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Encyclopedia > Marcus Junius Brutus

Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. He is best known in modern times for taking a leading role in the assassination conspiracy against Julius Caesar.[1] The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...

Ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus
Ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1720 × 2600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1720 × 2600 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Early life

Brutus was the son of Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder and Servilia Caepionis. His father was a legatus to Pompey the Great; his mother was the half-sister of Cato the Younger, and later became Julius Caesar's mistress. Some sources refer to the possibility of Caesar being his real father,[2] but this is unlikely since Caesar was 15 at the time of Brutus' birth and the affair with his mother started some 10 years later. Brutus' uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio, adopted him when he was a young man and Brutus was known as Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus for an unknown period of time. Marcus Junius Brutus known by modern historians as Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder, was a Roman man who lived in the 1st century BC. He was tribune in 83 BC[1] and was the founder of the colony in Capua. ... Servilia Caepionis (b. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ...


Brutus held his uncle in high regard[3] and his political career started when he became an assistant to Cato, during his governorship of Cyprus.[4] During this time, he enriched himself by lending money at high rates of interest. He returned to Rome a rich man, where he married Claudia Pulchra.[5] From his first appearance in the Senate, Brutus aligned with the Optimates (the conservative faction) against the First Triumvirate of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Gaius Julius Caesar. For other senses of this word, see interest (disambiguation). ... Claudia Pulchra was the name of several women of Roman gens of Claudii during the 1st century BC and 1st century. ... Optimates (Good Men) were the aristocratic faction of the later Roman Republic. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... In Ancient Rome, several men of the Julii Caesares family were named Gaius (Caius) Julius (Iulius) Caesar, the most famous of which was the Dictator Julius Caesar. ...


Senate career

When the Roman Civil War broke out in 49 BC between Pompey and Caesar, Brutus followed his old enemy and present leader of the Optimates, Pompey. When the Battle of Pharsalus began, Caesar ordered his officers to take him prisoner if he gave himself up voluntarily, and if he persisted in fighting against capture, to let him alone and do him no violence.[6] After the disaster of the battle of Pharsalus, Brutus wrote to Caesar with apologies and Caesar immediately forgave him. In his letter Brutus declared he was a strong supporter of democracy and continually pushes it throughout the letter. Caesar accepted him into his inner circle and made him governor of Gaul when he left for Africa in pursuit of Cato and Metellus Scipio. In 45 BC, Caesar nominated Brutus to serve as urban praetor for the following year. There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders Gaius Julius Caesar Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Strength Approximately 22,000 legionaries, 5,000-10,000 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 1800 Approximately 60,000 legionaries, 4,200 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 5,000-8,000 Casualties 1,200 6,000 The... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Caecilii Metellii was one of the most important and wealthiest families in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected...


Also, in June 45 BC, Brutus divorced his wife and married his first cousin, Porcia Catonis, Cato's daughter.[7][8] According to Cicero the marriage caused a semi-scandal as Brutus failed to state a valid reason for his divorce from Claudia other than he wished to marry Porcia.[9] The marriage also caused a rift between Brutus and his mother, who resented the affection Brutus had for Porcia.[10] Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Porcia wounding her thigh by Elisabetta Sirani (1638 - 1665) Porcia Catonis, also known simply as Porcia[1] (Classical Latin: PORCIA•CATONIS•FILIA, ca. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


Conspiracy to kill Caesar

Death of Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini
Death of Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini

Around this time, many senators began to fear Caesar's growing power following his appointment as dictator for life.[11] Brutus was pressured into joining the conspiracy against Caesar by the other senators[12] and he also discovered messages written on the busts of his ancestors.[13] Brutus, influenced by his loyalty to Cato and Porcia, finally decided to move against Caesar in 44 BC.[14] His wife was the only woman privy to the plot.[15][16] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1250x696, 203 KB) Summary From: http://ugo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1250x696, 203 KB) Summary From: http://ugo. ... Vincenzo Camuccini (1773 - 1844), Italian historical painter, was born at Rome. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ...


The conspirators planned to carry out their plot on the Ides of March that same year. On that day, Caesar was delayed going to the Senate because his wife, Calpurnia Pisonis, tried to convince him not to go.[17] The conspirators feared the plot had been found out.[18] Brutus persisted, however, waiting for Caesar at the Senate, and allegedly still chose to remain even when a messenger brought him news that would otherwise have caused him to leave.[19] When Caesar finally did come to the Senate, they attacked him. Publius Servilius Casca was allegedly the first to attack Caesar with a blow to the shoulder, which Caesar blocked.[20] However, upon seeing Brutus was with the conspirators, he covered his face with his toga and resigned himself to his fate.[21] The conspirators attacked in such numbers that they even wounded one another. Brutus is said to have been wounded in the hand.[22][23] Vincenzo Camuccini, Mort de César, 1798. ... Calpurnia Pisonis (1st century BC), daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, was a Roman woman, third and last wife of Julius Caesar. ... Publius Servilius Casca was one of the assassins of Julius Caesar. ... Marcus Aurelius wearing a toga. ... Look up fate, Fates in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After the assassination

After the assassination, Brutus was approached with a compromise: if Caesar was declared a tyrant, then all of Caesar's acts and senatorial appointments - Brutus' urban praetorship among other offices given to some of the assassins before they killed Caesar - would be declared null and void. This would have meant that Brutus' urban praetorship was illegal and elections would have had to be held. Conversely, if he agreed to recognize Caesar's appointments, he and the other assassins would be granted amnesty and retain their positions. Brutus accepted the offer, and Caesar was not declared a tyrant. Part of the offer was that Brutus had to leave Rome, which he did. After leaving Rome, Brutus lived in Crete from 44 to 42 BC. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


In 43 BC, after Octavian received his consulship from the Roman Senate, one of his first actions was to have the people that had assassinated Julius Caesar declared murderers and enemies of the state.[24] Marcus Tullius Cicero, angry at Octavian, wrote a letter to Brutus explaining that the forces of Octavian and Mark Antony were divided. Antony had laid siege to the province of Gaul, where he wanted a governorship. In response to this siege, Octavian rallied his troops and fought a series of battles in which Antony was defeated.[25] Upon hearing that neither Antony nor Octavian had an army big enough to defend Rome, Brutus rallied his troops, which totaled about 17 legions. When Octavian heard that Brutus was on his way to Rome, he made peace with Antony.[26] Their armies, which together totaled about 19 legions, marched to meet Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. The following battles are known as the Battle of Philippi. The First Battle of Philippi was fought on October 3, 42 BC, in which Brutus defeated Octavian's forces, although Cassius was defeated by Antony's forces. The Second Battle of Philippi was fought on October 23, 42 BC and ended in Brutus' defeat. May refer to the persons: Augustus, Roman Emperor Pope John XIII nigger Category: ... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... For other uses see Cicero (disambiguation) Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3, 106 BC - December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin prose stylist. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Legion redirects here. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... Belligerents Triumvirs Liberators Commanders Octavian and Mark Antony Brutus† and Cassius† Strength 19 legions, allied cavalry 33,000; total over 100,000 men 17 legions, allied cavalry 17,000; total about 100,000 men Casualties and losses  ? Surrender of entire army The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in... For the American Civil War battle, see Battle of Philippi Races. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the American Civil War battle, see Battle of Philippi Races. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the defeat, he fled into the nearby hills with only about four legions. Knowing his army had been defeated and that he would be captured, Brutus committed suicide. Among his last words were, according to Plutarch, "By all means must we fly; not with our feet, however, but with our hands". Antony, as a show of great respect, ordered his body to be wrapped in his own most expensive cloak. Brutus was cremated, and his ashes were sent to his mother, Servilia Caepionis.[27] His wife Porcia was reported to have committed suicide upon hearing of her husband's death.[28][29][30][31] The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Servilia Caepionis (b. ...


Chronology

  • 85 BC – Brutus was born in Rome
  • 58 BC – He was made assistant to Cato, governor of Cyprus
  • 53 BC – He was given the quaestorship in Cilicia
  • 49 BC – Brutus followed Pompey to Greece during the civil war against Caesar
  • 48 BC – Brutus was pardoned by Caesar
  • 46 BC – He was made governor of Gaul
  • 45 BC – He was made Praetor
  • 44 BC – Murdered Caesar with other Senators; went to Athens and then to Crete
  • 42 BC – Brutus tries for Rome

Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For the American Civil War battle, see Battle of Philippi Races. ... For the American Civil War battle, see Battle of Philippi Races. ...

Brutus in popular culture

Influence

  • The phrase Sic semper tyrannis! ("Thus always to tyrants!") is attributed to Brutus at Caesar's assassination. The phrase is also the official motto of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
  • John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of Abraham Lincoln, was inspired by Brutus. Booth's father, Junius Brutus Booth, was named for Brutus, and Booth (as Mark Antony) and his brother (as Brutus) had performed in a production of Julius Caesar in New York just six months before the assassination. On the night of the assassination, Booth is alleged to have shouted "Sic semper tyrannis" while leaping to the stage of Ford's Theater. Lamenting the negative reaction to his deed, Booth wrote in his journal on April 21, 1865, while on the run, "[W]ith every man's hand against me, I am here in despair. And why; For doing what Brutus was honored for ... And yet I for striking down a greater tyrant than they ever knew am looked upon as a common cutthroat."
  • The well-known phrase "Et tu, Brute?" (commonly translated as "And you, Brutus?") was said to be Caesar's last utterance, although the sources describing Caesar's death dissent about what his last words were (if he said any at all).

Great Seal of Virginia with the state motto. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Photo of Booth Junius Brutus Booth (May 1, 1796–November 30, 1852) was a British and American actor. ... This article is about the state. ... Fords Theatre in the 19th century Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. was the site of the assassination of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln on April 14, 1865. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Death of Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini Et tu, Brute? (You too, Brutus[1], or And you, Brutus?) is a French phrase often used poetically to represent the last words of Julius Caesar. ...

Fiction

  • Dante Alighieri considered Brutus to be the epitome of betrayal, and in his Inferno section of the Divine Comedy (Inf., XXXIV, 64-67), portrayed Brutus being chewed, but never consumed, by Satan, along with Judas Iscariot and Gaius Cassius Longinus at the very lowest level of Hell.
  • Shakespeare has Mark Antony describe Brutus as "the noblest Roman of them all" in the final scene of Julius Caesar.
  • In the Masters of Rome novels of Colleen McCullough, Brutus is portrayed as a timid intellectual who hates Caesar for personal reasons. Cassius and Trebonius use him as a figurehead because of his family connections. He appears in Fortune's Favourites, Caesar's Women, Caesar and The October Horse.
  • A highly fictionalized Brutus is one of the prominent characters in the Emperor series by Conn Iggulden.
  • Ides of March is an epistolatory novel by Thornton Wilder dealing with characters and events leading to, and culminating in, the assassination of Julius Caesar.
  • In a parody of the Shakespeare play featured in Simpsons Comics, Brutus is portrayed by Waylon Smithers (as Caesar is portrayed by Mr. Burns). At one point, the conspirator (played by Homer Simpson) mistakenly addresses him as Bluto, in reference to the naming confusion of Popeye's nemesis.
  • Asterix comics sometimes portray a bored Brutus sitting next to Julius Caesar. Caesar's words to him are often unintentionally prophetic, but apply only to comically mundane, everyday situations. Examples include "I don't like your habits with that knife" in response to Brutus playing with a dagger, and "et tu, brute" ("you too, Brutus", Shakespeare's version of Caesar's last words) as an instruction when Brutus doesn't applaud with a crowd. Generally a very minor character, Brutus is the main antagonist in the comic Asterix and Son. The character appears in the live action adaptations Asterix and Obelix vs Caesar (played by Didier Cauchy) and Asterix at the Olympic Games . In the latter film, he is portrayed as a comical villain by Belgian actor Benoît Poelvoorde . He is a central character to the film, even though he was not depicted in the original Asterix at the Olympic Games comic book. In contradiction with historical facts, he is implied in that film to be Julius Caesar's biological son.
  • Brutus is a frequent supporting character in Xena: Warrior Princess. Early on, played by Grant Triplow, he is the loyal right hand of Caesar. Later, played by David Franklin, he becomes a more complex character, torn between his sense of honor and justice and his loyalty to Caesar. He is convinced by Xena and Gabrielle, to whom he is somewhat endeared, of Caesar's treachery. That was the prime consideration in killing him. Later, during a plot to conquer Egypt against Mark Antony and Augustus, he kills Cleopatra by sending her an asp, and is killed in turn by Gabrielle in a gory duel.

Dante redirects here. ... An epitome (Greek epitemnein—to cut short) is a summary or miniature form, also used as a synonym for embodiment. ... Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelinos fresco. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... Iscariot redirects here. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... Masters of Rome is a series of historical fiction novels by author Colleen McCullough (b. ... Colleen McCullough (born 1 June 1937) is an internationally acclaimed Australian author. ... Cassius may refer to: Cassius, http://www. ... Gaius Trebonius (died 43 BC) was a military commander and politician of the late Roman Republic, a trusted associate of Julius Caesar who later participated in his assassination. ... Fortunes Favourites is the third book in the Masters of Rome Series by author Colleen McCullough. ... Caesars Women is the fourth historical novel in Colleen McCulloughs Masters of Rome series. ... Caesar is the 1998 historical novel which forms part of Colleen McCulloughs Masters of Rome series Its 54 B.C. Gaius Julius Caesar is sweeping through Gaul, crushing the fierce, long-haired warrior-kings who stand in his way. ... The October Horse is the final novel in Colleen McCulloughs Masters of Rome series. ... Conn Iggulden is a British author, who mainly writes historical fiction. ... Ides of March is an epistolatory novel by Thornton Wilder. ... An epistolary novel is a literary technique in which a novel is composed as a series of letters, although diary entries, newspaper clippings and other documents are sometimes used. ... Image:Thorntonwilderteeth. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Simpsons Comics #110 Simpsons Comics is a monthly United States comic book series based on the animated TV show The Simpsons, published by Matt Groenings Bongo Comics group. ... Waylon Smithers, Jr. ... Mr. ... Homer Simpson is also a character in the book and film The Day of the Locust. ... Bluto, in Im in the Army Now (1936) Bluto is a cartoon character created in 1933 by Fleischer Studios for its Popeye the Sailor theatrical animated series. ... For other uses, see Popeye (disambiguation). ... This article is about the comic book series. ... Asterix and Son is the twenty-seventh volume of the Asterix comic book series, by René Goscinny (stories) and Albert Uderzo (illustrations). ... Asterix and Obelix vs Caesar (Aust. ... Benoît Poelvoorde (born September 22, 1964, in Namur, Belgium) is a Belgian actor. ... Asterix at the Olympic Games is an extremely effective satire on performance enhancing drug taking in sport. ... Xena. ... Caesar is a fictional character from the television series Xena: Warrior Princess. ... David Franklin is an Australian actor best known to audiences for his role as Meeklo Braca in the science fiction television series Farscape. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... ASP is a three-letter acronym with numerous meanings in different contexts. ...

Drama

Marcus Junius Brutus is a historical figure who features as a character in the HBO/BBC2 original television series, Rome, played by Tobias Menzies. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Rome is a historical drama television series co-created by Bruno Heller, John Milius, and William J. MacDonald and primarily written by Heller. ... Tobias Menzies, born March 7, 1974, is a British actor who has appeared predominantly in television roles, most notably as Marcus Junius Brutus in seasons 1 and 2 of the BBC/HBO series Rome. ... A miniseries, in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Empire is a six part miniseries filmed in 2005. ... James Frain (born March 14, 1968) is a British stage and screen actor. ...

Music

This article is about the Swedish band. ... Tyrannosaurus Hives is the third full-length The Hives. ...

Family tree

  • (1)=1st husband/wife
  • (2)=2nd husband/wife
  • x=assassin of Caesar
Salonia (2)
 
Cato the Elder
 
Licinia (1)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus
 
 
 
Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus
 
Marcus Livius Drusus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcus Porcius Cato (2)
 
Livia Drusa
 
Quintus Servilius Caepio the Younger(1)
 
Marcus Livius Drusus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Atilia (1)
 
Cato the Younger
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus, adoptive son
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder (1)
 
Servilia Caepionis
 
Decimus Junius Silanus (2)
 
 
Servilia the younger
 
Quintus Servilius Caepio
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Porcia Catonis
 
Marcus Junius Brutus x
 
Junia Prima
 
 
 
Junia Tertia
 
Gaius Cassius Longinus x
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marcus Porcius Cato (II)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Junia Secunda
 
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Descendant of Pompey and Lucius Cornelius Sulla
 
Lepidus the Younger
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Manius Aemilius Lepidus
 
 
Aemilia Lepida II

Salonia was a Roman woman who lived during the mid-2nd century BC who was the second wife of Cato the Elder. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Licinia is the name of women in the gens Licinia. ... Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus or Cato Salonianus was the son of Cato the Elder by his second wife Salonia. ... Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus or Cato Licinianus (?–c. ... The elder Marcus Livius Drusus was set up as tribune by the Senate in 122 BC to undermine Gaius Gracchus land reform bills. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO) (234 - 149 BC), Roman statesman, surnamed The Censor, Sapiens, Priscus, or Major (the Elder), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson), was born at Tusculum. ... Livia Livia Drusa Augusta, Livia Drusilla, or Julia Augusta (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus and the most powerful woman in Roman history, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... Quintus Servilius Caepio the Younger was a Roman soldier and statesman. ... The younger Marcus Livius Drusus, son of Marcus Livius Drusus, was tribune of the plebeians in 91 BC. In the manner of Gaius Gracchus, he set out with comprehensive plans, but his aim was to strengthen senatorial rule. ... Atilia (sometimes spelt Attilia), daughter of Serranus and first wife of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticencis whom he married after his intended wife, Aemilia Lepida, married someone else. ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus was the father of the Roman Empress Livia Drusilla. ... Marcus Junius Brutus known by modern historians as Marcus Junius Brutus the Elder, was a Roman man who lived in the 1st century BC. He was tribune in 83 BC[1] and was the founder of the colony in Capua. ... Servilia Caepionis (b. ... Decimus Junius Silanus was a consul of the Roman Republic. ... Servilia, full younger sister of Servilia Caepionis and second wife of Lucullus. ... Porcia wounding her thigh by Elisabetta Sirani (1638 - 1665) Porcia Catonis, also known simply as Porcia[1] (Classical Latin: PORCIA•CATONIS•FILIA, ca. ... Junia Tertia, or Tertulla, (c. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... Marcus Porcius Cato, son of Cato the Younger by his first marriage to Atilia. ... Junia referred to by modern historians as Junia Secunda was a Roman woman who lived in the 1st century BC. She was the second daughter of Servilia Caepionis, the lover of Julius Caesar and sister of Cato the Younger, and Decimus Junius Silanus, the elder being Junia Prima and the... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the Younger was the only child of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the triumvir. ... Manius Aemilius Lepidus was the son of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the Younger, and consul of Rome in 11 CE. He defended his sister Aemilia Lepida at her trial in 20. ... Aemilia Lepida is the name of Roman women belonging to the gens Aemilia. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Europius, Abridgement of Roman History [1]
  2. ^ Plutarch, Life of Brutus, 5.2.
  3. ^ Plutarch, Life of Brutus, 2.1.
  4. ^ Plutarch, Life of Brutus, 3.1.
  5. ^ Cicero. ad Fam. iii. 4.
  6. ^ Plutarch, Life of Brutus, 5.1.
  7. ^ Plutarch, Marcus Brutus, 13.3.
  8. ^ Cicero. Brutus. 77, 94
  9. ^ Cic. Att. 13. 16
  10. ^ Cic. Att. 13. 22
  11. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 44.8.4.
  12. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 44.12.2.
  13. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, 44.12.3.
  14. ^ Cassius Dio, 44.13.1.
  15. ^ Cassius Dio, 44.13.
  16. ^ Plutarch, Marcus Brutus, 14.4
  17. ^ Plutarch. Marcus Brutus. 15.1.
  18. ^ Cassius Dio. Roman History. 44.18.1.
  19. ^ Plutarch. Marcus Brutus. 15.5.
  20. ^ Plutarch. Marcus Brutus. 17.5.
  21. ^ Plutarch. Marcus Brutus. 17.6.
  22. ^ Plutarch. Marcus Brutus. 17.7.
  23. ^ Nicolaus. Life of Augustus. 24.
  24. ^ Greek Texts
  25. ^ Background on Philippi
  26. ^ Ancient Greek Online library | Marcus Brutus by Plutarch | page 13
  27. ^ Plutarch, Marcus Brutus, 52.1-53.4.
  28. ^ Valerius Maximus, De factis mem. iv.6.5.
  29. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History. 47.49.3.
  30. ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, Book 5.136.
  31. ^ Valerius Maximus, De factis mem. iv.6.5.

Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ... Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Appian (c. ... Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes. ...

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John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... Sir Thomas North (1535? - 1601?), English translator of Plutarch, second son of the 1st Baron North, was born about 1535. ... Jacques Amyot (October 30, 1513 - February 6, 1593), French writer, was born of poor parents, at Melun. ... Philemon Holland (1552 - 1637) was an English translator. ... Arthur Hugh Clough (January 1, 1819 – November 13, 1861) was an English poet, and the brother of Anne Jemima Clough. ...

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Brutus, Marcus Junius - MSN Encarta (269 words)
Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic.
Brutus, full name Marcus Junius Brutus (85?-42 bc), Roman political leader, son-in-law of the Roman philosopher Marcus Porcius Cato the Younger, born in Rome, and educated in law.
Brutus then fled to Macedonia, raised an army among the Greeks, and joined Cassius in Asia Minor to fight for the Roman Republic.
Brutus - LoveToKnow 1911 (1093 words)
Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the first two consuls, 509 B.C. According to the legends, his mother was the sister of Tarquinius Superbus, the last of the Roman kings, and his father and his elder brother had been put to death by the reigning family in order to get possession of his wealth.
Marcus JuNlus Brutus, a jurist of high authority, was considered as one of the founders of Roman civil law (Cicero, De Oratore, ii.
Marcus Junius Brutus (85, according to some, 79 or 78-42 B.C.), son of a father of the same name and of Servilia, half-sister of Cato of Utica, is the most famous of the name, and is the real hero of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar.
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