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Encyclopedia > Mare (horse)
A broodmare and foal
A broodmare and foal

A mare is an adult female horse or other equine.[1] Horses grazing below the flight path into London (Heathrow) Airport, England. ... Horses grazing below the flight path into London (Heathrow) Airport, England. ... A foal is a young horse of either gender; a female foal is called a filly, while a male foal is called a colt. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ...


Most of the time, a mare is a female horse over the age of three, and a filly is a female horse age three and younger. However, in Thoroughbred horse racing, a mare is defined as a female horse more than four years old;[citation needed] in harness racing a mare is a female horse more than three years old. The word can also be used for other female equine animals, particularly mules and zebras, though a female donkey is usually called a "jenny." A broodmare is a mare used for breeding. Filly is also a town in Belgium. ... For the processor with the same codename , see Athlon. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... A trotter training at Vincennes hippodrome Harness racing is a form of horse-racing in which the horses race in a specified gait. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ...


An adult male horse is called a stallion, or, if castrated, a gelding. Occasionally the term "horse" is used in a restrictive sense to designate only a male horse. A stallion A stallion is a male horse that has not been castrated. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... A gelding is a castrated animal—in English, a castrated male horse. ...

Contents

Reproductive cycle

A nursing foal. Domesticated mares may nurse their foals an average of four to six months, occasionally longer, depending on human management decisions and the temperament of a given mare.
A nursing foal. Domesticated mares may nurse their foals an average of four to six months, occasionally longer, depending on human management decisions and the temperament of a given mare.
Main articles: Horse breeding and Equine anatomy

Mares carry their young, called foals for approximately 11 months from conception to birth. (Average range 320-370 days.)[2] Usually just one young is born; twins are rare. When a domesticated mare foals, she nurses the foal for at least four to six months before it is weaned, though mares in the wild may allow a foal to nurse for up to a year. Mares and foals Horse breeding refers to reproduction in horses, and particularly the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals, particularly purebred horses of a given breed. ... A foal is a young horse of either gender; a female foal is called a filly, while a male foal is called a colt. ... Dogs and sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated. ... A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is the practice of a woman feeding an infant (or sometimes a toddler or a young child) with milk produced from her mammary glands, usually directly from the nipples. ... This article is about genetically wild horses which have never been domesticated. ...


The estrous cycle, also known as "season' or "heat" of a mare occurs roughly every 19-22 days and occurs from early spring into autumn. As the days shorten, most mares enter an anestrus period during the winter and thus do not cycle in this period. The reproductive cycle in a mare is controlled by the photoperiod (length of the day), the cycle first triggered when the days begin to lengthen. As the days shorten, the mare returns to the anestrus period when she is not sexually receptive. Anestrus prevents the mare from conceiving in the winter months, as that would result in her foaling during the harshest part of the year, a time when it would be most difficult for the foal to survive.[3] The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; originally derived from Latin oestrus) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females. ... Photoperiodism is the physiological reaction of organisms to the length of day or night. ...


However, for most competitive purposes, foals are given an official "birthday" of January 1 (August 1 in the Southern hemisphere), and many breeders want foals to be born as early in the year as possible. Therefore, many breeding farms begin to put mares "under lights" in late winter in order to bring them out of anestrus early and allow conception to occur in February or March. One exception to this general rule is the field of endurance riding, which requires horses to be 60 true calendar months old (5 years) before competing at longer distances. southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Competitors on an endurance ride Endurance riding is an equestrian sport based on controlled long distance races. ...


Fillies are sexually mature by age two and are sometimes bred at that age, but generally should not be bred until they themselves have stopped growing, usually by age four or five.[4] Sexual maturity is the stage at which an organism can reproduce. ...


A healthy, well-managed mare can produce a foal every year into her twenties, though not all breeders will breed a mare every year. In addition, many mares are kept for riding and so are not bred annually, as a mare in late pregnancy or nursing a foal is not able to perform at as athletic a standard as one who is neither pregnant nor lactating. In addition, some mares become anxious when separated from their foals, even temporarily, and thus are difficult to manage under saddle until their foals are weaned. This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ... Separation anxiety disorder (or simply separation anxiety) is a psychological condition in which an individual has excessive anxiety regarding separation from home, or from those with whom the individual has a strong attachment. ...


Behavior

See also: horse behavior
A broodmare. Note slight distension of belly, indicating either early pregnancy or recent foaling.
A broodmare. Note slight distension of belly, indicating either early pregnancy or recent foaling.

Mares are considered easier to handle than stallions. However, geldings have no hormone-driven behavior patterns at all, thus sometimes they are preferred to both mares and stallions. Mares have a notorious, if generally undeserved, reputation for being "marish," meaning that they can be cranky or unwilling when they come into season. However, there is considerable evidence that much "marish" behavior is the mostly result of humans expecting or allowing the mare to misbehave. Because horses in general are very attuned to the emotional state of their riders, expectation by a rider of difficult manners during estrus can create a self-fulfilling prophecy and a cranky mare. Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. ... A stallion A stallion is a male horse that has not been castrated. ... A gelding is a castrated animal—in English, a castrated male horse. ... Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ... Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. ... A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true. ...


While a few mares may be somewhat more distractable or irritable when in heat, they are far less easily distracted than a stallion at any time. Solid training usually minimizes hormonal behavior. For competitive purposes, mares are sometimes placed on hormone therapies, such as the drug Regumate, to help control hormonally-based behavior. Some riders also use various herbal remedies, most of which have not been extensively tested for effectiveness. In medicine, hormone therapy is the use of hormones in medical treatment and covers various types of hormones including growth hormones and sex hormones. ... The term Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ...


Many mare owners claim that mares are more intelligent and courageous and will work harder for their owners, and there are many stories and legends about the loyalty of a mare to her rider. Conversely, others claim that mares are more nervous and high-strung. In short, much lore about "marish" mares is due to simple anthropomorphism, attributing stereotypically "female" behavior to mares. 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ...


Mares and geldings can be pastured together. However, mares may be a bit more territorial. Sex-segregating herds may make for less infighting, especially if kept in close quarters. However, studies also have shown that when a "lead mare" or "boss mare" is in charge of a herd, all remaining animals rest for longer periods and seem more at ease than do those in herds led by a gelding.


In wild herds, a "boss mare" or "lead mare" leads the band to grazing, to water, and away from danger. She eats and drinks first, decides when the herd will move and to where. The herd stallion usually brings up the rear and acts as a defender of the herd against predators and other stallions.


Uses

Mares can be used in any equestrian sport. Famous race horse mare Makybe Diva after winning the Melbourne Cup for the third consecutive time.
Mares can be used in any equestrian sport. Famous race horse mare Makybe Diva after winning the Melbourne Cup for the third consecutive time.

Mares are used in every equestrian sport and usually compete equally with stallions and geldings in most events, though some competitions may offer classes open only to one sex of horse or another, particularly in breeding or "in-hand" conformation classes. In horse racing, mares and fillies have their own races and only a small percentage compete against male horses. However, fillies have won classic horse races against colts, including the Kentucky Derby, the Belmont Stakes and the Melbourne Cup. Image File history File links Makybe_Diva. ... Image File history File links Makybe_Diva. ... Makybe Diva is a British-bred racehorse that was taken to Australia, where she became the first thoroughbred to win the prestigious Melbourne Cup three times - in 2003 and 2004, and again in 2005 when she also won the Cox Plate. ... For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... A horse being shown at halter Halter is a term used to describe a type of horse show class where horses are shown in hand, meaning that they are led, not ridden, and are judged on their conformation and suitability as breeding stock. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... The Hannah Derby is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ... The Belmont Stakes is a prestigious American Grade I stakes race held yearly in June at Belmont Park in Elmont, New York. ... The Melbourne Cup is Australias major annual thoroughbred horse race. ...


Mares are used as dairy animals in some cultures, especially by the nomads and formerly nomadic peoples of Central Asia. Fermented mare's milk, known as kumis, is the national drink of Kyrgyzstan. Some mares, usually of draft horse breeding, are kept in North America for the production of their urine. Pregnant mares' urine is the active ingredient in the hormonal drug Premarin (derived from Pregnant mares' urine). A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... Two pairs of Shire horses and a pair of Suffolk Punches A draft horse, draught horse, or harness horse is a large, strong horse bred for heavy work rather than speed. ... An active ingredient, also active pharmaceutical ingredient (or API), is the substance in drug that is pharmaceutically active. ... Premarin is a mixture of estrogens isolated from mares urine (PREgnant MARes urINe) made by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals. ...


Historic use

Until the invention of castration and even later where there was less cultural acceptance of the practice, mares were less difficult to manage than stallions and thus preferred for most ordinary work. Historically, the Bedouin nomads of the Arabian peninsula preferred mares on their raids, because stallions would nicker to the opposing camps' horses, whereas mares would be quiet. However, other cultures preferred male horses over mares either due to a desire for more aggressive behavior in a fighting animal, or to not be inconvenienced with a loss of work ability due to a mare's pregnancy, parturition and lactation. Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Childbirth in a hospital. ... Kittens nursing Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands, the process of providing that milk to the young, and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young. ...


Etymology

The word mare, meaning "female horse," originated from the Gaulish language and took several forms prior to A.D. 900. In Old English the form was mere or mȳre, the feminine forms for mearh (horse). The Old German form of the word was Mähre. Similarly, in Irish and Gaelic, the word was marc, and in Welsh, march. The word has no known cognates beyond Germanic and Celtic.[5] Some derived terms are a mare's nest, an expression for "excitement over something which does not exist"; and nightmare, which began as a term meaning "an evil female spirit afflicting sleepers with a feeling of suffocation." However, this term may not be directly connected etymologically with the word for female horse, but rather to homophones that meant "incubus" or "goblin."[6] Gaulish is the name given to the Celtic language that was spoken in Gaul before the Vulgar Latin of the late Roman Empire became dominant in Roman Gaul. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old German could refer to: Old High German Old Low German (also Old Saxon) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Cognates are words that have a common origin. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ... This article is about the term in linguistics. ...


A homograph that has nothing to do with female horses confuses the etymology of the word. This is the Latin word "mare" (pronounced "ma-re", two syllables), which is used primarily in astronomy and describes the large, dark, basaltic plains on Earth's Moon. It is the Latin word for "sea", from which words like marine and maritime were also derived. Look up homograph in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Lunar nearside with major maria and craters labeled A global albedo map of the Moon obtained from the Clementine missionThe dark regions are the lunar maria, whereas the lighter regions are the highlands. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For the cities, see Basalt, Colorado and Basalt, Idaho. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... Ocean (Okeanos, a Greek god of sea and water; Greek ωκεανός) covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth. ...


See also

Mares and foals Horse breeding refers to reproduction in horses, and particularly the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals, particularly purebred horses of a given breed. ... A stallion A stallion is a male horse that has not been castrated. ... A gelding is a castrated animal—in English, a castrated male horse. ... Filly is also a town in Belgium. ... A foal is a young horse of either gender; a female foal is called a filly, while a male foal is called a colt. ...

References

  1. ^ Concise Oxford - mare
  2. ^ Ensminger, M. E. Horses and Horsemanship: Animal Agriculture Series. Sixth Edition. Interstate Publishers, 1990. ISBN 0-8134-2883-1 p. 156
  3. ^ Ensminger, M. E. Horses and Horsemanship: Animal Agriculture Series. Sixth Edition. Interstate Publishers, 1990. ISBN 0-8134-2883-1 p. 150
  4. ^ Ensminger, M. E. Horses and Horsemanship: Animal Agriculture Series. Sixth Edition. Interstate Publishers, 1990. ISBN 0-8134-2883-1 p. 149-150
  5. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mare Multiple definitions of Mare and its etymological origins. Web site accessed August 22, 2007
  6. ^ Etymology OnLine, accessed November 25, 2007
Species - Donkey - African Wild Ass - Domestic Horse - Wild Horse - Grevys Zebra - Onager - Kiang - Plains Zebra - Cape Mountain Zebra - Hartmanns Mountain Zebra Equidae is the family of horse-like animals, order Perissodactyla. ... Grass is a natural source of nutrition for a horse Equine nutrition refers to the feeding of horses, ponies, mules, donkeys and other equids. ... Horse behavior is best understood from the perspective that horses are prey animals with a well-developed fight-or-flight instinct. ... There are many aspects to horse care. ... Mares and foals Horse breeding refers to reproduction in horses, and particularly the human-directed process of selective breeding of animals, particularly purebred horses of a given breed. ... Horse conformation refers to the correctness of a horses bone structure, musculature, and its body proportions in relation to each other. ... Wild horses on the range, showing a wide range of coat colors Horses exhibit a diverse array of coat colours and distinctive markings. ... For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... Tack is a term used to describe any of the various equipment and accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... a horse carries a bit in its mouth, held on by a bridle. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Horse in harness with horse collar A Horse harness is a type of horse tack that allows a horse or other equid to be hitched to pull various horse-drawn vehicles such as a carriage, wagon, plow or sleigh. ... English riding is a term used in the United States to describe a form of horseback riding that is seen throughout the world. ... Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... A Welsh Cob in harness Driving, when applied to horses, Ponies, mules, or donkeys, is a broad term for hitching equines to a wagon, carriage, cart, sleigh, or other conveyance by means of a harness and working them in this form. ... Horse training refers to a wide variety of practices that teach horses to perform certain behaviors when asked to do so by humans. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Equestrianism made its Summer Olympics debut at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. ... A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. ... A riders equitation is her/his ability to ride correctly with a strong, supple position and effective aids. ... Reconstruction, left forefoot skeleton (third digit emphasized yellow) and longitudinal section of molars of selected prehistoric horses The evolution of the horse involves the gradual development of the modern horse from the fox-sized, forest-dwelling Hyracotherium. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... This 15th century depiction of Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I shows a well-bred Medieval horse with arched neck, refined head and elegant gait. ... A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... // Light or saddle horse breeds Heavy or draft horse breeds This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zebra (disambiguation). ... Binomial name A hinny is the offspring of a male horse and a female donkey (jennet or jenny). ... For other uses, see Mule (disambiguation). ... A zebra/donkey hybrid A zebroid is a cross between a zebra and any other equid: essentially, a zebra hybrid. ... A zeedonk in South Africa Colchester Zoos zeedonk, named Shadow A zeedonk (also called similar names including zebrass, zebronkey or zenkey) is a mixed breed animal, a cross between a zebra and a donkey. ... A zony is the offspring of a zebra stallion and a pony mare. ... It has been suggested that Zebrula be merged into this article or section. ... This Tree of Life article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Quagga (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Equus hemionus hemippus Geoffroy, 1855 The Syrian Wild Ass (Equus hemionus hemippus) was a wild ass found in the mountains and desert/steppe of Syria. ... Trinomial name Equus ferus ferus Boddaert, 1785 The Tarpan, Equus ferus ferus, was the Eurasian wild horse. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

 
 

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