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Encyclopedia > Marches

Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka ("boundary") and refer to a border region, e.g. the borderland between England and Scotland, similar to a frontier. During the Frankish Carolingian Dynasty, the word spread throughout Europe. In contrast to a buffer zone, a march could be dominated by a country, and rather than being demilitarized, it could be fortified for defense against the neighbouring country. Old Frankish was the language of the Franks and it is classified as a West Germanic language. ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Buffer Zone is one of the neighborhoods of North Nazimabad Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more military powers (or alliances), where military activity is not permitted, usually by peace treaty, armistice or other bilateral or multilateral agreement. ...


Although a march generally circumscribed the same or similar land area as a county, it held its distinction from a normal county due to its more important position at the border of the state. A march was ruled over by a Marquess (English pronunciation) or a Marquis (French or Scottish pronunciation), or nobles with corresponding titles in the other European states. (The equivalent feminine titles of marchioness and marquise respectively may be used by the wife of a titleholder or by a woman holding the rank in her own right.) In comparison, regular counties were ruled over by counts. A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article is about a title of nobility. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Marquis has many different meanings: The French spelling of the title known in English as Marquess and Margrave. ... The Scottish language may refer to: Scots - A series of Germanic dialects used in lowland Scotland. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This page is about the European nobility; for the baseball term, see count (baseball). ...


The name of Denmark preserves the memory of such a Mark, up to the present.


See also: List of marches This is a list of European medieval marches. ...

Contents

Etymology

The Frankish word marka comes from Proto-Germanic marko, which itself comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *mereg-, meaning "edge, boundary". The root *mereg- gave Armenian marz("border, land"), Latin margo ("margin"), Old Irish mruig ("borderland"), Persian marz ("border, land"), Norse mörk ("borderland, forest") and indeed even English "mark". It seems in Old English "mark" meant "boundary", or "sign of a boundary", and the meaning later evolved into "sign in general", "impression or trace forming a sign". The word "march" in the sense of borderland was borrowed from French marche, which had borrowed it from Frankish. The word "mark" in the sense of borderland is a modern borrowing from German Mark, though in some cases it is simply short for Markgrafschaft. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ... Farsi redirects here. ... A North Germanic language is any of several Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the islands west of Scandinavia. ... Old English redirects here. ... MARGRAVE is the English and French form of the German title Markgraf (from mark march + Graf) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ...


By region

Armenia

The specific subdivisions of Armenia are each called Marz, possibly a loanword from Persian into Armenian or an Armenian loanword into Persian. Armenia is subdivided into eleven administrative divisions. ...


Azerbaijan

Main article: Azerbaijan

The national anthem of Azerbaijan is "The March of Azerbaijan." The land belonging to today's nation was in the 19th century Russia's march bordering Iran, the nation which remains the ruler of two-thirds of the Azeri population.


The Balkans

See krajina. Krajina, meaning border, is a Slavic toponym which might mean: Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosanska Krajina, same, but around Banja Luka and encompassing a larger area Cazinska Krajina, borderland of Bosnia towards Croatia around the city of Cazin. ...


Catalonia and the "Hispanic Marches"

Main article: Marca Hispanica

Beyond the province of Septimania, after some early setbacks, Charlemagne's son Louis took Barcelona from the Moorish emir in 801. Thus he established a foothold in the borderland between the Franks and the Moors. The Carolingian "Hispanic Marches" (Marca Hispánica) became a buffer zone ruled by the Count of Barcelona, with its own outlying small separate territories, each ruled by a lesser miles with armed retainers, who theoretically owed allegiance through the Count to the Emperor, or with less fealty to his Carolingian and Ottonian successors. Each was the catlá ("castellan" or lord of the castle) in an area largely defined by a day's ride, the region dotted with strongholds becoming known by them, like Castile at a later date, as "Catalunya." Counties in the Pyrenees that appeared in the 9th century as appanages of the counts of Barcelona included Cerdanya, Girona and Urgell. By the second half of the ninth century, three political subdivisions (marches) existed in the eastern Pyrenees: Toulouse (green), Gothia (blue), and Hispania (pink). ... Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigothic kingdom in 462, when Septimania was ceded to Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths. ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... For other uses, see moor. ... By the second half of the ninth century, three political subdivisions (marches) existed in the eastern Pyrenees: Toulouse (green), Gothia (blue), and Hispania (pink). ... The now-extinct title of Count of Barcelona was, through much of its history, merged with that of King of Aragon; see also List of Aragonese Monarchs. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ... Map of Baixa Cerdanya in Catalonia Cerdanya (French Cerdagne) is one of the historical Catalan counties in the eastern Pyrenees, bordering the county of Alt Urgell. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Urgell (Spanish: Urgel) is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of Pallars and Cerdanya. ...


In the early 9th century, Charlemagne issued his new kind of land grant the aprisio, which redisposed land belonging to the Imperial fisc in deserted areas, and included special rights and immunities that resulted in a range of independence of action. Historians interpret the aprisio both as the basis of feudalism and in economic and military terms as a mechanism to entice settlers to a depopulated border region. Such self-sufficient landholders would aid the counts in providing armed men in defense of the Frankish frontier. Aprisio grants (the first ones were in Septimania) emanated directly from the Carolingian king, and they reinforced central loyalties, to counterbalance the local power exercised by powerful marcher counts. Under the Merovingians and Carolingians, the fisc (Root word of fiscal) applied to the royal demesne which paid taxes, entirely in kind, from which the royal household was meant to be supported, though it rarely was. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... Septimania was the western region of the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis that passed under the control of the Visigothic kingdom in 462, when Septimania was ceded to Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths. ...


But communications were arduous, and the power center was far away. Primitive feudal entities developed, self-sufficient and agrarian, each ruled by a small hereditary military elite. The sequence in Catalonia exhibits a pattern that emerges similarly in marches everywhere. The Count is appointed by the king (from 802), the appointment settles on the heirs of a strong count (Sunifred) and the appointment becomes a formality, until the position is declared hereditary (897) and then the County declares itself independent (by Borrell II in 985). At each stage the de facto situation precedes the de jure assertion, which merely regularizes an existing fact of life. This is feudalism in the larger landscape. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the...


Certain of the Counts aspired to the characteristically Frankish (Germanic) title "Margrave of the Hispanic March, a "margrave" being a graf ("count") of the march. Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ...


The early History of Andorra provides a fairly typical career of another such buffer state, the only modern survivor in the Pyrenees of the Hispanic Marches. There the Andorra is the last independent survivor of the Marca Hispanica, the buffer states created by Charlemagne to keep the Islamic Moors from advancing into Christian France. ...

Denmark

  • The march of the Danes.

France

The province of France called Marche (Occitan: la Marcha), sometimes Marche Limousine, was originally a small border district partly of Limousin and partly of Poitou. The kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... The County of Marche was a medieval French county. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... Coat of arms of Limousin Limousin (Occitan: Lemosin) is a former province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ...


Its area was increased during the 13th century and remained the same until the French Revolution. Marche was bounded on the north by Berry, on the east by Bourbonnais and Auvergne; on the south by Limousin itself and on the west by Poitou. It embraced the greater part of the modern département of Creuse, a considerable part of the northern Haute-Vienne, and a fragment of Indre, up to Saint-Benoît-du-Sault. Its area was about 1900 m².; its capital was Charroux and later Guéret, and among its other principal towns were Dorat, Bellac and Confolens. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Berry was a province of France until the provinces were replaced by départements on March 4, 1790. ... Bourbonnais was an historic province in the centre of France that corresponded to the modern département of Allier, along with part of the département of Cher. ... Auvergne coat of arms Auvergne (Occitan: Auvèrnhe/Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a province of France. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... Creuse is a département in central France named after the Creuse River. ... Haute-Vienne is a French département named after the Vienne River. ... Indre is a département in the center of France named after the Indre River. ... Saint-Benoît-du-Sault is a little town and commune of the Indre département, in central France. ... Guéret is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Creuse département. ... Dorat may refer to: Jean Daurat (or Dorat) (Latin, Auratus), (1508-1588), French poet and scholar, member of the Pléiade Claude Joseph Dorat (1734-1780), French writer, also known as Le Chevalier Dorat Dorat, a commune of the Puy-de-Dôme département, in France This is a... Bellac is a commune of the Haute-Vienne département, in France. ... Confolens is a commune of the Charente département, in France. ...


Marche first appeared as a separate fief about the middle of the 10th century when William III, duke of Aquitaine, gave it to one of his vassals named Boso, who took the title of count. In the 12th century it passed to the family of Lusignan, sometime also counts of Angouleme counts of Limousin, until the death of the childless Count Hugh in 1303, when it was seized by King Philip IV. In 1316 it was made an appanage for his youngest son the Prince, afterwards King Charles IV and a few years later (1327) it passed into the hands of the family of Bourbon. The family of Armagnac held it from 1435 to 1477, when it reverted to the Bourbons, and in 1527 it was seized by King Francis I and became part of the domains of the French crown. It was divided into Haute-Marche (i.e. "Upper Marche") and Basse-Marche (i.e. "Lower Marche"), the estates of the former being in existence until the 17th century. From 1470 until the Revolution the province was under the jurisdiction of the parlement of Paris. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... William III of Aquitaine (915 – April 3, 963), nicknamed Towhead was William II of Poitou Count of Poitiers and Duke of Aquitaine from 935 to his death. ... Boso, brother-in-law to Charles the Bald, succeeded Gerald of Roussillon as count of Lyons and Vienne and declared himself king of Provence in 879. ... This article is about the style or title of nobility. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Lusignan family originated in Poitou in western France, and in the late 12th century came to rule the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Kingdom of Cyprus. ... // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ... Charles IV of France, also Charles I of Navarre, called the Fair (French: le Bel) (11 December 1294 – 1 February 1328), was the King of France and Navarre and Count of Champagne from 1322 to his death: the last French king of the senior Capetian lineage. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion - Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... The Armagnac party was prominant in French politics and warfare during the Hundred Years War. ... For other uses, see number 1435. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Francis I of France (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Events May 15 - Charles VIII of Sweden who had served three terms as King of Sweden dies. ... This article is for the Ancien Régime institution. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


See County of Marche. The County of Marche was a medieval French county. ...


This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


Several communes of France are named similarly:

  • Marches, Drôme in the Drôme département
  • La Marche in the Nièvre département

Drôme is a département in southeastern France named after the Drôme River. ... Nièvre is a département in the center of France named after the Nièvre River. ...

Germany and Austria

The Germanic tribes that Romans called Marcomanni, who battled the Romans in the 1st and 2nd centuries were simply the "men of the borderlands." The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ...


Marches were territorial organisations created as borderlands in the Carolingian Empire and had a long career as purely conventional designations under the Holy Roman Empire. In modern German, "Mark" denotes a piece of land that historically was a borderland, as in the following names: Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...

Mark was a medieval territory in todays North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The Märkische Kreis is a district (Kreis) in central North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... The Lippe is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to... Carl Eduard, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Charles Edward George Albert Leopold) (19 July 1884 – 28 March 1954) was the last reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 30 July 1900 to 14 November 1918. ... Ostmark (Eastern March) is a modern German term to translate the term Ostarrîchi a vernacular for marcia orientalis that appears in a single later 10th century document. ... Map of Lower Austria showing districts and the four quarters (Waldviertel in green, Weinviertel in red, Mostviertel in yellow and Industrieviertel in blue) Lower Austria (de: Niederösterreich) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer in Austria. ... Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... Ostmark (Eastern March) is a modern German term to translate the term Ostarrîchi a vernacular for marcia orientalis that appears in a single later 10th century document. ... Altmark is a region in Germany, between Hamburg and Magdeburg, the northern third of Saxony-Anhalt (the districts of Altmarkkreis Salzwedel and Stendal). ... For other uses, see Hamburg (disambiguation). ... This article is about the German city. ... The Northern March within the Empire, 10th century. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Vend redirects here. ... Events Baalbeck taken by Genghis Khan House of Brandenburg begins when Albrecht the Bear is made head of the Nordmark St. ... Monument commemorating Albert at Spandau Citadel, Berlin. ... The Northern March within the Empire, 10th century. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The sole member of the house of Supplinburg to hold the titles, Lothar II (1075-1137) became duke of Saxony in 1106, king of Germany in 1125 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1133. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Neumark was a territorial unit created in the Middle Ages by Brandenburg on the border between Pomerania and Great Poland. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Styria, crowned with the ducal hat, today state coat The Duchy of Styria (German: Herzogtum Steiermark, Slovenian Å tajerska) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until its dissolution in 1918. ... Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... Karantania (also Carantania, Carentania, in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was a Slavic principality that emerged in the 7th century and was centered on the territory of contemporary Carinthia. ... Coat of arms of the Dukes of Carinthia, today state coat The Duchy of Carinthia (German language: Kärnten, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ...

Hungary

In medieval Hungary the system comprised of gyepű and gyepűelve, effective until the mid-13th century, can be considered as marches even though in its organisation it shows major differences from Western European feudal marches. For one thing, the gyepű was not controlled by a Marquess.


The Gyepű was a strip of land that was specially fortified or made impassable, while gyepűelve was the mostly uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land beyond it. The gyepűelve is much more comparable to modern buffer zones than traditional European marches. Buffer Zone is one of the neighborhoods of North Nazimabad Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ...


The portions of the gyepű was usually guarded by tribes who joined the Hungarian nation and were granted special rights for their services at the borders, such as the Szeklers, Pechenegs and Cumans. These ethnic groups merged into the Hungarian ethnicity and identity also taking up the Hungarian language at different times ranging from as before the tenth century (the Szeklers) to as late as thew seventeenth century (some Cumans). The Székely (Szeklers in English, Secui in Romanian) are a Hungarian-speaking ethnic group, historically centered in the Transylvanian town of Székelyudvarhely, (now Odorheiu Secuiesc, Harghita county, Romania). ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Hungarian (magyar nyelv  ) is a Finno-Ugric language (more specifically an Ugric language) unrelated to most other languages in Europe. ... The Székely (Szeklers in English, Secui in Romanian) are a Hungarian-speaking ethnic group, historically centered in the Transylvanian town of Székelyudvarhely, (now Odorheiu Secuiesc, Harghita county, Romania). ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ...


Italy

For the modern Italian region, see Marche.

From the Carolingian period onwards the name marca begins to appear in Italy, first the Marca Fermana for the mountainous part of Picenum, the Marca Camerinese for the district farther north, including a part of Umbria, and the Marca Anconitana for the former Pentapolis (Ancona). In 1080, the marca Anconitana was given in investiture to Robert Guiscard by pope Gregory VII, to whom the Countess Matilda ceded the marches of Camerino and Fermo. In 1105, the Emperor Henry IV invested Werner with the whole territory of the three marches, under the name of the March of Ancona. It was afterwards once more recovered by the Church and governed by papal legates as part of the Papal States. The Marche became part of the kingdom of Italy in 1860. // The Marche (plural, originally le marche de Ancona = the Marches of Ancona) are a region of Central Italy, bordering Emilia-Romagna north, Tuscany to the north-west, Umbria to west, Abruzzo and Latium to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... Regio V - Picenum Picenum was a region of ancient Roman Italy. ... Umbria is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany to the west, the Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. ... A Pentapolis, from the Greek words penta five and polis city(-state) is geographic and/or institutional grouping of five cities. ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... Pope Gregory VII (c. ... Matilda of Tuscany from (1115) Matilda, countess of Tuscany (1046 – July 24, 1115), called La Gran Contessa, was the principal Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII during the investiture controversy, and is one of the few medieval women to be remembered for her military accomplishments. ... Camerino is small town of 7 000 in Marche, Italy and lies on the Apennines between Marche and Umbria, between the valleys of the rivers Potenza and Chienti. ... Fermo (ancient: Firmum Picenum) is a town and archiepiscopal see of the Marche, Italy, in the province of Ascoli Piceno, on a hill with a fine view, 1046 ft. ... Henry IV (November 11, 1050 — 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ... Werner II was the margrave of Ancona and duke of Spoleto from 1093 to 1119. ... The march in a map of 1564 by Vincenzo Luchino. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ...


Marche were repeated on a miniature level, fringing many of the small territorial states of pre-Risorgimento Italy with a ring of smaller dependencies on their borders, which represent territorial marche on a small scale. A map of the Duchy of Mantua in 1702 (Braudel 1984, fig 26) reveals the independent, though socially and economically dependent arc of small territories from the principality of Castiglione in the northwest across the south to the duchy of Mirandola southeast of Mantua: the lords of Bozolo, Sabioneta, Dosolo, Guastalla, the count of Novellare. Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... The Duchy of Mantua was an Italian state that was ruled by the Gonzaga family from 1328 to 1708. ... Castiglione is the name of several geographical locations (mostly in Italy), as well as the surname of several famous people. ... Mirandola is a city of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, in the province of Modena, 19 miles (31 km) northeast of it by railway, 59 ft. ... For other uses, see Mantua (disambiguation). ... Bozzolo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Mantua in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 110 km southeast of Milan and about 25 km southwest of Mantua. ... Sabbioneta is a town in Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Mantua, from which it is 20 m. ... Dosolo is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Mantua in the Italian region Lombardy, located about 130 km southeast of Milan and about 25 km southwest of Mantua. ... Guastalla is a town and commune in the province of Reggio Emilia in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Country Italy Region Lazio Province Reggio Emilia (RE) Mayor Raul Daoli (since June 14, 2004) Elevation 24 m Area 58 km² Population  - Total (as of 2004-12-31) 12,793  - Density 205/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Novellaresi Dialing code 0522 Postal code 42017 Frazioni Bettolino, Carrobbio...


Japan

The European concept of marches applies just as well to the fief of Matsumae on the southern tip of Hokkaidō which was at Japan's northern border with the Ainu people of Hokkaidō, known as Ezo at the time. In 1590, this land was granted to the Kakizaki clan, who took the name Matsumae from then on. The Lords of Matsumae, as they are sometimes called, were exempt from owing rice to the shogun in tribute, and from the sankin kotai system established by Tokugawa Ieyasu, under which most lords (daimyo) had to spend half the year at court (in the capital of Edo). Matsumae was the name of a town in Hokkaido, Japan, near the port of Hakodate. ... Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... Ezo , also spelled Yezo or Yeso) is a Japanese name which historically referred to the lands to the north of Japan. ... Bold text{| align=right cellpadding=3 id=toc style=margin-left: 15px; |- | align=center colspan=2 | Years: 1587 1588 1589 - 1590 - 1591 1592 1593 |-vdsf gno[gldw[pvkijxaiamknn csogfhbvdowkhbfkqhjkhrjkhwgfhbjkpnkfokfgok3pkpk9pjhkt9erktyujkip9kijker9thhrkg9hkitr9gtkih9t0ykltk[u0jo0iey9uhyit90ertyhige9rity9riyh9ujirtyuhjnh-4e9tyigh9thiuy0h8tyh34tu8uy8u8u8u8rtu5y8ru8thu0tru0ut0rhutuh0trhu0hseogtrhr8uyhju8t89er9te9r8fy8shit ass dick bitch fuck | align=center colspan=2 | Decades: 1560s 1570s 1580s - 1590s - 1600s 1610s 1620s |- | align=center | Centuries... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Sankin kōtai (参勤交代) was a policy of the shogunate during most of the Edo period of Japanese history. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu The Tokugawa clan crest This is a Japanese name; the family name is Tokugawa Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu) January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Edo (Japanese: , literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ...


By guarding the border, rather than conquering/colonizing Ezo, the Matsumae, in essence, made the majority of the island an Ainu reservation. This also meant that Ezo, and the Kurile Islands beyond, were left essentially open to Russian colonization. However, the Russians never did colonize Hokkaidō/Ezo, and the marches were officially eliminated during the Meiji Restoration in the late 19th century, when the Ainu came under Japanese control, and Ezo was renamed Hokkaidō, and annexed to Japan. The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ...


Norway

In Norse, "mark" meant "borderlands" and "forest", while it in present-day Norwegian has adapted the meaning "wilderness" or "forest".


The Norwegian county Finnmark, "the borderlands (or, the forests) of the Sami" (known to the Norse as Finns). Also, Hedmark ("the borderlands of heath") and Telemark ("the borderlands of the Þela tribe" [1]). County NO-20 Region Nord-Norge Administrative centre Vadsø County mayor   Area  - Total  - Percentage Ranked 1 48,618 km² 15. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps, sometimes also Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which today encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Hedmark is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Akershus. ... Heath can mean: Kelling Heath, near Weybourne, North Norfolk, England Heath (habitat), a landscape characterised by open, low growing woody vegetation. ... For other uses, see Telemark (disambiguation). ...


The forests surrounding Norwegian cities are often called "marka" - the marches, e.g. the forests surrounding Oslo are called Nordmarka, Østmarka and Vestmarka - i.e. the northern, eastern and western marches. This article is about the capital of Norway. ...


Markland was the Norse name of an area in North America discovered by Norwegian Vikings. Markland is the name given to an area of unknown location, named by Leif Ericson when visiting North America. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ...


Persia (Sassanid Empire)

See also مرزبان Marzban. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The word Marzban consists of two sections: Marz (border or boundary in Persian) and the suffix -ban (guardian in Persian). ...


United Kingdom

See Welsh Marches and Scottish Marches.

The name of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the midlands of England was Mercia. The name "Mercia" comes from the Old English for "boundary folk", and the traditional interpretation was that the kingdom originated along the frontier between the Welsh and the Anglo-Saxon invaders, although P. Hunter Blair has argued an alternative interpretation that they emerged along the frontier between the Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria and the inhabitants of the River Trent valley. The Welsh Marches (Welsh: Y Mers) is an area along the border of England and Wales in the island of Great Britain. ... The Scottish Marches is an term for the border regions on bothe sides of the border between England and Scotland. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The Welsh are, according to Hastings (1997), an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales and the Welsh language, which is a Celtic language. ... For other uses see Trent River. ...


Latinizing the Anglo-Saxon term mearc, the border areas between England and Wales were collectively known as the Welsh Marches (marchia Wallia), while the native Welsh lands to the west were considered Wales Proper (pura Wallia). The Norman lords in the Welsh Marches were to become the new Marcher Lords. The Welsh Marches (Welsh: Y Mers) is an area along the border of England and Wales in the island of Great Britain. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to an area along a border, e. ...


The title Earl of March is at least two distinct feudal titles: one, created 1328, held by the powerful border families of Mortimer (in the Peerage of England), in the west Welsh Marches and one, Dunbar, in the northern marches (in the Peerage of Scotland). The title Earl of March has been created several times in the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of England. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the early modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... Mortimer is a popular British name, used both as a surname and a given name. ... The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. ... The Welsh Marches (Welsh: Y Mers) is an area along the border of England and Wales in the island of Great Britain. ... This article is about Dunbar in Scotland. ... The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. ...


The Scottish Marches is a term for the border regions on both sides of the border between England and Scotland. From the Norman conquest of England until the reign of King James VI of Scotland, who also became King James I of England, border clashes were common and the monarchs of both countries relied on Marcher Lords to defend the frontier areas known as the Marches. They were hand-picked for their suitability for the challenges the responsibilities presented. The Scottish Marches is an term for the border regions on bothe sides of the border between England and Scotland. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... James VI of Scotland and James I of England and Ireland (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was King of England, King of Scotland, and King of Ireland. ... James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... A Marcher Lord is the English equivalent of a margrave (in the Holy Roman empire) In this context the word march means a border region or frontier, and is cognate with the verb to march, both ultimately derived from Proto-Indo-European *mereg-, edge or boundary. ...


Patrick Dunbar, 8th Earl of Dunbar, a descendant of the Earls of Northumbria was recognized in the end of 13th century to use the name March as his earldom in Scotland, otherwise known as Dunbar, Lothian, and Northumbrian border. Patrick de Dunbar, 8th Earl of Dunbar (c. ...


Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, Regent of England during the minority of Edward III and usurper who had supplanted Edward II, was created an earl 1328. He was married to Joan of Joinville, whose mother was one of the heiresses of French Counts of La Marche and Lusignan. His family, Mortimer Lords of Wigmore, had been border lords and leaders of defenders of Welsh marches for centuries. He selected March as the name of his earldom for several reasons: Welsh marches referred to several counties, whereby the title signified superiority compared to usual single county-based earldoms. Mercia was an ancient kingdom. His wife's ancestors had been Counts of March in France. Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330) an English nobleman of the fourteenth century, was for three years de facto ruler of England, after leading a successful rebellion against Edward II. He was himself overthrown by Edwards son, Edward III. Mortimer was also... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Mortimer is a popular British name, used both as a surname and a given name. ... Wigmore is a village and parish in the northwest part of the county of Herefordshire, England. ...


Titles

  • Marquis, Marchese and Margrave (markgraf) all had their origins in feudal lords who held trusted positions in the borderlands. The English title was a foreign importation from France, tested out tentatively in 1385 by Richard II, but not naturalized until the mid 15th century, and now more often spelled "marquess."[2]

Marquis has many different meanings: The French spelling of the title known in English as Marquess and Margrave. ... Margrave (Latin: marchio) is the English and French form (recorded since 1551) of the German title Markgraf (from Mark march and Graf count) and certain equivalent nobiliary (princely) titles in other languages. ... Richard II (January 6, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. ... This article is about a title of nobility. ...

See also

This is a list of European medieval marches. ... Traditional ranks among European royalty, peers, and nobility are rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ...

Notes

  1. ^ [1] Navnet Telemark og Grenland (The name Telemark and Grenland) by Alexander Bugge, 1918
  2. ^ The styling marquis or marquess is a peculiarity of each title.
Country subdivision can be any type of subdividing the territory of a country. ... A political division is a geographic region accepted to be in the jurisdiction of a particular government entity. ... Outline map of Canadas Census Divisions in 2001 Note: This page refers only to subdivisions in Canada. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... An Amt is a name for subnational administrative units used in some northern European countries. ... An arrondissement is an administrative division in some French or Dutch-speaking countries: // Main article: Municipal arrondissement in France Main article: Arrondissements of Paris Paris, capital city of France, is divided into 20 arrondissements. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... 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Outline map of Canadas Census Divisions in 2001 Note: This page refers only to subdivisions in Canada. ... The census geographic units of Canada are the country subdivisions defined and used by Canadas federal government statistics bureau Statistics Canada[1] to conduct the countrys five-yearly census. ... A census metropolitan area, or CMA is a Canadian census subdivision comprising a large urban area (known as the urban core) and adjacent areas (known as urban and rural fringes) that have a high degree of social and economic integration with the urban core. ... Census subdivision is a Canadian political region organized by Statistics Canada and determined by the provinces. ... Circle is an administrative country subdivision. ... // In law, a circuit is an appellate judicial district commonly seen in the court systems of many nations. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... 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A community as country subdivision can be found in Belgium. ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... A residential community is a community, usually a small town or city, that is composed mostly of residents, as opposed to commercial businesses and/or industrial facilities, all three of which are considered to be the three main types of occupants of the typical community. ... In international law, a condominium is a territory in which two sovereign powers have equal rights. ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... An administrative county is an administrative area in the British Isles. ... In the context of Political divisions of China, county is the standard English translation of 县 (xi  n). ... The six metropolitan counties shown within England The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level subnational entity in current use in England. ... Council may refer to a Local government area in Australian English Categories: | ... The Shetland Crofthouse Museum, with peat stacked out front. ... A department is geographically defined area of a centralized state which functions as an administrative unit, usually at provincial level, with or without a representative assembly. ... World map of dependent territories. ... Federal dependencies as kind of subnational entity can be found in Venezuela. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ... so wats up stop changing this page i want u to leave it the way it is thx peacecapital lies within its borders. ... City district can be found as official designation for a country subdivision in Pakistan See also City Districts of Pakistan Category: ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... A metropolitan borough (or metropolitan district) is a type of local government district in England, covering urban areas within metropolitan counties. ... Municipal Districts are Census subdivision used in Canada for the administration of rural areas including farmlands and unincorporated places such as hamlets. ... A division is a type of country subdivision. ... A Daïra (Arabic: ‎ circle; plural Dawaïr) is a subdivision of a wilaya in Algeria and in Western Sahara. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... SeniÅ«nija (elderate or eldership in English) is the smallest administrative division of Lithuania. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... A freguesia (pron. ... A governorate is a country subdivision. ... A hamlet is (usually — see below) a small settlement, too small or unimportant to be considered a village. ... A hundred is a geographic division used in England, Denmark, South Australia and some parts of the USA, Germany, Sweden (and todays Finland) and Norway, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller administrative units. ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... A judeÅ£ is an administrative division in Romania and was also used for some time in Moldova. ... Generally, a local administrative unit (LAU) is an area of governmental administration below a province, region, state or other major national subdivision. ... Local Government Area (abbreviated LGA) is a term used in Australia (and especially by the Australian Bureau of Statistics) to refer to areas controlled by each individual Local Government. ... Liwa (Arabic: ‎ banner) is an Arabic name for a country subdivision. ... A località, in Italy, is the name given to inhabited places that are not accorded a more significant distinction in administrative law such as a frazione, comune, municipio, circoscrizione, or quartiere. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... A district municipality is a designation for a class of municipalities found in several locations, including British Columbia, Canada and Lithuania. ... A regional municipality (or region) is a type of Canadian municipal government which works much like a county; the method of government depends on how it is defined. ... The term regional county municipality (French municipalité régionale de comté) is used in the Canadian province of Quebec to designate county-like political and geographic units, or census divisions. ... A rural municipality is a form of municipality in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city, town or suburb. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Okrug is a term to denote administrative subdivision in some Slavic states. ... Ostan may refer to one of the following: OS-tan: an Internet phenomenon on Futaba Channel Ostān: Name of the subdivisions of Iran equivalent to English Province Category: ... Parish Hall of St. ... A civil parish (usually just parish) in England is a subnational entity forming the lowest unit of local government, lower than districts or counties. ... Periphery is an administrative division in Greece. ... Plasa is the Professional Lighting And Sound Association, Every year they host the PLASA Show in the UK. PLASA PLASA SHOW ... The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circonscription of a Prefect. ... Prefecture, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... An autonomous (subnational) entity is a subnational entity that has a certain amount of autonomy. ... A quarter is a section of an urban settlement. ... A regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) is a political subdivision of a province in Indonesia. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An autonomous region or autonomous district is a subnational region with special powers of self-rule. ... Capital Region is a common term for the region or district surrounding a state, provincial or national capital city. ... Special administrative region may be: Peoples Republic of China Special administrative regions, present-day administrative divisions (as of 2006) set up by the Peoples Republic of China to administer Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) Republic of China Special administrative regions, also translated as special administrative... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... Ranchería, is a form of administrative division used by Amerindian tribes to organize their social structure. ... This article is about Native Americans. ... In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band. ... Shabiyah is an arab subdivision term translated as municipality. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Counties of Iran. ... A shire is an administrative area of Great Britain and Australia. ... Most countries with a federal constitution are made up of a number of entities called states. ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades aut nomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades aut nomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... The Subdistrict is one of the smallest Political_divisions_of_China. ... Subprefecture is an administrative level that is below prefecture or province. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... A sýsla is a police district in Iceland and the Faroe Islands. ... A taluka is an administrative division in India below a district; called tahsil/tehsil in northern India. ... The equivalent terms tehsil, tahsil, tahasil, taluka, taluk, and taluq refer to a unit of government in some countries of the Indian subcontinent. ... Types of administrative and/or political territories include: A legally administered territory, which is a non-sovereign geographic area that has come under the authority of another government. ... Autonomous territorial unit or territorial autonomous unit (moldovan Unitate teritorială autonomă) is a country subdivision term applied to Gagauzia, Moldova. ... so wats up stop changing this page i want u to leave it the way it is thx peacecapital lies within its borders. ... A Union Territory is an administrative division of India. ... National Territory is the translation of the Territorio nacional a term used for territories in Argentina. ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... A townland is a small geographical unit of land used in Ireland and Scotland, and believed to be of Gaelic or Goidelic origin. ... The term township is used to denote a lower level territorial subdivision. ... A civil township is a widely-used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. ... In the Highlands and Islands of Scotland a crofting township means a group of agricultural smallholdings (each with its own few hectares of pasture and arable land) holding in common a substantial tract of unimproved upland grazing, which can range from a hundred to a few thousand hectares. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... A Vingtaine (literally group of twenty in French) is a political subdivision of Jersey. ... A Voivodship (also voivodeship, Romanian: Voievodat, Polish: Województwo, Serbian: Vojvodstvo or Vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod (voivode). ... A wilāyah (Arabic: ولاية) or vilayet (Turkish: vilâyet) or (ولایت in Persian) is an administrative division, usually translated as province. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into ward (politics). ... A Scottish acre (Scottish Gaelic: acair) was a land measurement used in the country. ... Agencies of British India Agencies of Pakistan Categories: | ... A barony is a country subdivision, typically at a lower level than a county. ... A sign in Linlithgow, Scotland. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... A “commote” or “commot” was a secular division of land in Medieval Wales. ... The Daugh, Davoch or Davach is an ancient Scottish land measurement. ... A Roman or civil diocese was one of the administrative divisions of the later Roman Empire, starting with the Tetrarchy. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... A groatland, also known as a fourpenceland, fourpennyland or “Còta bàn” was a Scottish land measurement. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A hundred is a geographic division used in England, Denmark, South Australia and some parts of the USA, Germany, Sweden (and todays Finland) and Norway, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller administrative units. ... A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... A markland or merkland (Scottish Gaelic: Marg-fhearainn) is an old Scottish unit of land measurement. ... The nomes of Ancient Egypt A nome (Greek: district) is a subnational administrative division of Ancient Egypt. ... An ounceland (Scottish Gaelic: unga) is a traditional Scottish land measurement. ... An Oxgang (Scottish Gaelic: Damh-imir, Latin: bovate) is an old Scottish land measurement. ... A pargana is a former administrative unit of the Indian Subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms. ... A pennyland (Scottish Gaelic: “peighinn”) is an old Scottish land measurement. ... A ploughgate was a Scottish land measurement, used in the south and the east of the country. ... The division of the Roman Empire into four Praetorian prefectures originated in the age of the Tetrarchy yet outlived that period. ... Presidency was used as country subdivision in British India. ... A Quarterland or Ceathramh(Scottish Gaelic) was a Scottish land measurement. ... British Residency of the Persian Gulf Residencies of British India see: Category:Residencies of British India Category: ... For the song by Chamillionaire, see Ridin. In the British Isles since Anglo-Saxon times, a riding is traditionally a sub-division (especially in three) of a county[1]. The term has similar or analogous meanings in other countries. ... In local government on the British Isles, a rural district was a predominantly rural area used for local government. ... Sanitary Districts were established in England and Wales in 1875 and in Ireland in 1878. ... Satrap (Greek σατράπης satrápēs, from Old Persian xšaθrapā(van), i. ... The themata circa 950. ... In the British Isles an urban district was a type of local government district which covered an urbanised area. ... A viscount is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl (in Britain) or a count (his continental equivalent). ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...

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