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Encyclopedia > Marco Polo
Marco Polo

16th century painting of Marco Polo
Born September 15, 1254(1254-09-15)
disputed Venice, Italy, usually accepted
Died on or after January 9, 1324
Venice

Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1]January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione ("The Million" or The Travels of Marco Polo). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Explorer redirects here. ... A page of The Travels of Marco Polo The Travels of Marco Polo is the usual English title of Marco Polos travel book, Il Milione. ...


Polo, together with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo, was one of the first Westerners to travel the Silk Road to China (which he called Cathay, after the Khitan) and visit the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, Kublai Khan (grandson of Genghis Khan). The Silk Road extending from Southern Europe through Arabia, Egypt, Persia, India till it reaches China. ... Cathay is the Anglicized version of Catai, the name that was given to northern China by Marco Polo (he referred to southern China as Manji). ... The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the person. ...

Contents

Voyages of Marco Polo

Journey to Cathay and service to the Kublai Khan

The Polo family arrives in a Chinese city
The Polo family arrives in a Chinese city

As soon as he was elected in 1271, Pope Gregory X received the letter from Kubilai, remitted by Niccolo and Maffeo. Kubilai was asking for the dispatch of a hundred missionaries, and some oil from the lamp of the Holy Sepulcher. The two Polos (this time accompanied by the 17 year-old Marco Polo) returned to Mongolia, accompanied by two Dominican monks, Niccolo de Vicence and Guillaume de Tripoli. The two friars did not finish the voyage due to fear, but the Polos reached Kanbaliq and remitted the presents from the Pope to Kubilai in 1274.[3] Image File history File links Marco_Polo_traveling. ... Image File history File links Marco_Polo_traveling. ... The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... Vicenza is a city in northern Italy, is the capital of the eponymous province in the Veneto region, at the northern base of the Monte Berico, straddling the Bacchiglione. ... This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ...



The Polos spent the next 17 years in China. Kublai Khan took a liking to Marco, who was an engaging storyteller. They set him on many diplomatic missions throughout his empire. Marco carried out diplomatic assignments but also entertained the khan with interesting stories and observations about the lands he traveled.



Marco reported that apart from entrusting him with diplomatic missions Kublai Khan also made him governor for three years of the large commercial city of Yangzhou.[4] An Italian community would actually reside in Yangzhou throughout the 14th century, as documented by the findings of the 1342 tombstone of Katarina Vilioni. Yangzhou (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; former spellings: Yang-chou, Yangchow; literally Rising Prefecture) is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Facsimile of the illustration of the 1342 tomb of Katarina Vilioni, member of an Italian trading family in Yangzhou. ...


Return to Europe

According to Marco’s travel account, the Polos asked several times for permission to return to Europe but the Khan appreciated the visitors so much that he would not agree to their departure.


Only in 1291 Kublai entrusted Marco with his last duty, to escort the Mongol princess Koekecin (Cocacin in Il Milione) to her betrothed, the Ilkhan Arghun. The party traveled by sea, departing from the southern port city of Quanzhou and sailing to Sumatra, and then to Persia, via Sri Lanka and India (where his visits included Mylapore, Madurai and Alleppey, which he nicknamed Venice of the East). Chinese characters for Kököchin. ... Arghun Khan (c. ... The characters 泉州 are also used for SenshÅ«, an alternate name for the former Japanese province of Izumi. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... , Mylapore is one of the oldest areas within Chennai (formerly Madras), the capital of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... , Madurai   (Tamil: , IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation with a city population of 922,913 according to 2001 census. ... Alappuzha is a district of the state of Kerala in India. ...


In 1293 or 1294 the Polos reached the Ilkhanate, ruled by Gaykhatu after the death of Arghun, and left Koekecin with the new Ilkhan. Then they moved to Trebizond and from that city sailed to Venice. Koekecin would become the principal wife of the Mongol Il-Khan ruler Ghazan.
Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Gaykhatu (also spelt Gaikhatu) was the fifth Ilkhanate ruler in Iran. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Ghazan Khan was ruler of the Ilkhanate from 1295 to 1305. ...


Il Milione

A page from a manuscript of Il Milione
A page from a manuscript of Il Milione
See also: The Travels of Marco Polo

On their return from China in 1295, the family settled in Venice where they became a sensation and attracted crowds of listeners who had difficulties in believing their reports of distant China. According to a late tradition, since they did not believe him, Marco Polo invited them all to dinner one night during which the Polos dressed in the simple clothes of a peasant in China. Shortly before the crowds ate, the Polos opened their pockets to reveal hundreds of rubies and other jewels which they had received in Asia. Though they were much impressed, the people of Venice still doubted the Polos. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (982x1419, 576 KB) Marco Polo, Il Milione, Chapter CXXIII and CXXIV, page from the Book The Travels of Marco Polo (Il milione), originally published during Polos lifetime 1298-1999, but frequently reprinted and translated . ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (982x1419, 576 KB) Marco Polo, Il Milione, Chapter CXXIII and CXXIV, page from the Book The Travels of Marco Polo (Il milione), originally published during Polos lifetime 1298-1999, but frequently reprinted and translated . ... A page of The Travels of Marco Polo The Travels of Marco Polo is the usual English title of Marco Polos travel book, Il Milione. ...


Marco Polo was later captured in a minor clash of the war between Venice and Genoa, or in the naval battle of Curzola, according to a dubious tradition. He spent the few months of his imprisonment, in 1298, dictating to a fellow prisoner, Rustichello da Pisa, a detailed account of his travels in the then-unknown parts of China. For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Curzola was fought in September 9, 1298, between the fleets of Genoa and Venice. ... Rustichello da Pisa was a romance writer who was imprisoned with Marco Polo in around 1279 during the war between Venice and Genoa, two rival Italian cities. ...


His book, Il Milione (the title comes from either "The Million", then considered an extremely big number, or from Polo's family nickname Emilione), was written in Old French, a language Polo didn't speak, and entitled Le divisament dou monde ("The description of the world"). The book was soon translated into many European languages and is known in English as The Travels of Marco Polo. The original is lost and there are now several often-conflicting versions of the translations. The book became an instant success — quite an achievement at a time when the invention of the printing press was two hundred years away in Europe. Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... A page of The Travels of Marco Polo The Travels of Marco Polo is the usual English title of Marco Polos travel book, Il Milione. ...


Later life

Map of the journey
Map of the journey

Marco Polo was finally released from captivity in the summer of 1299, and he returned home to Venice, where his father and uncles had bought a large house in the central quarter named contrada San Giovanni Crisostomo with the company's profits. Download high resolution version (1000x631, 124 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1000x631, 124 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ...


The company continued its activities, and Marco was now a wealthy merchant. While he personally financed other expeditions, he would never leave Venice again. In 1300, he married Donata Badoer, a woman from an old, respected patrician family. Marco would have three children with her: Fantina, Bellela and Moreta. All of them later married into noble families.


Between 1310 and 1320, he wrote a new version of his book, Il Milione, in Italian. The text was lost, but not before a Franciscan friar, named Francesco Pipino, translated it into Latin. This Latin version was then translated back into the Italian, creating conflicts between different editions of the book. The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Marco Polo died in his home on January 1324, at almost 70 years old. He was buried in the Church of San Lorenzo. Saint Lawrence (225 – 258) (Latin Laurentius, laurelled) was one of the seven deacons of Rome who were martyred under the persecution of Roman Emperor Valerian in 258. ...


Historical and cultural impact

Handwritten notes by Christopher Colombus on the Latin edition of Marco Polo's Le livre des merveilles.
Handwritten notes by Christopher Colombus on the Latin edition of Marco Polo's Le livre des merveilles.
Statue of Marco Polo in Hangzhou, China, near the West Lake
Statue of Marco Polo in Hangzhou, China, near the West Lake

Although the Polos were by no means the first Europeans to reach China overland (see, for example, Radhanites and Giovanni da Pian del Carpine), thanks to Marco's book their trip was the first to be widely known, and the best-documented until then. Marco Polo's description of the Far East and its riches inspired Christopher Columbus' decision to try to reach those lands by a western route. A heavily annotated copy of Polo's book was among the belongings of Columbus.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,334 × 968 pixels, file size: 434 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 581 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,334 × 968 pixels, file size: 434 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... No authentic contemporary portrait of Columbus has been found; this late 19th-century engraving is one of many conjectural images For information about the director, see the article on Chris Columbus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (353x640, 44 KB) Statue of Marco Polo in Hangzhou, China, near the West Lake, taken by User:Captmjc on 2005-05-21. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (353x640, 44 KB) Statue of Marco Polo in Hangzhou, China, near the West Lake, taken by User:Captmjc on 2005-05-21. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Hangchow) is a sub-provincial city located in the Yangtze River Delta in the Peoples Republic of China, and the capital of Zhejiang province. ... The West Lake West Lake (Chinese: ; pinyin: XÄ« Hú) is a famous fresh water lake located in central Hangzhou, in Zhejiang province of eastern China. ... Radhanites (also Radanites, Arabic al-Radhaniyya) The Radhanites were a medieval group or guild of Jewish merchants. ... John of Plano Carpinis famous journey—his route is shown in Dark blue (railroad track style). ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ...


The name Marco Polo was also given to a children's game (Marco Polo), a story in the science fiction series Doctor Who (Marco Polo) and a three-masted clipper ship built in Saint John, New Brunswick, in 1851. The fastest ship of her day, Marco Polo was the first ship to sail around the world in under six months. Several ships of the Italian navy were named Marco Polo. The airport in Venice is named Marco Polo International Airport. See also the Marcopolo satellites. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article is about the television series. ... Marco Polo is a serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, which was first broadcast in 7 weekly parts from February 22 to April 4, 1964. ... For other uses, see Clipper (disambiguation). ... The Marco Polo was a 3-masted wooden clipper ship, launched in 1851 at Saint John, New Brunswick. ... Venice (Venetian: Venezsia, Italian: Venezia, Latin: Venetia) is the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Marco Polo Venice Airport (IATA: VCE, ICAO: LIPZ) is an airport located on the Italian mainland near Venice, Italy, in Tessera, a frazione of the commune of Venice nearest to Mestre that, before Fascism, was an autonomous commune. ... Marcopolo 1 and 2 (spelled thus) were two satellites launched in 1989 in order to carry the five television channels of Britains official direct broadcast satellite company, British Satellite Broadcasting. ...


The travels of Marco Polo are given an extended fantasy treatment in the Irish writer Brian Oswald Donn-Byrne's Messer Marco Polo, and in Gary Jennings' 1984 novel The Journeyer. He also appears as the pivotal character in Italo Calvino's novel Invisible Cities. For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Brian Oswald Donn-Byrne was an Irish author (1889-1928) who wrote Messer Marco Polo and Hangmans House. ... Gary Jennings (September 20, 1928 – February 13, 1999) was a U.S. author who wrote children and adult novels. ... The Journeyer is a historical novel written by Gary Jennings and first published in 1984. ... Italo Calvino, on the cover of Lezioni americane: Sei proposte per il prossimo millennio Italo Calvino (October 15, 1923 – September 19, 1985) (pronounced ) was an Italian writer and novelist. ... Invisible Cities is a book by Italo Calvino that sets out to explore the meaning and symbols of cities that as the title indicates, exist on another level of perception, via interpretation of symbols, or signs. ...


Marco Polo also inspired the creation of Marco Volo, a character in the role-playing game Forgotten Realms. This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... It has been suggested that Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1982, Giuliano Montaldo directed an ambitious television miniseries, simply titled "Marco Polo". The Italian financed project starred Ken Marshall as Marco Polo and guest-starred a handful of Academy Awards winning actors, like Denholm Elliott, F. Murray Abraham, Anne Bancroft, John Gielgud, John Houseman, Burt Lancaster and also Tony Lo Bianco and Leonard Nimoy. The music was scored by the famous Italian music composer Ennio Morricone. The miniseries won 2 Emmy Awards and was nominated for 6 more. Giuliano Montaldo (born February 22, 1930 in Genoa) is an Italian film director. ... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Elliott in The Signal-Man Denholm Mitchell Elliott (May 31, 1922 – October 6, 1992) was a distinguished British actor, well known for his appearances on stage, film and television. ... Fahrid Murray Abraham[1] (born October 24, 1939) is an American actor. ... Anne Bancroft (September 17, 1931 – June 6, 2005) was an iconic Academy, Tony, and Emmy Award-winning American actress. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ... John Houseman (September 22, 1902 – October 31, 1988) was a Romanian-born actor and film producer. ... Burt Lancaster (November 2, 1913 – October 20, 1994) was an Oscar-winning American film actor, noted for his athletic physique (a rare thing for leading men of that time), distinct smile (which he called The Grin) and, later, his willingness to play roles that went against his initial tough guy... Tony Lo Bianco,(b. ... Leonard Simon Nimoy (born March 26, 1931) is an American actor, film director, poet, musician and photographer. ... Ennio Morricone (born November 10, 1928; sometimes also credited as Dan Savio or Leo Nichols) is an Italian composer especially noted for his film scores. ... An Emmy Award. ...


Cartography

Marco Polo's travels may have had some impact on the development of European cartography, ultimately leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later. The 1453 Fra Mauro map is said by Ramusio to have been an improved copy of the one brought from Cathay by Marco Polo: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 602 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2255 × 2245 pixel, file size: 6. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 602 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2255 × 2245 pixel, file size: 6. ... The Fra Mauro map (1459) in Venice (inverted, South is normally at the top). ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... The Fra Mauro map (1459) in Venice (inverted, South is normally at the top). ... The noble Italian family of Ramusio (also spelled Ramusiothe, Ramnusio, Rhamnusio, Rannusio) was worth of note for literary and official ability during at least four generations. ... Cathay is the Anglicized version of Catai, the name that was given to northern China by Marco Polo (he referred to southern China as Manji). ...

"That fine illuminated world map on parchment, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery (The Calmoldese monastery of Santo Michele on Murano) was by one of the brothers of the monastery, who took great delight in the study of cosmography, diligently drawn and copied from a most beautiful and very old nautical map and a world map that had been brought from Cathay by the most honourable Messer Marco Polo and his father." Ramusio v.3.[6]

German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ... Cosmography is the science that maps the general features of the universe; describes both heaven and earth (but without encroaching on geography or astronomy) A representation of the earth or the heavens. ... Portion of chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America. ... Cathay is the Anglicized version of Catai, the name that was given to northern China by Marco Polo (he referred to southern China as Manji). ...

Controversies

Main article: Birth Place of Marco Polo

Croatia claims to host the real birth place of Marco Polo in the island of Korčula (the Venetian "Curzola"), in the Adriatic Sea. The claim is anyway controversial. Some contemporary sources present, beside than Venice, the Adriatic island of Curzola as a possible birthplace of Marco Polo. ... Some contemporary sources present, beside than Venice, the Adriatic island of Curzola as a possible birthplace of Marco Polo. ... County Dubrovnik–Neretva Area 279 km² (entire island) Location Mayor Mirko Duhović (SDP) Population 3,232 (town); 16,138 (island) Korčula (Italian Curzola, Latin Corcyra Nigra, Greek Korkyra Melaina, Old-Slavic: Krkar) is an island in the Adriatic Sea, in the Dubrovnik-Neretva county of Croatia. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ...


Some modern historians question the veracity of Marco Polo's account, and wonder whether he really visited the Mongol empire, or whether Marco Polo was simply repeating stories that he had heard from other traders. Dr. John Critchley has pointed out that Marco Polo's stories tend to give more information about minds of Western Europeans than those in Asia. Dr. Frances Wood has questioned whether or not Marco Polo was even in China. Dr. Peter Jackson has pointed out several things that a European traveler probably would have mentioned, but did not, and that there is no mention of Marco Polo in Chinese accounts of the period. Jackson also argues that there are several different versions of Polo's book, and questions whether it even represents Polo's account at all, but was instead simply written by a romance writer of the time. Questions have also been raised as to whether Marco Polo, if he did visit China, was genuinely an ambassador, or if he was simply one of the many travelers at the time who claimed to be an ambassador.[7] Peter Jackson is a scholar and historian, known as a world expert on the Crusades, particularly the contacts between the Europeans and the Mongols. ...


See also

The Radhanites (also Radanites, Hebrew sing. ... John of Plano Carpinis famous journey—his route is shown in Dark blue (railroad track style). ... William of Rubruck (also William of Rubruk, Willem van Ruysbroeck, Guillaume de Rubrouck, Willielmus de Rubruquis, born c. ... King Hetoum (right) and Queen Zabel (left) on a silver tram Hethum (or Hetoum) I of Armenia ruled the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1226 to 1270. ... Odoric of Pordenone (c. ... Rabban Bar Sauma (fl. ... It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ... Sino-Roman relations started first on an indirect basis during the 2nd century BCE. China and Rome progressively inched closer with the embassies of Zhang Qian in 130 BCE and the military expeditions of China to Central Asia, until general Ban Chao attempted to send an envoy to Rome around... Imperial China has had a long tradition of foreign relations. ... This article attempts to list every significant event in the history of the European exploration of Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... A trade route is a commonly used path of travel for those (e. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Middle age is the period of life beyond young adulthood but before the onset of old age. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237...

Notes

  1. ^ Lloyd, J & Mitchinson, J: "The Book of General Ignorance". Faber & Faber, 2006.
  2. ^ Polo, Marco (1875). "Marco Polo's Last Will", The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian: Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East. London: John Murray, 69f. 
  3. ^ "Le Livre des Merveilles", p.5-17
  4. ^ It has been pointed out that his 'governorship' was in fact due to a typographical error. Other serious doubts have been cast on this claim, and on all his China travels, by scholars looking at Chinese records of the time and other independent evidence. See eg Wood, Frances, in References.
  5. ^ Björn Landström, Columbus; Macmillan, NY, 1967; p.27
  6. ^ "Dichiarazione d'alcuni luoghi ne' libri di messer Marco Polo, con l'istoria del reubarbaro", preface to Marco Polo's book. Quoted in "Fra Mauro's world map" Piero Falchetta, p61
  7. ^ Jackson, Peter (1998). "Marco Polo and his 'Travels'". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 61 (1): 82-101. 

John Lloyd (born 1951 in Dover, England; birth name: John Hardress Wilfred Lloyd), British comedy writer and producer. ... John Mitchinson is the head of research for the British television panel game QI, and co-author of The Book of General Ignorance with QIs creator John Lloyd. ... QI: The Book of General Ignorance (UK cover) The Book of General Ignorance is a series of books based on the final round in the intellectual British panel game QI, written by John Lloyd and John Mitchinson. ... Peter Jackson is a scholar and historian, known as a world expert on the Crusades, particularly the contacts between the Europeans and the Mongols. ...

References

  • Hart, Henry H., Marco Polo, Venetian Adventurer, University of Oklahoma Press, 1967
  • Larner, John, Marco Polo and the Discovery of the World, Yale University Press, 1999
  • Wood, Frances, Did Marco Polo Go to China?, Westview Press, 1995
  • Yule, Henry (Ed.), The Travels of Marco Polo, Dover Publications, New York, 1983 [new edition of: London, 1870]

The University of Oklahoma Press is a university press that is part of the University of Oklahoma. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Marco Polo
  • Polo's travels
  • Marco Polo at the Open Directory Project
  • Polo and China
  • Marco Polo's Description of the World - from Frances Wood's book Did Marco Polo Go to China?
  • F. Wood's "Did Marco Polo Go To China?" - A critical analysis of this theory by Dr Igor de Rachewiltz of the Australian National University
  • Works by Marco Polo at Project Gutenberg
  • Concordances of "Description of the World" based on the Italian text

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...

IMDB

Persondata
NAME Polo, Marco
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Famous explorer
DATE OF BIRTH September 15, 1254
PLACE OF BIRTH Venice, Republic of Venice
DATE OF DEATH 1324 - 1325
PLACE OF DEATH Venice, Republic of Venice

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Marco Polo and His Travels (3982 words)
Marco Polo was only 6 years old when his father and uncle set out eastward on their first trip to Cathay (China).
Marco also noted the center of the asbestos industry in Uighuristan, with its capital Karakhoja; he added that the way to clean asbestos cloth was to throw it into a fire, and that a specimen was brought back from Cathay by the Polos and presented to the Pope.
Marco Polo fell in love with the capital, which later became part of Beijing, then called Cambaluc or Khanbalig, meant 'city of the Khan.' This new city, built because astrologers predicted rebellion in the old one, was described as the most magnificent city in the world.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Marco Polo (1785 words)
Marco Polo's arrival in China; on the other hand the details which he gives concerning Kublai's expedition against the Kingdom of Mien (Burma, 1282) leave it to be supposed that he participated therein.
Marco Polo was placed in command of a galley (1296), but the Venetian fleet having been destroyed in the Gulf of Lajazzo he was taken prisoner to Genoa.
Marco Polo, was sent by him in 1307 to Thibaud of Cepoy, the agent of Charles of Valois at Venice, to be presented to that prince, who was a candidate for the Crown of
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