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Encyclopedia > Marduk
Fertile Crescent
myth series
Mesopotamian
Levantine
Arabian
Mesopotamia
Primordial beings
7 gods who decree
The great gods
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Tales from Babylon 

Enûma Elish
Atra-Hasis
Marduk & Sarpanit
Nabu, Nintu
Agasaya, Bel
Qingu Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... // For the Derek Sherinian album, see Mythology (Derek Sherinian album). ... Image File history File links Palm_tree_symbol. ... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... In the Levantine pantheon, the Elohim are the sons of El the ancient of days (olam) assembled on the divine holy place, Mount Zephon (Jebel Aqra). ... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... The apsû (also known as abzu or engur) was the name for the mythological underground freshwater ocean in Sumerian and Akkadian mythology. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... In Sumerian mythology, the Annuna, the fifty great gods, whose domain appears to be principally but not exclusively the underworld. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Babylonia and is among the earliest known literary works. ... In Sumerian mythology, the utukku were a type of spirits or demons that could be either benevolent or evil. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mesopotamian mythology. ... Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian creation epic. ... The 18th century BC Akkadian Atra-Hasis epic, named after its human hero, contains both a creation and a flood account, and is one of three surviving Babylonian flood stories. ... In Babylonian mythology, Sarpanit (alternately Zarpanit, Zarpandit, Zerpanitum, Zerbanitu, or Zirbanit) is a mother goddess and the consort of the chief god, Marduk. ... It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ... Mami, Belet-ili or Nintu is a goddess in the Babylonian epic Atra-Hasis. ... Agasaya, The Shrieker, was a Semitic war goddess who was merged into Ishtar in her identity as warrior of the sky. ... Bel, signifying lord or master, is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in Babylonian relgion. ... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ...

Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU 𒀫𒌓 "solar calf"; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century BC), started to slowly rise to the position of the head of the Babylonian pantheon, a position he fully acquired by the second half of the second millennium BC. The Sumerian language ( EME.GIR15 native tongue) of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 1800 BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Utu is the Sumerian for Sun. The Sumerian cuneiform character is encoded in Unicode at U+12313 (Borger nr. ... Akkadian was a language of the Semitic family spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... A tutelary spirit or patron god is a god, often a minor god, who serves as the guardian or watcher over a particular site, person, or nation. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... Bold text For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the... This diorite head is believed to represent Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ˤAmmurāpi, the kinsman is a healer, from ˤAmmu, paternal kinsman, and Rāpi, healer; 1810 BC?–1750 BC) also rarely transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. ... // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: Queen Sobekneferu died. ...


Nibiru, to the Babylonians, was the celestial body or region sometimes associated with the god Marduk. Nibiru, to the Babylonians, was the celestial body associated with the god Marduk. ...

Contents

History

Marduk and his dragon, from a Babylonian cylinder seal
Marduk and his dragon, from a Babylonian cylinder seal

Marduk's original character is obscure but he was later on connected with water, vegetation, judgement, and white magic. He was also regarded as the son of Ea (Sumerian Enki) and the heir of An, but whatever special traits Marduk may have had were overshadowed by the political development through which the Euphrates valley passed and which led to imbuing him with traits belonging to gods who at an earlier period were recognized as the heads of the pantheon. There are particularly two gods — Ea and Enlil — whose powers and attributes pass over to Marduk. In the case of Ea (the wisdom god), the transfer proceeded pacifically and without effacing the older god. Marduk took over the identity of Asarluhi, the son of Ea and god of white magic, so that Marduk was integrated in the pantheon of Eridu where both Ea and Asarluhi original came from. Father Ea voluntarily recognized the superiority of the son and hands over to him the control of humanity. This association of Marduk and Ea, while indicating primarily the passing of the supremacy once enjoyed by Eridu to Babylon as a religious and political centre, may also reflect an early dependence of Babylon upon Eridu, not necessarily of a political character but, in view of the spread of culture in the Euphrates valley from the south to the north, the recognition of Eridu as the older centre on the part of the younger one. Download high resolution version (692x1220, 251 KB)the god Marduk with his dragon, from a Babylonian cylinder seal. ... Download high resolution version (692x1220, 251 KB)the god Marduk with his dragon, from a Babylonian cylinder seal. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief God of the city of Eridu. ... Look up AN on Wiktionary, the free dictionary AN may mean: NATO country code for Andorra IATA code for Ansett Australia (now defunct) a prefix in Army-Navy Equipment Code Designators the AAR reporting mark for Apalachicola Northern Railroad ISO country code for the Netherlands Antilles An may mean: an... EA, Ea, or ea can signify several things. ... Enlil (𒀭𒂗𒆤 DEN.LÍL lord of the open field) was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ...


While the relationship between Ea and Marduk is marked by harmony and an amicable abdication on the part of the father in favour of his son, Marduk's absorption of the power and prerogatives of Enlil of Nippur was at the expense of the latter's prestige. After the days of Hammurabi, the cult of Marduk eclipsed that of Enlil; although Nippur and the cult of Enlil enjoyed a period of renaissance during the four centuries of Kassite control in Babylonia (c. 1570 BC – 1157 BC), the definite and permanent triumph of Marduk over Enlil became felt within the Babylonian empire. The only serious rival to Marduk after ca. 1000 BC was Assur in Assyria. In the south, Marduk reigned supreme. He is normally referred to as Bel "Lord". The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... This diorite head is believed to represent Hammurabi Hammurabi (Akkadian from Amorite ˤAmmurāpi, the kinsman is a healer, from ˤAmmu, paternal kinsman, and Rāpi, healer; 1810 BC?–1750 BC) also rarely transliterated Ammurapi, Hammurapi, or Khammurabi) was the sixth king of Babylon. ... The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... (Redirected from 1570 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1620s BC 1610s BC 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC - 1570s BC - 1560s BC 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC Events and Trends Significant People Kamose, last Pharaoh of the 17th Dynasty of... Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1200s BC 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC 1100s BC Events and trends 1159 BC - Global tree ring event (period of arrested tree growth) lasting for 18... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... Assur was the head of the Assyrian pantheon and the rival of the Babylonian Marduk. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Bel, signifying lord or master, is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in Babylonian relgion. ...


When Babylon became the capital of Mesopotamia, the patron deity of Babylon was elevated to the level of supreme god. In order to explain how Marduk seized power, Enûma Elish was written, which tells the story of Marduk's birth, heroic deeds and becoming the ruler of the gods. This can be viewed as a form of Mesopotamian apologetics. Also included in this document are the fifty names of Marduk. Enûma Eliš is the Babylonian creation epic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In Enûma Elish, a civil war between the gods was growing to a climactic battle. The Anunnaki gods gathered together to find one god who could defeat the gods rising against them. Marduk, a very young god, answered the call and was promised the position of head god. Ancient Sumerian seal depicting the Annunaki For the fictional Anunnaki from Demon: The Fallen, see Annunaki (White Wolf), the Outlanders series by Mark Ellis, and The Empire Chronicles series by Mark Barnette. ...


When he killed his enemy, he "wrested from him the Tablets of Destiny, wrongfully his" and assumed his new position. Under his reign humans were created to bear the burdens of life so the gods could be at leisure. In Mesopotamian mythology, the Tablets of Destiny are a work of carved stone covered in writing of great significance. ...


Marduk was depicted as a human with is often with his symbol the snake-dragon which he had taken over from the god Tishpak. Another symbol that stood for Marduk was the spade.


People were named after Marduk. For example, the Biblical personality, the Persian Mordechai (Book of Esther) used this Gentile name in replacement of his Hebrew name Bilshan. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... Mordecai or Mordechai (מָרְדֳּכַי, Standard Hebrew Mordoḫay, Tiberian Hebrew Mordŏḵay: Persian origin Contrition) - the son of Jair, of the tribe of Benjamin. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Jewish tradition records that Bilshan was the Hebrew name of the Biblical character Mordechai (Book of Esther), the name Mordechai being a Persian name derived from the name of the god Marduk. ...


Babylonian texts talk of the creation of Eridu by the god Marduk as the first city, 'the holy city, the dwelling of their [the other gods] delight'.


Nabu, god of wisdom, is a son of Marduk. It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ...


Astrology

In late Babylonian astrology, Marduk was connected to the planet Jupiter. As the ruler of the late Babylonian pantheon, he was equated with the Greek god Zeus (Latin Jupiter), hence the name of the planet. Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut. ... Adjectives: Jovian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 20–200 kPa[4] (cloud layer) Composition: ~86% H2 ~13% Helium 0. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Díos), is... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ...


References in popular culture

Marduk and his dragon, from a Babylonian cylinder seal The Mesopotamian deity Marduk is often referenced or depicted in popular culture. ...

See also

The Bull of Heaven is the constellation we call Taurus. ... Chaldean mythology, also called Chaldaic mythology, is the collective name given to Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies, although Chaldea did not comprehend the whole territory inhabited by those peoples. ... Etemenanki, The temple of the creation of heaven and earth, was the name of a ziggurat to Marduk in the city of Babylon of the 6th century BC Chaldean (Neo-Babylonian) dynasty. ...

External links

  • The Mystica (article about Marduk)

Tiamat is a mother goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. ...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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