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Encyclopedia > March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
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The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march. Estimates of the number of participants varied from 200,000 (police estimate) to over 300,000 (march leaders). Approximately 80% of the marchers were African American and 20% white and other races. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1271x1902, 511 KB) Crowds surrounding the Reflecting Pool, during the 1963 March on Washington. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1271x1902, 511 KB) Crowds surrounding the Reflecting Pool, during the 1963 March on Washington. ... Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... African American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United States. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States (1619-1865) began soon after the English colonists first settled in Virginia and lasted until the passage of the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. ... Military history of African Americans is that of African Americans in the United States since the arrival of the first black slaves in 1619 to the present day. ... 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African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... African American neighborhoods or black neighborhoods are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States. ... 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For other uses, see Demonstration. ... ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ...


The march was organized by a group of civil rights, labor, and religious organizations. Following the march, the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965) were passed. First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 ()[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. ...

Contents

Organizing

Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

This march was initiated by A. Philip Randolph (international president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, president of the Negro American Labor Council, and vice president of the AFL-CIO), who had planned a similar march in 1941. The threat of the earlier march had convinced President Roosevelt to establish the Committee on Fair Employment Practice and bar discriminatory hiring in the defense industry. Description: Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, August 28, 1963. ... Description: Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, August 28, 1963. ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader and founder of the first black labor union in the United States. ... The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) was a labor union in the United States organized by the predominantly African-American Pullman Porters. ... American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL-CIO, is a national trade union center, the largest federation of unions in the United States, made up of 54 national and international unions (including Canadian), together representing more than 10 million workers. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... Executive Order 8802 (also known as the Fair Employment Act) was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941 to prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry. ...


The 1963 march was organized by Randolph, James Farmer (president of the Congress of Racial Equality), John Lewis (president of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee), King (president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference), Roy Wilkins (president of the NAACP), and Whitney Young (president of the National Urban League). Bayard Rustin, a civil rights veteran and organizer of the 1947 Journey of Reconciliation, the first of the Freedom Rides to test the Supreme Court ruling that banned racial discrimination in interstate travel, administered the details of the march. James L. Farmer, Jr. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... For other persons named John Lewis, see John Lewis (disambiguation). ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... Roy Wilkins, 1968. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... Whitney Young at the White House, 1964. ... National Urban League Logo The National Urban League (NUL) is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States. ... Bayard Rustin at news briefing on the Civil Rights March on Washington, August 27, 1963 Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an African-American civil rights activist, important largely behind the scenes in the civil rights movement of the 1960s and earlier and principal organizer of the... The Freedom Rides were a series of nonviolent, direct demonstrations performed in 1961 as part of the U.S. civil rights movement. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... An African-American drinks out of a water fountain marked for colored in 1939 at a street car terminal in Oklahoma City. ...


The march was not universally supported among African-Americans. Some civil rights activists were concerned that it might turn violent, which could undermine pending legislation and damage the international image of the movement. The march was condemned by Malcolm X, spokesperson for the Nation of Islam, who termed it the "farce on Washington". Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... The Nation of Islam (NOI) is a religious and social/political organization founded in the United States by Wallace Fard Muhammad in 1930 with the self-proclaimed goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, economic condition of the black man and woman of America and belief that God will bring...


March organizers themselves disagreed over the purpose of the march. The NAACP and Urban League saw it as a gesture of support for a civil rights bill that had been introduced by the Kennedy Administration. Randolph, King, and the SCLC saw it as a way of raising both civil rights and economic issues to national attention beyond the Kennedy bill. SNCC and CORE saw it as a way of challenging and condemning the Kennedy administration's inaction and lack of support for civil rights for African-Americans.[1] John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


Media coverage

National media attention greatly contributed to the march's national exposure and probable impact. In his section "The March on Washington and Television News," William Thomas notes: "Over five hundred cameramen, technicians, and correspondents from the major networks were set to cover the event. More cameras would be set up than had filmed the last Presidential inauguration. One camera was positioned high in the Washington Monument, to give dramatic vistas of the marchers". By carrying the organizers' speeches and offering their own commentary, television stations literally framed the way their local audiences saw and understood the event. [1]


The march

On August 28, more than 2,000 buses, 21 special trains, 10 chartered airliners, and uncounted cars converged on Washington. The regularly scheduled planes, trains, and buses were also filled to capacity. Crowd estimates ranged from 200,000 to 300,000.[1] is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


To the surprise of the march's leaders, who were meeting with members of Congress, the assembled group began to march from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial without them when the march failed to start on time. Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... This article is about the monument in Washington, D.C. For other monuments dedicated to George Washington, see Washington Monuments (world). ... The Lincoln Memorial, in Washington, D.C., is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor 16th President Abraham Lincoln. ...


Representatives from each of the sponsoring organizations addressed the crowd from the podium. Dr. King gave his famous I Have a Dream speech which was carried live by the those TV stations covering the march. Floyd McKissick read James Farmer's speech because Farmer had been arrested during a protest in Louisiana; Farmer had written that the protests would not stop "until the dogs stop biting us in the South and rats stop biting us in the North." Martin Luther King, Jr. ... He defined Black Power as “political power, economic power and a new self image for Negroes” ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


The march is widely credited as a major factor leading to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the National Voting Rights Act of 1965. First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. ... The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 ()[1] outlawed the requirement that would-be voters in the United States take literacy tests to qualify to register to vote, and it provided for federal registration of voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible minority voters registered. ...


Controversy over John Lewis' speech

Although one of the officially stated purposes of the march was to support the civil rights bill introduced by the Kennedy Administration, several of the speakers criticized the proposed law as insufficient.


John Lewis' of SNCC speech—which a number of SNCC activists had helped write—took the Administration to task for how little it had done to protect southern blacks and civil rights workers under attack in the Deep South. While he toned down his comments under pressure from others in the movement, his words still stung:[2] For other persons named John Lewis, see John Lewis (disambiguation). ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principal organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ...

We march today for jobs and freedom, but we have nothing to be proud of, for hundreds and thousands of our brothers are not here—for they have no money for their transportation, for they are receiving starvation wages…or no wages at all. ...


We come here today with a great sense of misgiving. It is true that we support the administration's Civil Rights Bill. We support it with great reservation, however. ... Unless title three is put in this bill, there's nothing to protect the young children and old women who must face police dogs and fire hoses in the South while they engage in peaceful demonstration. In its present form this bill will not protect the citizens of Danville, Virginia, who must live in constant fear of a police state. ... As it stands now, the voting section of this bill will not help the thousands of people who want to vote. ... We must have legislation that will protect the Mississippi sharecroppers, who have been forced to leave their homes because they dared to exercise their right to register to vote.


We need a bill that will provide for the homeless and starving people of this nation. We need a bill that will ensure the equality of a maid who earns five dollars a week in the home of a family whose total income is 100,000 dollars a year. We must have a good FEPC bill.


My friends let us not forget that we are involved in a serious social revolution. By and large, politicians who build their career on immoral compromise and allow themselves an open forum of political, economic and social exploitation dominate American politics. ... what political leader can stand up and say, "My party is a party of principles"? For the party of Kennedy is also the party of Eastland. The party of Javits is also the party of Goldwater. Where is our party? Where is the political party that will make it unnecessary to march on Washington? Where is the political party that will make it unnecessary to march in the streets of Birmingham? Where is the political party that will protect the citizens of Albany, Georgia? ... We must say wake up America, wake up! For we cannot stop, and we will not and cannot be patient.

Cut from his original speech[3] at the insistence of more conservative and pro-Kennedy leaders were phrases such as:

In good conscience, we cannot support wholeheartedly the administration's civil rights bill, for it is too little and too late. ...


I want to know, which side is the federal government on?...


The revolution is a serious one. Mr. Kennedy is trying to take the revolution out of the streets and put it into the courts. Listen, Mr. Kennedy. Listen, Mr. Congressman. Listen, fellow citizens. The black masses are on the march for jobs and freedom, and we must say to the politicians that there won't be a "cooling-off" period.


...We will march through the South, through the heart of Dixie, the way Sherman did. We shall pursue our own scorched earth" policy and burn Jim Crow to the ground—nonviolently...

Along with Lewis, many activists from SNCC, CORE, and even SCLC were angry and bitter at what they considered censorship of his speech.


See also

  • African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)

Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... The following is a list of protest marches on Washington, D.C.. // April 30, 1894 - Coxeys Army. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom. Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement.
  2. ^ Full Text of John Lewis' Speech ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  3. ^ John Lewis' Original Speech ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans
  • A "Dream" Remembered, The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer
  • Manning Marable and Leith Mullings, Freedom: A Photographic History of the African American Struggle, London: Phaidon, 2002.
  • Kate Tuttle, "March on Washington, 1963", Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, New York: Perseus, 1999.
  • Juan Williams, Eyes on The Prize: America's Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965, New York: Viking, 1987.

The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer is an evening television news program broadcast weeknights on PBS in the United States. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
  • The March on Washington
  • Original Program for the March on Washington
  • Youtube clip of Bob Dylan performing at the March
Martin Luther King redirects here. ... John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, March 7, 1965 How Long, Not Long is the the popular name given to the public speech delivered by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Martin Luther King Jr The Letter from Birmingham Jail or Letter from Birmingham City Jail, commonly but incorrectly rendered Letter from a Birmingham Jail, was an open letter on April 16, 1963 written by Martin Luther King, Jr. ... What is man? is a piece from Measure of a Man which was written by Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. ... The Nashville sit-ins were part of a nonviolent direct action campaign to end racial segregation at lunch counters in Nashville, Tennessee. ... The Albany Movement was a desegregation group formed in Albany, Georgia on November 17, 1961. ... The Albany movement proved to be an important education for the SCLC, however, when it undertook the Birmingham campaign in 1963. ... John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, March 7, 1965 The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. ... History The Chicago Freedom Movement, the most ambitious civil rights campaign in the North, lasted from mid-1965 to early 1967. ... In 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (586x872, 75 KB) kjk Martin Luther King, 1964. ... Reverend Martin Luther King, Sr. ... Alberta Christine Williams King (September 13, 1904 – June 30, 1974) was Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Yolanda Denise King (November 17, 1955 – May 15, 2007) was the first-born child and first daughter of Coretta Scott King and civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Martin Luther King III (born October 23, 1957, Montgomery, Alabama) is the son of Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Dexter Scott King (born 30 January 1961) is the second son of civil rights leaders Martin Luther King, Jr. ... ge|1963|3|28|mf=y}} |birth_place= Atlanta, Georgia |death_date= |death_place= }} Bernice Albertine King (born March 28, 1963 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States) is the second daughter and youngest child of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr and Coretta Scott King. ... Dr. Alveda C. King-Tookes is the niece of civil rights leader Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Dr. Benjamin Elijah Mays ( August 1, 1894 (?) – March 28, 1984) was an African-American minister, educator, scholar, social activist and the president of Morehouse College in Atlanta. ... Bayard Rustin at news briefing on the Civil Rights March on Washington, August 27, 1963 Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an African-American civil rights activist, important largely behind the scenes in the civil rights movement of the 1960s and earlier and principal organizer of the... Ralph David Abernathy (March 11, 1926 – April 17, 1990) was an American civil rights activist and leader. ... The person who killed Martin Luther King Jr. ... This article is about the lawyer. ... Loyd Jowers was the owner of a restaurant, (Jims Grill) near the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, where Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. ... King is a 1978 television film miniseries based on the life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Return of the King is the ninth episode of the Adult Swim animated television series The Boondocks. ... Happy Birthday is a 1980 single written, produced, and performed by Stevie Wonder for the Motown label. ... Pride (In the Name of Love) is the second song on U2s 1984 album, The Unforgettable Fire and was released as the albums first single. ... MLK is a song on U2s 1984 album The Unforgettable Fire. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... Lee-Jackson-King Day was a holiday celebrated in the Commonwealth of Virginia from 1984 to 2000. ... Interior of Ebenezer Baptist Church, view from behind the pulpit. ... The Martin Luther King Jr. ... It has been suggested that Lorraine Motel be merged into this article or section. ... Streets named after Martin Luther King, Jr. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Martin Luther King, Jr. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (255 words)
Demonstrator at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was a large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963.
The march was also condemned by the Nation of Islam and Malcolm X, who termed it the "farce on Washington".
King Encyclopedia (589 words)
The march, which demonstrated to the entire nation the gap between the tenets of American democracy and the everyday experience of fl Americans, was successful in pressuring the Kennedy administration to commit to passing federal civil rights legislation.
In addition, the March on Washington faced condemnation by Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam.
Malcolm X referred to it as the "farce on Washington," and any member of the Nation who attended the march was subject to a ninety-day suspension from the organization.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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