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Encyclopedia > Marcus Garvey
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr.

Garvey in 1924
Born August 17, 1887(1887-08-17)
Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica
Died June 10, 1940 (aged 52)
London, England
Occupation Publisher, Journalist
Known for Activism, National Hero of Jamaica
Parents Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Sr.
Sarah Jane Richards
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Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr., National Hero of Jamaica (August 17, 1887June 10, 1940[1]), was a publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, Black nationalist, orator, and founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL).[2] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (566x850, 94 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Marcus Garvey ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location latitude 18°12N, longitude 77°28W Capital Town Saint Anns Bay Major towns Ocho Rios, Browns Town, Runaway Bay, Claremont County Middlesex Area 1,212. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... The Order of National Hero is an honour awarded by the government of Jamaica. ... 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The Order of National Hero is an honour awarded by the government of Jamaica. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... For the computer game by Peter Molyneux, see The Entrepreneur. ... Black nationalism is a political and social movement prominent in the 1960s and early 70s among African Americans in the United States. ... Look up orator in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) is an international self-help organization founded by Marcus Garvey. ...


Prior to the twentieth century, leaders such as Prince Hall, Martin Delaney, Edward Wilmot Blyden, and Henry Highland Garnet advocated the involvement of the African diaspora in African affairs. Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement focusing on Africa known as Garveyism.[2] Promoted by the UNIA as a movement of African Redemption, Garveyism would eventually inspire others, ranging from the Nation of Islam, to the Rastafari movement (which proclaims Garvey to be a prophet). The intention of the movement was for those of African ancestry to "redeem" Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave it. The idea that African Americans should return back to Africa became is known as the Colonist Movement. His essential ideas about Africa were stated in an editorial in the Negro World entitled “African Fundamentalism” where he wrote: (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Prince Hall (c. ... Martin Robison Delany (May 6, 1812 - 1885) was the First Afro-American Field Officer in the United States Army. ... Edward Wilmot Blyden (1832-1912) was an educator, writer, diplomat, and politician in Liberia and Sierra Leone. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The African diaspora was the movement of Africans and their descendants to places throughout the world - predominantly to the Americas, then later to Europe, the Middle East and other corners of the globe. ... Pan-African people are all people with African physical features. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Mass wasting, also known as mass movement, is the process by which rock and regolith move downslope mainly due to the pull of gravity. ... Garveyism is an aspect of Black Nationalism which takes its source from the works, words and deeds of UNIA-ACL founder Marcus Garvey. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring... Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Weekly newspaper published by Marcus Mosiah Garvey during the 1920s and 30s. ...

Our union must know no clime, boundary, or nationality… let us hold together under all climes and in every country…[3]

Contents

Early years

Garvey was born on August 17, 1887 at 32 Market Street in Saint Ann's Bay, Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica to Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Sr., a mason, and Sarah Jane Richards, a domestic worker and farmer. Of eleven siblings, only Marcus and his sister Indiana reached maturity.[4] Garvey's father was known to have a large library, and it was from his father that Marcus gained his love for reading.[2][5] Sometime in the year 1900, Garvey entered into an apprenticeship with his uncle, Alfred Burrowes. Like Garvey Sr, Mr. Burrowes had an extensive library, of which young Garvey made good use.[6][7] Location latitude 18°12N, longitude 77°28W Capital Town Saint Anns Bay Major towns Ocho Rios, Browns Town, Runaway Bay, Claremont County Middlesex Area 1,212. ... This article refers to the building structure component; for the fraternal organization, see Freemasonry. ... For other uses, see Farmer (disambiguation). ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ...


Near the age of fourteen, Garvey left Saint Ann's Bay for Kingston, where he found employment as a compositor in the printery of P.A. Benjamin Limited. He was a master printer and foreman at Benjamin when, in November of 1907, he was elected vice-president of the Kingston Union. However, he was fired when he joined a strike by printers in late 1908. Having been blacklisted for his stance in the strike, he later found work at the Government Printing Office. In 1909, his newspaper The Watchman began publication, but it only lasted for three issues. The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica and is located on the southeastern coast of the island country. ...


In 1910, Garvey left Jamaica and began traveling throughout the Central American region. He lived in Costa Rica for several months, where he worked as a time-keeper on a banana plantation. He began work as editor for a daily newspaper entitled 'La Nacionale' in 1911. Later that year, he moved to Colón, Panama, where he edited a tri-weekly newspaper before returning to Jamaica in 1912. This article is about crop plantations. ... Colón as seen from the ocean in January 2000 Colón is a sea port city on the Caribbean Sea coast of Panama. ...


After years of working in the Caribbean, Garvey left Jamaica to live in London from 1912 to 1914, where, he attended Birkbeck College, worked for the African Times and Orient Review, published by Dusé Mohamed Ali, and sometimes spoke at Hyde Park's Speakers' Corner. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Birkbeck, University of London, sometimes referred to by its former name Birkbeck College or by the abbreviation BBK, is a College of the University of London. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... “Hyde Park” redirects here. ... A Socialist Party of Great Britain member arguing against capitalism, October 31, 2004 Speakers Corner is an area where public speaking is allowed, and is located in the north-east corner of Hyde Park in London, England. ...


Founding and Projects of the UNIA-ACL

During his travels, Garvey became convinced that uniting Blacks was the only way to improve their condition. Towards that end, he departed England on June 14, 1914 aboard the S.S. Trent, reaching Jamaica on July 15, 1914. The Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) was founded in August 1914 as a means of uniting all of Africa and its diaspora into "one grand racial hierarchy." Amy Ashwood, who would later be Garvey's first wife, was among the founders. As the group's first President-General, his goal was "to unite all people of African ancestry of the world to one great body to establish a country and absolute government of their own."[8] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) is an international self-help organization founded by Marcus Garvey. ... Amy Ashwood Garvey (10 January 1897 - 11 May 1969) was a Jamaican Pan-Africanist activist. ...


Following much reflection the following day and night about what he learned, "the vision and thought came" to "name the organization the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities (Imperial) League."[9]


After corresponding with Booker T. Washington, Garvey arrived in the U.S. on March 23, 1916 aboard the S.S. Tallac to give a lecture tour and to raise funds for the establishment of a school in Jamaica modeled after Washington's Tuskegee Institute. Garvey visited Tuskegee, and afterward, visited with a number of Black leaders. After moving to New York, he found work as a printer by day. He was influenced by Hubert Harrison, and at night he would speak on street corners, much like he did in London's Hyde Park. It was then that Garvey perceived a leadership vacuum among people of African ancestry, and so on May 9, 1916, he held his first public lecture in New York City at St Mark's Church in-the-Bowery and undertook a 38-state speaking tour. Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... There is also the Tuskegee Airmen, a corps of African-American military pilots trained there during World War II Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama. ... Hubert Henry Harrison (1883-1927) Born Saint Croix V.I. This self-taught and widely hailed Harlem intellectual was editor in 1920 of the Negro World published by Marcus Garvey. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... St Marks Church in-the-Bowery Exterior detail of painted pediment (HABS photo) St. ...


In May of 1917, Garvey and thirteen others formed the first UNIA division outside Jamaica and began advancing ideas promoting social, political, and economic freedom for Blacks. On July 2, the East St. Louis riots broke out. On July 8, Garvey delivered an address, entitled "The Conspiracy of the East St. Louis Riots," at Lafayette Hall in Harlem. During the speech, he declared the riot was "one of the bloodiest outrages against mankind." By October, rancor within the UNIA had begun to set in. A split occurred in the Harlem division, with Garvey enlisted to become its leader; although he still technically held the same position in Jamaica. East St. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ...


Garvey next set about the business of developing a program to improve the conditions of those of African ancestry "at home and abroad" under UNIA auspices. On August 17, 1918, publication of the widely distributed Negro World newspaper began. Garvey worked as an editor for free up until November 1920. By June of 1919 the membership of the organization had grown to over two million. is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Weekly newspaper published by Marcus Mosiah Garvey during the 1920s and 30s. ...


On June 27, 1919, the Black Star Line of Delaware, was incorporated by the members of the UNIA with Garvey as President. By September, it obtained its first ship. Much fanfare surrounded the inspection of the S.S. Yarmouth and its rechristening as the S.S. Frederick Douglass on September 14, 1919. Such a rapid accomplishment garnered attention from many. is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Black Star Line was a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey, who organized the UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association). ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


One person who noticed was Edwin P. Kilroe, Assistant District Attorney in the District Attorney's office of the County of New York. Kilroe began an investigation into the activities of the UNIA, without finding any evidence of wrongdoing or mismanagement. After being called to Kilroe's office numerous times without any resolution, Garvey wrote an editorial on Kilroe's activities for the Negro World. Garvey was arrested and indicted for criminal libel in relation to the article, but charges were dismissed after Garvey published a retraction. A district attorney is, in some U.S. jurisdictions, the title of the local public official who represents the government in the prosecution of criminals. ...


While in his Harlem office at 56 West 156th Street on October 14, 1919, Garvey received a visit from a man by the name of George Tyler, who told him that Kilroe "had sent him" to get Garvey. Tyler then pulled a .38-calibre revolver and fired four shots, wounding Garvey in the right leg and scalp. Garvey was taken to the hospital and Tyler arrested. The next day, Tyler apparently committed suicide by jumping from the third tier of the Harlem jail while he was being taken to his arraignment. is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


By August 1920, the UNIA claimed four million members. That month, the International Convention of the UNIA was held. With delegates from all over the world in attendance, over 25,000 people filled Madison Square Garden on August 1 to hear Garvey speak. Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, and known colloquially simply as The Garden, has been the name of four arenas in New York City. ...


Another of Garvey's ventures was the Negro Factories Corporation. His plan called for creating the infrastructure to manufacture every marketable commodity in every big U.S. industrial center, as well as in Central America, the West Indies, and Africa. Related endeavors included a grocery chain, restaurant, publishing house, and other businesses. Another of Marcus Garveys venturess was the Negro Factories Corporation, which sought to, build and operate factories in the big industrial centres of the United States, Central America, the West Indies and Africa to manufacture every marketable commodity. ...

 A speech by Marcus Garvey:

"Explanation of the Objects of the Universal Negro Improvement Association"

Complete 1921 speech
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Convinced that Blacks should have a permanent homeland in Africa, Garvey sought to develop Liberia.


The Liberia program, launched in 1920, was intended to build colleges, universities, industrial plants, and railroads as part of an industrial base from which to operate. However, it was abandoned in the mid-1920s after much opposition from European powers with interests in Liberia. In response to suggestions that he wanted to take all Americans of African ancestry back to Africa, he wrote, "We do not want all the Negroes in Africa. Some are no good here, and naturally will be no good there."[10] World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ...


Garvey has been credited with creating the biggest movement of people of African descent. This movement that took place in the 1920s is said to have had more participation from people of African descent than the Civil Rights Movement. In essence the UNIA was the largest Pan-African movement. Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980) in which there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ...


Charge of mail fraud

In a memorandum dated October 11, 1919[11], J. Edgar Hoover, special assistant to the Attorney General, and head of the General Intelligence Division (or "anti-radical division"),[12] of The Bureau of Investigation or BOI (after 1935, the Federal Bureau of Investigation)[13] wrote a memorandum to Special Agent Ridgely regarding Marcus Garvey. In the memo, Hoover wrote that: is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972), known popularly as J. Edgar Hoover, was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...

… he [Garvey] has not as yet violated any federal law whereby he could be proceeded against on the grounds of being an undesirable alien, from the point of view of deportation.[14][15]

Sometime around November of 1919 an investigation by the BOI was begun into the activities of Garvey and the UNIA. Towards this end, the BOI hired James Edward Amos, Arthur Lowell Brent, Thomas Leon Jefferson, James Wormley Jones, and Earl E. Titus as its first five African-American agents. Although initial efforts by the BOI were to find grounds upon which to deport Garvey as "an undesirable alien", a charge of mail fraud was brought against Garvey in connection with stock sales of the Black Star Line after the U.S. Post Office and the Attorney General joined the investigation.[15] Jones, James Wormley (born September 22, 1884 in Fort Monroe, Virginia, United States - died December 11, 1958) was an African-American policeman, World War I veteran, and FBI agent. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Black Star Line was a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey, who organized the UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association). ... A USPS Truck at Night A U.S. Post Office sign The United States Postal Service (USPS) is the United States government organization responsible for providing postal service in the United States and is generally referred to as the post office. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ...


The accusation centered on the fact that the corporation had not yet purchased a ship with the name "Phyllis Wheatley". Although one was pictured with that name emblazoned on its bow on one of the company's stock brochures it had not actually been purchased by the BSL and still had the name Orion. The prosecution produced as evidence a single empty envelope which it claimed contained the brochure. During the trial, a man by the name of Benny Dancy testified that he didn't remember what was in the envelope, although he regularly received brochures from the Black Star Line. Another witness for the prosecution, Schuyler Cargill, perjured himself after admitting[16] to having been told to mention certain dates in his testimony by Chief Prosecutor Maxwell S. Mattuck. Furthermore, he admitted that he could not remember the names of any coworkers in the office, including the timekeeper who punched employees time cards. Ultimately, he acknowledged being told to lie by Postal Inspector F.E. Shea [17]. He said Shea told him to state that he mailed letters containing the purportedly fraudulent brochures. The Black Star Line did own and operate several ships over the course of its history and was in the process of negotiating for the disputed ship at the time the charges were brought. For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... Phillis Wheatley Phillis Wheatley (1753 - December 5, 1784), also spelled Phylis Wheatley, was born in Senegal in Africa, but was captured and sold into slavery at the age of 7. ... Bow of the Cruise ship Spirit of Endeavour The bows of lifeboat 17-31 (Severn class) in Poole Harbour, Dorset, England The bow (pronounced to rhyme with how) is a nautical term that refers to the forward part of the hull of a ship or boat, the point that is... Look up Orion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Of the four Black Star Line officers charged in connection with the enterprise, only Garvey was found guilty of using the mail service to defraud. His supporters called the trial fraudulent. While there were serious accounting irregularities within the Black Star Line and the claims he used to sell Black Star Line stock could be considered misleading, Garvey's supporters still contest that the prosecution was a politically motivated miscarriage of justice, given the above-mentioned false statement testimony and Hoover's explicit regret that Garvey had committed no crimes. A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime that he or she did not commit. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


When the trial ended on June 23, 1923, Garvey had been sentenced to five years in prison. He initially spent three months in the Tombs Jail awaiting approval of bail. While on bail, he continued to maintain his innocence, travel, speak and organize the UNIA. After numerous attempts at appeal were unsuccessful, he was taken into custody and began serving his sentence at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary on February 8, 1925.[18] Two days later, he penned his well known "First Message to the Negroes of the World From Atlanta Prison" wherein he makes his famous proclamation: is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tombs was the central prison in New York City, built in 1839, and designed by John Haviland after an engraving by John A. Stevens of an Egyptian mausoleum. ... United States Penitentiary, Atlanta. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Look for me in the whirlwind or the storm, look for me all around you, for, with God's grace, I shall come and bring with me countless millions of black slaves who have died in America and the West Indies and the millions in Africa to aid you in the fight for Liberty, Freedom and Life.[19]

Professor Judith Stein has stated, “his politics were on trial.”[20]


Garvey's sentence was eventually commuted by President Calvin Coolidge. Upon his release in November 1927, Garvey was deported via New Orleans to Jamaica, where a large crowd met him at Orrett's Wharf in Kingston. A huge procession and band converged on UNIA headquarters. John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica and is located on the southeastern coast of the island country. ...


Criticism

While W. E. B. Du Bois expressed the Black Star Line was “original and promising,”[21] he also said: “Marcus Garvey is, without doubt, the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race in America and in the world. He is either a lunatic or a traitor.”[22] Du Bois feared that Garvey's activities would undermine his efforts toward black rights. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced [1]) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. ... The Black Star Line was a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey, who organized the UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association). ...


Garvey suspected Du Bois was prejudiced against him because he was a Caribbean native with darker skin. Garvey called Du Bois “purely and simply a white man's nigger" and "a little Dutch, a little French, a little Negro … a mulatto … a monstrosity.” This led to an acrimonious relationship between Garvey and the NAACP.[23] Garvey accused Du Bois of paying conspirators to sabotage the Black Star Line to destroy his reputation. Du Bois was, nevertheless, a strong supporter of Pan-Africanism.[24][25] The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ...


Garvey recognized the influence of the Ku Klux Klan, and in early 1922, he went to Atlanta, Georgia for a conference with KKK imperial giant Edward Young Clarke. Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ...


According to Garvey, “I regard the Klan, the Anglo-Saxon clubs and White American societies, as far as the Negro is concerned, as better friends of the race than all other groups of hypocritical whites put together. I like honesty and fair play. You may call me a Klansman if you will, but, potentially, every white man is a Klansman, as far as the Negro in competition with whites socially, economically and politically is concerned, and there is no use lying.”[26]


After Garvey's entente with the Ku Klux Klan, a number of African American leaders appealed to U.S. Attorney General Harry M. Daugherty to have Garvey incarcerated.[27] Harry Micajah Daugherty (January 26, 1860–October 12, 1941) (daw-GER-tee) was an American politician. ...


Later years

Garvey travelled to Geneva in 1928 to present the Petition of the Negro Race, which outlined the worldwide abuse of Africans, to the League of Nations. In September 1929, he founded the People's Political Party (PPP), Jamaica's first modern political party, which focused on workers' rights, education, and aid to the poor. 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... In September 1929, Marcus Garvey founded the Peoples Political Party (PPP), Jamaicas first modern political party. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a group of workers who act collectively to address common issues. ...


Also in 1929, Garvey was elected councilor for the Allman Town Division of the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC). He lost his seat, however, because of having to serve a prison sentence for contempt of court, but in 1930, he was re-elected, unopposed, along with two other PPP candidates. Contempt of court is a court ruling which, in the context of a court trial or hearing, deems an individual as holding contempt for the court, its process, and its invested powers. ...


In April 1931, Garvey launched the Edelweiss Amusement Company, which he set up to help artists earn their livelihood from their craft. Several Jamaican entertainers — Kidd Harold, Ernest Cupidon, Bim & Bam, and Ranny Williams — went on to become popular after receiving initial exposure that the company gave them.


In 1935, Garvey left Jamaica for London, where he lived and worked until his death in 1940. During these last five years, he remained active and in touch with events in war-torn Ethiopia (then known as Abyssinia) and the West Indies. In 1938, he gave evidence before the West Indian Royal Commission on conditions there. Also in 1938, he set up the School of African Philosophy at 355 College St., in Toronto, Canada to train UNIA leaders. He continued to work on the magazine The Black Man. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The term Habesha (Geez ሐበሻ ḥabaśā, Amh. ... West Indies redirects here. ...


In 1937, a group of his American supporters, called the Peace Movement of Ethiopia, openly collaborated with Mississippi Senator Theodore Bilbo in the promotion of a repatriation scheme introduced in the US Congress as the Greater Liberia Act. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Theodore Gilmore Bilbo (October 13, 1877–August 21, 1947) was an American politician. ...


Death

See also: List of premature obituaries

On June 10, 1940, Garvey died after two strokes, putatively after reading a mistaken, and negative, obituary of himself in the Chicago Defender.[28] Because of travel conditions during World War II, he was interred at Kensal Green Cemetery in London. Various notable people have had their death announced in error. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Obituary for World War I death An obituary is a notice of the death of a person, usually published in a newspaper, written or commissioned by the newspaper, and usually including a short biography. ... The Chicago Defender announces President Harry S. Trumans order in 1948 desegregating the United States Armed Forces. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Kensal Green Cemetery Kensal Green Cemetery, located in Kensal Green, London, England, was incorporated in 1832, and is the oldest of the Magnificent Seven cemeteries still in operation. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In 1964, his remains were exhumed and taken to Jamaica. On November 15, 1964, the government of Jamaica, having proclaimed him Jamaica's first national hero, ceremoniously re-interred him at a shrine in National Heroes Park. is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The Order of National Hero is an honour awarded by the government of Jamaica. ... National Heroes Park is a botanical garden in Kingston, Jamaica. ...

The UNIA flag uses three colors: red, black and green.
The UNIA flag uses three colors: red, black and green.

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_UNIA.svg The red, black and green flag was created by the members of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League at their convention held in Madison Square Garden on August 13, 1920. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_UNIA.svg The red, black and green flag was created by the members of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League at their convention held in Madison Square Garden on August 13, 1920. ... The UNIA flag. ...

Influence

Garvey's memory has been kept alive. Schools, colleges, highways, and buildings in Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, and the United States have been named in his honor. The UNIA red, black, and green flag has been adopted as the Black Liberation Flag. Since 1980, Garvey's bust has been housed in the Organization of American States' Hall of Heroes in Washington, D.C. Two sets of three colours are referred to as the Pan-African colours. ... Headquarters Washington, D.C. Official languages English, French, Portuguese, Spanish Membership 35 countries Leaders  -  Secretary General José Miguel Insulza Chile (since 26 May 2005) Establishment  -  Charter first signed 30 April 1948 in effect 1 December 1951  Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Malcolm X's parents, Earl and Louise Little, met at a UNIA convention in Montreal, Canada. Earl was the president of the UNIA division in Omaha, Nebraska and sold the Negro World newspaper while Louise was a contributor to the Negro World. Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Omaha is the name of some places in the United States: *Omaha, Nebraska (the most familiar one) Omaha, Georgia Omaha, Illinois Omaha, Texas It is also the name of a Native American tribe, after which the city in Nebraska is named; see Omaha (tribe). ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... Weekly newspaper published by Marcus Mosiah Garvey during the 1920s and 30s. ...


Kwame Nkrumah named the national shipping line of Ghana the Black Star Line in honor of Garvey and the UNIA. Nkrumah also named the national soccer team the Black Stars as well. The black star at the center of Ghana's flag is also inspired by the Black Star Line. Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972)[1], one of the most influential Pan-Africanists of the 20th century, served as the founder, and first President of Ghana. ... Soccer redirects here. ... First international Gold Coast 1-0 Nigeria (Accra, Ghana; 28 May 1950) Ghana 7-0 Nigeria (Accra, Ghana; 30 October 1955)[2] Biggest win Kenya 0-13 Ghana (Nairobi Jamhuri Park, Kenya; 12 December 1965)[3] Biggest defeat Brazil 8-2 Ghana (São José do Rio Preto, Brazil; 27... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Ghana was adopted in 1957. ...

Flag of Ghana
Flag of Ghana

During a trip to Jamaica, Martin Luther King and his wife Coretta Scott King visited the shrine of Marcus Garvey on June 20, 1965 and laid a wreath.[29] In a speech he told the audience that Garvey "was the first man of color to lead and develop a mass movement. He was the first man on a mass scale and level to give millions of Negroes a sense of dignity and destiny. And make the Negro feel he was somebody."[30] Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...


King was also the posthumous recipient of the first Marcus Garvey Prize for Human Rights on December 10, 1968 issued by the Jamaican Government and presented to King's widow. is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


The United States of Africa first saw light in a 1924 poem by Garvey and is still discussed. The United States of Africa is a name sometimes given to one version of the possible future unification of Africa as a national and sovereign federation of states similar in formation to the United States of America, mirroring the idea of the United States of Europe. ...


There have been pop culture references to Marcus Garvey since he first came on the international scene. Garvey is cited repeatedly in a diverse variety of books, songs and films. He is mentioned particularly frequently in blues, reggae, jazz and hip hop music. Blues music redirects here. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ...


Garvey and Rastafari

Rastafarians consider Garvey a religious prophet, and sometimes even the reincarnation of Saint John the Baptist. This is partly because of his frequent statements uttered in speeches throughout the 1920s, usually along the lines of "Look to Africa, when a black king shall be crowned for the day of deliverance is at hand!"[31] Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ...


His beliefs deeply influenced the Rastafari, who took his statements as a prophecy of the crowning of Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. Early Rastas were associated with his Back-to-Africa movement in Jamaica. This early Rastafari movement was also influenced by a separate, proto-Rasta movement known as the Afro-Athlican Church that was outlined in a religious text known as the Holy Piby — where Garvey was proclaimed to be a prophet as well. Thus, the Rastafari movement can be seen as an offshoot of Garveyite philosophy. As his beliefs have greatly influenced Rastafari, he is often mentioned in reggae music. Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... —Bkell 09:34, 15 January 2006 (UTC) This book is considered to have deeply influenced the Rastafari movement, who see Haile Selassie as God, and Marcus Garvey as his prophet. ... Garveyism is an aspect of Black Nationalism which takes its source from the works, words and deeds of UNIA-ACL founder Marcus Garvey. ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ...


Garvey himself never identified with the Rastafari movement, and was, in fact, raised as a Methodist who went on to become a Roman Catholic. The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Memorials to Garvey

There are a number of memorials worldwide which honor Marcus Garvey. Most are in Jamaica and the United States.


Jamaica

  • A marker in front of the house of his birth at 32 Market Street, St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica.[32]
  • A statue on the grounds of St. Ann's Bay Parish Library.
  • A secondary school in his name in St. Ann' Bay.
  • A major highway in his name in Kingston.
  • A bust in Apex Park in Kingston.
  • Likeness on the Jamaican 50 cent coin and 20 dollar coin.
  • A building in his name housing the Jamaican Ministry of Foreign Affairs located in New Kingston.
  • A Marcus Garvey statue at National Heroes Park in Kingston, JA.

Trinidad

  • A statue on Harris Promenade, San Fernando

United States of America

Marcus Garvey Park is located in Harlem in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... The New York Public Library (NYPL) is one of the leading public libraries of the world and is one of Americas most significant research libraries. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... Bedford Stuyvesant (aka Bed-Stuy) is a neighborhood in central Brooklyn, New York City. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Universal Hip Hop Parade (UHHP) is an annual family-friendly non-profit educational and cultural event held in the historically Black neighbourhood of Bedford Stuyvesant Brooklyn on the Saturday before the anniversary of Marcus Garveys August 17th birthday to bring to mind that Marcus Garvey himself also used... This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... In the United States, African American culture or Black culture includes the various cultural traditions of African American communities. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... University of Northern Colorado (Northern Colorado) is a baccalaureate (arts, sciences, humanities, business, human sciences, and education), graduate (primarily in the field of education), and research university located in Greeley, Colorado, USA. It has a 2006 enrollment of 13,775 students. ... Greeley is a city located in Weld County, Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Nickname: Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: , Country State County Mercer Incorporated November 13, 1792 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Sean John Combs (born November 4, 1969[1]) is an American entertainment mogul, record producer, actor and rapper. ... Sean John is a clothing line founded by hip-hop mogul Sean Combs in 1998. ... A piebald horse A piebald is an animal, especially a horse, that has a spotting pattern of large white and black patches. ...

Africa

Location of Nairobi Coordinates: , Country Province HQ City Hall Founded 1899 Constituencies of Nairobi List Makadara Kamukunji Starehe Langata Dagoretti Westlands Kasarani Embakasi Government  - Mayor Geoffrey Majiwa Area  - City 684 km² (264. ... Location of Enugu in Nigeria Enugu is the capital city of Enugu State, Nigeria. ...

Europe

  • A small park in his name in Hammersmith, London, UK.
  • Marcus Garvey Centre in Lenton, Nottingham, UK.
  • A Marcus Garvey Library inside the Tottenham Green Leisure Centre building in North London, UK.
  • Marcus Garvey Road in Brixton, London.
  • Blue Plaque at 53, Talgarth Road, Hammersmith, London, UK:

GARVEY, Marcus (1887-1940) Pan-Africanist Leader, lived and died here, 53 Talgarth Road, W14. [Hammersmith and Fulham 2005] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Lenton is an area of the City of Nottingham in the county of Nottinghamshire, England. ... For other uses, see Nottingham (disambiguation). ... Tottenham Green is an urban ward within the Borough of Haringey, London, England. ... , For other places with the same name, see Brixton (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


See also

The Color Purple by Alice Walker African American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The term Right of return refers to the principle in international law that members of an ethnic or national group have a right to immigration and naturalization into the country that they, the destination country, or both consider to be that groups homeland, independent of prior personal citizenship in... Pan-Africanism is a sociopolitical world view, and a moral philosophy, as well as a movement, which seeks to unify and uplift both native Africans and those of the African diaspora, as part of a global African community.[1] // As a moral philosophy, Pan Africanism represents the aggregation of the...

References

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Online. "Marcus Garvey." Retrieved on 2008-02-20.
  2. ^ a b c The "Back to Africa" Myth. UNIA-ACL website (2005-07-14). Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  3. ^ Garvey, Marcus; Jacques-Garvey, Amy (ed.) (1986). The philosophy and opinions of Marcus Garvey or Africa for the Africans. Dover (Mass.): Majority Press, 163. ISBN 0-912469-24-2. 
  4. ^ Crowder, Ralph L. (January 1, 2003). "Grand old man of the movement:" John Edward Bruce, Marcus Garvey, and the UNIA." Afro-Americans in New York Life and History. Retrieved through freelibrary.com on 2008-02-17.
  5. ^ UNIA-ACL website from Archive.org, The "Back to Africa" Myth., Accessed November 19, 2007.
  6. ^ UNIA ACL Website Historical Facts about Marcus Garvey and the UNIA [1]. Published January 28, 2005 BY THE UNIA-ACL. Accessed 2007-04-01.
  7. ^ Historical Facts about Marcus Garvey and the UNIA From Archive.org. Accessed November 19, 2007.
  8. ^ "African American Political Thought, 1890-1930: Washington, Du Bois, Garvey", pg 169, M.E. Sharpe (Armonk NY) 1996.
  9. ^ The Negro's Greatest Enemy by Marcus Garvey, Posted/Revised: May 28, 2002, Last Accessed October 31, 2007
  10. ^ Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey Or, Africa for the Africans By Marcus Garvey pg 122, Majority Press Fitchburg, MA;1986 Centennial Edition. Retrieved on December 1, 2007.
  11. ^ Memorandum to Special Agent Ridgely on wikisource
  12. ^ Reel 12 Department of Justice-Bureau of Investigation Surveillance of Black Americans, 1916-1925 cont. National Archives and Research Administration, RG 65 Federal Bureau of Investigation cont: 0703 Casefile OG 374217: Memorandum upon Work of the Radical Division, August 1, 1919 to October 15, 1919, Prepared by J. Edgar Hoover; and Other Memoranda. 1919-1920. 263pp. p. 19
  13. ^ Reel 13 Department of Justice-Bureau of Investigation Surveillance of Black Americans, 1916-1925 cont. National Archives and Records Administration, RG 65 Federal Bureau of Investigation cont.: 0626 Casefile OG 391465: Confidential Informants, Memoranda of J. Edgar Hoover, Compensation, Policy, Washington, D.C. 1920. 3pp. p. 22 p. xxi
  14. ^ J. Edgar Hoover to Special Agent Ridgely Washington, D.C., October 11, 1919 MEMORANDUM FOR MR. RIDGELY.
  15. ^ a b Theodore Kornweibel (Ed.) Federal Surveillance of Afro-Americans (1917-1925): The First World War, the Red Scare, and the Garvey Movement p. x. Retrieved on December 1, 2007.
  16. ^ The Trial Part 1 Page 2. Marcusgarvey.com. Retrieved on December 1, 2007.
  17. ^ The Trial Part 1. Page 3. Marcusgarvey.com. Retrieved on December 1, 2007.
  18. ^ Online Forum: Marcus Garvey vs. United States
  19. ^ First Message to the Negroes of the World from Atlanta Prison"
  20. ^ "New York Times", "Pardon Marcus Garvey by Judith Stein", "November 5, 1983, Page 5
  21. ^ “The Collapse of the Only Thing in the Garvey Movement Which Was Original or Promising”, Last accessed November 2, 2007.
  22. ^ Dubois, "The Crisis", Vol 28, May 1924, pp. 8-9
  23. ^ Grant, Colin (2008). Negro with a Hat: The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey and His Dream of Mother Africa. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-536794-2. 
  24. ^ American Experience Marcus Garvey - People & Events W.E.B. Du Bois, 1868-1963 Accessed April 1, 2007.
  25. ^ American Series Introduction Volume I: 1826--August 1919 Accessed April 1, 2007.
  26. ^ Spartucus Educational website, Ku Klux Klan, quoting from Negro World (September, 1923). Accessed December 3, 2007.
  27. ^ Richard B. Moore, "The Critics and Opponents of Marcus Garvey," in Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa, ed. John Henrik Clarke with Amy Jacques Garvey (New York, 1974), 228.
  28. ^ Marcus Garvey: Look for Me in the Whirlwind, PBS documentary (transcript). Last accessed on December 3, 2007.
  29. ^ June 20, 1965: Martin Luther King Jr. visits Jamaica
  30. ^ The Black 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential African-Americans, Past and Present By Columbus Salley, Page 82, 1999, Citadel Press.
  31. ^ M.G. Smith, Roy Augier and Rex Nettleford, "The Rastafari Movement in Kingston, Jamaica," Kingston 1960, p.5
  32. ^ 32 Market Street,January 25, 2008

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Works by Marcus Garvey

  • The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Edited by Amy Jacques Garvey. 412 pages. Majority Press; Centennial edition, November 1, 1986. ISBN 0-912469-24-2. Avery edition. ISBN 0-405-01873-8.
  • Message to the People: The Course of African Philosophy by Marcus Garvey. Edited by Tony Martin. Foreword by Hon. Charles L. James, president- general, Universal Negro Improvement Association. 212 pages. Majority Press, March 1, 1986. ISBN 0-912469-19-6.
  • The Poetical Works of Marcus Garvey. Compiled and edited by Tony Martin. 123 pages. Majority Press, June 1, 1983. ISBN 0-912469-02-1.
  • Hill, Robert A., editor. The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. Vols. I-VII, IX. University of California Press, ca. 1983- (ongoing). 1146 pages. University of California Press, May 1, 1991. ISBN 0-520-07208-1.
  • Hill, Robert A., editor. The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers: Africa for the Africans 1921-1922. 740 pages. University of California Press, February 1, 1996. ISBN 0-520-20211-2.

Amy Jacques Garvey (1895-1973) was born on December 31, 1895 to George and Charlotte Henrietta (South) Jacques, in Kingston, Jamaica. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... African Philosophy is a disputed term, used in different ways by different philosophers. ... The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA) is, according to its 1929 constitution, a social, friendly, humanitarian, charitable, educational, institutional, constructive and expansive society, and is founded by persons desiring to the utmost to work for the general uplift of the people of African ancestry of the... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

Books

  • Burkett, Randall K. Garveyism as a Religious Movement: The Institutionalization of a Black Civil Religion. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press and American Theological Library Association, 1978.
  • Campbell, Horace. Rasta and Resistance: From Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1987.
  • Clarke, John Henrik, editor. Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa. With assistance from Amy Jacques Garvey. New York: Vintage Books, 1974.
  • Cronon, Edmund David. Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1955, reprinted 1969.
  • Garvey, Amy Jacques, Garvey and Garveyism. London: Collier-MacMillan, 1963, 1968.
  • Grant, Colin. Negro with a Hat, The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey and his Dream of Mother Africa., London: Jonathan Cape, 2008.
  • Hill, Robert A., editor. Marcus Garvey, Life and Lessons: A Centennial Companion to the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Hill, Robert A. The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. Vols. I–VII, IX. University of California Press, ca. 1983– (ongoing).
  • James, Winston. Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia: Caribbean Radicalism in Early Twentieth-Century America. London: Verso, 1998.
  • Kornweibel Jr., Theodore. Seeing Red: Federal Campaigns Against Black Militancy 1919-1925. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1998.
  • Lemelle, Sidney, and Robin D. G. Kelley. Imagining Home: Class, Culture, and Nationalism in the African Diaspora. London: Verso, 1994.
  • Lewis, Rupert. Marcus Garvey: Anti-Colonial Champion. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1988.
  • Lewis, Rupert, and Bryan, Patrick, eds. Garvey: His Work and Impact. Mona, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1988.
  • Lewis, Rupert, and Maureen Warner-Lewis. Garvey: Africa, Europe, The Americas. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1986, 1994.
  • Manoedi, M. Korete. Garvey and Africa. New York: New York Age Press, 1922.
  • Martin, Tony. Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggle of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1976.
  • Martin, Tony. Literary Garveyism: Garvey, Black Arts, and the Harlem Renaissance. Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983.
  • Martin, Tony. African Fundamentalism: A Literary and Cultural Anthology of Garvey's Harlem Renaissance. Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983, 1991.
  • Martin, Tony. Marcus Garvey: Hero. Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983.
  • Martin, Tony. The Pan-African Connection: From Slavery to Garvey and Beyond. Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983.
  • Martin, Tony. The Poetical Works of Marcus Garvey. Dover, Mass.: Majority Press, 1983.
  • Smith-Irvin, Jeannette. Marcus Garvey's Footsoldiers of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1989.
  • Solomon, Mark. The Cry Was Unity: Communists and African-Americans, 1917–1936. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998.
  • Stein, Judith. The World of Marcus Garvey: Race and Class in Modern Society. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1986.
  • Tolbert, Emory J. The UNIA and Black Los Angeles. Los Angeles: Center of Afro-American Studies, University of California, 1980.
  • Vincent, Theodore. Black Power and the Garvey Movement. Berkeley, Calif.: Ramparts Press, 1971.

Garveyism is an aspect of Black Nationalism which takes its source from the works, words and deeds of UNIA-ACL founder Marcus Garvey. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC - History - Marcus Garvey (1887 - 1940) (599 words)
Marcus Garvey is best remembered as a pivotal figure in the struggle for racial equality throughout the world.
Marcus Garvey moved to England to live with his sister who was a governess.
Under Marcus Garvey's leadership the UNIA did enjoy some success and in 1920 held a month-long international conference in New York which was attended by delegates from all over the world.
Marcus Garvey - Black Unification Network (2026 words)
Marcus Garvey was the youngest foreman printer in Kingston and at a time when foremen were still being imported from Great Britain and Canada.
Garvey was elected one of the assistant secretaries of the National Club, which sought to combat privileges and the evils of British colonialism on the island.
Garvey, because he was considered a threat to the stability of their colonies.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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