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Encyclopedia > March on Rome
Part of the Politics series on
Fascism

Definition
Definitions of fascism Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests inferior to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on ethnic, religious, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Image File history File links Fasces. ... What constitutes a definition of fascism and fascist governments is a highly disputed subject that has proved complicated and contentious. ...


Varieties and derivatives of fascism
Italian fascism
Nazism
Neo-Fascism
Rexism
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Estado Novo
Ustaše
Clerical fascism
Austrofascism
Crypto-fascism
Japanese fascism
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Brazilian Integralism
Iron Guard Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For post-World War II Nazi movements, see Neo-Nazism. ... Léon Degrelle Rexism was a fascist political movement in the first half of the twentieth century in Belgium. ... Yoke and Arrows. ... There have been two regimes known as Estado Novo (meaning New State): Estado Novo (Brazil) Estado Novo (Portugal) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The UstaÅ¡e (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular UstaÅ¡a or Ustasha) was a Croatian organization placed in control of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941, which pursued Nazi policies. ... Clerical fascism is an ideological construct that combines the political and economic doctrines of fascism with theology or religious tradition. ... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... Crypto-fascism is when a party or group secretly adheres to the doctrines of fascism while attempting to disguise it as another political movement. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ... Integralist banner The famous Integralist salute, Anauê!, which means you are my brother! (belived by some to have originated in a Tupi language expression) Brazilian Integralism was a fascist political movement created in April 1933. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Fascist political parties and movements
Fascism as an international phenomenon
List of fascist movements by country To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Fascism in history
Fascio
March on Rome
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Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... This is the history of Italy as a monarchy and in the World Wars. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... War flag of the Italian Social Republic. ... Ioannis Metaxas From 1936 to 1941, Greece was ruled by an authoritarian regime under the leadership of General Ioannis Metaxas akin to that of Francos Spain. ...


Related subjects
Adolf Hitler
Anti-fascism
Benito Mussolini
Black Brigades
Blackshirts
Class collaboration
Corporatism
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Fascism and ideology
Fascist symbolism
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Roman salute
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Neo-Nazism
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Third Position
Hitler redirects here. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Black Brigades (Italian: Brigate Nere) were one of the fascist paramilitary groups operating in Italian Social Republic (in northern Italy), during the final years of World War II, and after the signing of the Italian Armistice in 1943. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere or squadristi) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. The term was later applied to a similar group serving the British Union of Fascists before the War. ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... The Economics of fascism can be studied by examining the economic policies of various countries under fascist control during the period between World War One and the end of World War II. Some scholars and analysts argue that there is an identifiable political economy of fascism that is distinct from... There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ... As there were many different manifestations of fascism, especially during the interwar years, there were also many different symbols of Fascist movements. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: ) was the main body of Mussolinis Fascist government in Italy. ... The Oath of the Horatii, by Jacques-Louis David The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. ... Flag of the National Bolsheviks. ... National Syndicalism is typically associated with the right-wing labor movement in Italy which would later become the basis for Mussolini’s Fascist Party. ... This page pertains to fascism after World War II. For post-World War II Nazi movements, see Neo-Nazism. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ... International Third Position was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement. ...

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For the movie by Dino Risi, see March on Rome (film) The March on Rome (Italian: La marcia su Roma) is a 1962 movie by Dino Risi with Vittorio Gassman and Ugo Tognazzi, aimed at describing the March on Rome of Benito Mussolinis black shirts from the point of view of two newly recruited, naïve black shirts. ...


The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup d'état by which Mussolini's National Fascist Party came to power in Italy. It took place from October 27 to October 29, 1922. A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...


Context

Benito Mussolini founded the first Fasci Italiani di Combattimento in March 1919 at the beginning of the biennio rosso ("two red years"). He suffered a defeat in the November 1919 elections, but gained entrance to Parliament in 1921. Out of his party the squadristi was formed. It was used to break the general strike which had started at the Alfa Romeo factory in Milan in August 1920. After the assassination of Giordani, a right-wing municipal counsellor in Bologna, in November 1920, the squadristi were used as a repression tool by the state to crush the socialist movement (which included a strong anarcho-syndicalist component), especially in the Po Valley. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian language word which was used in the late 19th century to refer to radical political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations. ... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Biennio rosso (English: Two red years) were two years, 1919 and 1920, in which there was a massive struggle for political power by the workers of Italy. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. Inspired by Garibaldis Redshirts, the Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini due to his disgust with the corruption and apathy of the... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... Alfa Romeo is an Italian automobile manufacturing company, founded as Darracq Italiana by Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan in partnership with the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. ... A factory worker in 1940s Fort Worth, Texas. ... Milan (Italian: ; Lombard: Milán (listen)) is one of the biggest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ...


Trade unions were dissolved while left-wing mayors resigned. The fascists, included on Giolitti's "National Union" lists at the May 1921 elections, then won 36 seats. Mussolini then withdrew his support to Giolitti and attempted to work out a temporary truce with the socialists by signing a "Pacification Pact" in summer 1921. This provoked a conflict with the most fanatized part of the movement, the squadristi and their leaders the ras. In July 1921, Giolitti attempted without success to dissolve the squadristi. The contract with the socialists was then broken at its turn in November 1921, Mussolini adopted a nationalist and conservative program and founded the National Fascist Party, which boasted 700,000 members in July 1922. In August, an anti-fascist general strike was triggered, but failed to rally the Partito Popolare Italiano and was repressed by the fascists. When Mussolini learned that Prime Minister Luigi Facta had given Gabriele d'Annunzio the mission to organize a large demonstration on November 4, 1922 to celebrate the national victory during the war, he decided on the March to accelerate the process and sidestep any possible competition. Giovanni Giolitti (October 27, 1842–July 17, 1928) was an Italian statesman. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) was an Italian party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of Fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci; see also Italian fascism). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne in Eindhoven in September 1944. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... Luigi Facta (November 16, 1861 - November 5, 1930) was an Italian politician and journalist. ... Gabriele dAnnunzio (12 March 1863, Pescara – 1 March 1938, Gardone Riviera, province of Brescia) was an Italian poet, writer, novelist, dramatist and daredevil, who went on to have a controversial role in politics as a precursor of the fascist movement. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...


March

The quadriumvirs leading the Fascist Party, Emilio De Bono, Italo Balbo, one of the most famous ras, Michele Bianchi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi, organized the March while the Duce stayed behind. On October 24, 1922, Mussolini declared before 60,000 people at the Fascist Congress in Naples: "We want to become the state!", and then retired to Milan. Meanwhile, the Blackshirts, who had occupied the Po plain, took all strategic points of the country. On October 26, Antonio Salandra warned Prime Minister Luigi Facta that Mussolini was demanding his resignation and that he was preparing to march on Rome. However, Facta did not believe Salandra and thought that Mussolini would govern quietly at his side. To meet the threat posed by the bands of fascist troops now gathering outside Rome, Luigi Facta (who had resigned but continued to hold power) ordered a state of siege for Rome. However, the King Victor Emmanuel III refused to sign the military order and, on October 28, handed power to Mussolini, who was supported by the military, the business class and the liberal right-wing. Emilio De Bono Emilio De Bono (March 19, 1866–January 11, 1944) was an Italian General who fought in World War I and helped organize the Fascist Party. ... Air Marshal Italo Balbo Italo Balbo (June 6, 1896 - June 28, 1940) was an Italian aviator, blackshirt leader and possible successor of Mussolini. ... Michele Bianchi was an eminent revolutionary syndicalist leader. ... Cesare Maria De Vecchi (14 November 1884 - 1959) was an Italian soldier, colonial administrator and Fascist politician. ... Duce was an Italian word meaning leader, derived from Latin word dux of the same meaning. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) Capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ... The Blackshirts (Italian: camicie nere or squadristi) were Fascist paramilitary groups in Italy during the period immediately following World War I and until the end of World War II. The term was later applied to a similar group serving the British Union of Fascists before the War. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... Antonio Salandra (Troia, Foggia province, 1853 - Rome, 1931) was a conservative Italian politician who served as Prime Minister of Italy between 1914 and 1916. ... A prime minister is the very most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Luigi Facta (November 16, 1861 - November 5, 1930) was an Italian politician and journalist. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946), Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ...


The march itself was composed of less than 30,000 men, but the king in part feared a civil war since the squadristi had already taken control of the Po plain and most of the country, while Fascism was no longer seen as a threat to the establishment. Mussolini was asked to form his cabinet on October 29, 1922, while some 25,000 Blackshirts were parading in Rome. Mussolini thus legally reached power, in accordance with the Statuto Albertino, the Italian Constitution. The March on Rome was not the conquest of power which Fascism later celebrated but rather a transfer of power within the framework of the constitution, a transfer made possible by the surrender of public authorities in the face of fascist intimidation and the complicity of the bourgeoisie, who thought it would be possible to manipulate Mussolini. The latter had declared himself a member of the Manchester School in favour of free market and laissez faire economics. He also feigned to be ready to take a subalternate ministry in a Giolitti or Salandra cabinet, but then demanded the presidency of the Council. Fearing a conflict with the fascists, the ruling class thus handed power to Mussolini, who went on to install the dictatorship after the June 10, 1924 assassination of Giacomo Matteotti, who had finished writing The Fascist Exposed: A Year of Fascist Domination, by Amerigo Dumini and others agents of the Ceka secret police created by Mussolini. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... The so-called Statuto Albertino (Albertine Statute) is the constitution that King Charles Albert of Savoy conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia (including also most parts of north-western Italy, such as Piedmont) on March 4, 1848. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) is a classification used in analysing human societies to describe a class of people who are in the upper or merchant class, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth as opposed to aristocratic origin. ... Manchester Capitalism, Manchester School, Manchester Liberalism or Manchesterism are terms for political, economic and social movements of the 19th century, which originated in the North-West of England, and in Manchester in particular. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Look up laissez faire in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Antonio Salandra (Troia, Foggia province, 1853 - Rome, 1931) was a conservative Italian politician who served as Prime Minister of Italy between 1914 and 1916. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Giacomo Matteotti (22 May 1885, Fratta Polesine, Province of Rovigo—10 June 1924, near Rome) was an Italian socialist politician. ... Amerigo Dumini (1894, Saint Louis, Missouri—1967, probably in Bologna) was an Italian fascist activist and assassin. ...


External links

  • The March on Rome entry at Tiscali reference.

  Results from FactBites:
 
The march to Rome (208 words)
To execute the deligation of power a march to Rome was organised in 1922.
It was Mussolini’s intention to walk with his adhearers from Napels to Rome and after arrival to get the power from the king.
After arrival in Rome, Mussolini told the King that he wanted the power or he would commit a coup d’état otherwise.
March on Rome Information (801 words)
The March on Rome was a pseudo-coup d'état by which Mussolini's National Fascist Party came to power in Italy.
The march itself was composed of less than 30,000 men, but the king in part feared a civil war since the squadristi had already taken control of the Po plain and most part of the country, while Fascism was no longer seen as a threat to the establishment.
The March on Rome was not the conquest of power which Fascism later celebrated but rather a transfer of power within the framework of the constitution, a transfer made possible by the surrender of public authorities in the face of fascist intimidation and the complicity of the bourgeoisie, who thought it possible to instrumentalize Mussolini.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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