months. Brought about by the infant's ability to crawl and then walk freely, the infant begins to explore actively and becomes more distant from the mother. The child experiences himself still as one with his mother.
    • Rapprochement –15-24 months. In this subphase, the infant once again becomes close to the mother. The child realizes that his physic mobility demonstrates psychic separateness from his mother. The toddler may become tentative, wanting his mother to be in sight so that, through eye contact and action, he can explore his world. The risk is that the mother will misread this need and respond with impatience or unavailability. This can lead to an anxious fear of abandonment in the toddler. A basic ‘mood predisposition’ may be established at this point. Rapprochement is divided into a few sub phases:
      • Beginning - Motivated by a desire to share discoveries with the mother.
      • Crisis - Between staying with the mother, being emotionally close and being more independent and exploring.
      • Solution - Individual solutions are enabled by the development of language and the superego.

Disruptions in the fundamental process of separation-individuation can result in a disturbance in the ability to maintain a reliable sense of individual identity in adulthood. [8] Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... The French for bring together. Used in English to describe the theory (that) says that children are best able to explore when they have the knowledge of a secure base to return to in times of need. See Attachment theory This article is a stub. ...


Bibliography

  • On human symbiosis and the vicissitudes of individuation, 1969
  • The psychological birth of the human infant : symbiosis and individuation, 1975

Notes

  1. ^ Mahler at webster.edu
  2. ^ Coates, John Bowlby and Margaret S. Mahler: Their lives and theories, pp. 571-587
  3. ^ Mahler at webster.edu
  4. ^ Coates, John Bowlby and Margaret S. Mahler: Their lives and theories, pp. 571-587
  5. ^ Mitchell, Freud and Beyond, pp. 43, 46-47
  6. ^ Coates, John Bowlby and Margaret S. Mahler: Their lives and theories, pp. 571-587
  7. ^ Coates, John Bowlby and Margaret S. Mahler: Their lives and theories, pp. 571-587
  8. ^ Mitchell, Freud and Beyond, pp. 43, 46-47

References

  • Coates, S.W., John Bowlby and Margaret S. Mahler: Their lives and theories
  • Mitchell, S.A., and Black, M.J. (1995). Freud and Beyond. New York: Basic Books.
  • Notes on the development of basic moods: the depressive affect. In Drives, Affects, Behavior, vol. 2, ed Max Schur, NY: International Universities Press, pp. 161-169.
  • Mahler, S. and Pine, M.M. and F., Bergman, A. (1973). The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant, New York: Basic Books.
  • Thoughts about development and individuation. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1963.

See also

Autism is classified by the World Health Organization and American Psychological Association as a developmental disability that results from a disorder of the human central nervous system. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... The term refrigerator mother was coined in the 1940s as a label for mothers of autistic children. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Mahler, Margaret Schoenberger
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Hungarian psychiatrist
DATE OF BIRTH May 10, 1897
PLACE OF BIRTH Sopron, Hungary
DATE OF DEATH 1985
PLACE OF DEATH New York, United States of America

  Results from FactBites:
 
Margaret Mahler's Biography (177 words)
Margaret Schonberger Mahler was born in 1897 in a small border district in western Hungary.
In the stimulating academic and intellectual environment of Heidelberg, Mahler broadened her interest in psychology and trained in psychoanalysis, all the while honing her observational skills to better understand early childhood development in normal and disturbed children.
The turmoil of war-beset-Europe sent Mahler to London and then to New York where she pursued her dedication and work in psychoanalysis and continued her research efforts.
Untitled Document (466 words)
In the classroom Margaret was considered a master teacher by those who had the privilege of learning from and with her.
Margaret established the IUP Center for Community Education in 1976.
Margaret also served on several state boards and committees and was active in numerous professional organizations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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