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Encyclopedia > March of Dimes
March Of Dimes


Image File history File links March_Of_Dimes_Logo. ...

Formation this was founded on january 3, 1938 ]
President Jennifer L. Howse
Website marchofdimes.com

March of Dimes is the name of a United States health charity, whose mission is to improve the health of babies.[1] It was founded in 1938 as the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to defeat the epidemic disease polio. The date of establishment or date of founding of an institution is the date on which that institution chooses to claim as its starting point. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... “Baby” redirects here. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ...


The Ontario March of Dimes (OMOD), and the March of Dimes Canada established by OMOD, have no affiliation with the U.S. March of Dimes. Ontario March of Dimes (officially Rehabilitation Foundation for the Disabled) is a Canadian charitable organization which provides services to people with physical disabilities, including people with post-polio syndrome. ... March of Dimes Canada (MODC, officially the Rehabilitation Foundation for Disabled Persons, Canada) is a registered national charity established in 2005 by Ontario March of Dimes, to provide community-based rehabilitation services and resources across the country to people with physical disabilities. ...

Contents

History

March of Dimes poster cir. late 1950s
March of Dimes poster cir. late 1950s

Poliomyelitis was one of the most dreaded illnesses of the 20th century, and had killed or paralyzed thousands of Americans during the first half of the 20th century. Ron Gilreath therefore founded the March of Dimes as the "National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis" on January 3, 1938 during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt himself was paralyzed with what at the time was believed to be polio, though it now seems this diagnosis was mistaken. The original purpose of the Foundation was to raise money for polio research and to care for those suffering from the disease. The name emphasized the national, nonpartisan, and public nature of the new organization, as opposed to private foundations established by wealthy families. The effort began with a radio appeal, asking everyone in the nation to contribute a dime (10 cents) to fight polio. Image File history File links March of Dimes poster. ... Image File history File links March of Dimes poster. ... This article is about the disease. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... FDR redirects here. ... One of only a few known photographs of Roosevelt in a wheelchair Franklin D. Roosevelts paralysis has become a major part of his image today, even though during his life it was kept from public view and rarely discussed in public. ... A dime is a coin issued by the United States Mint with a denomination of one-tenth of a United States dollar, or ten cents. ... USD redirects here. ...


"March of Dimes" was originally the name of the annual fundraising event held in January by the Foundation.[2] The name "March of Dimes" for the fundraising campaign was coined by entertainer Eddie Cantor as a play on the popular newsreel feature of the day, The March of Time.[3] Along with Cantor, many top Hollywood, Broadway, radio, and television stars served as promoters of the charity. When Roosevelt died in office in 1945, he was commemorated by placing his portrait on the dime. By a happy coincidence, this was the only coin in wide circulation which had a purely allegorical figure (Mercury) on the obverse. To put Roosevelt on any other coin would have required displacing another president. Over the years, the name "March of Dimes" became synonymous with that of the charity and was officially adopted in 1979. One of 12 Eddie Cantor caricatures by Frederick J. Garner for a 1933 Brown & Bigelow advertising card set. ... A newsreel is a documentary film that is regularly released in a public presentation place containing filmed news stories. ... The March of Time was a newsreel that was shown in movie theaters from 1935 - 1951. ... ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ...


For its first 17 years, the March of Dimes provided support for the work of many innovative and practical polio researchers and virologists. In the post-World War II years, the number of polio cases in the United States increased sharply, making the cause even more urgent. Then, on April 12, 1955, the March of Dimes held a news conference following the announcement to the world at the University of Michigan that a polio vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk was both safe and effective.[4] The largest clinical trial in U.S. history, involving more than 1.8 million schoolchildren, had shown the vaccine to be 80 to 90 percent effective in preventing paralytic polio. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914 – June 23, 1995) was an American biologist and physician best known for the research and development of the first effective polio vaccine (the eponymous Salk vaccine). ...


After supporting the development of two successful vaccines against polio (both Jonas Salk's and Albert Sabin's research were partly funded by the March of Dimes), the organization, rather than going out of business, decided in 1958 to use its charitable infrastructure to serve mothers and babies with a new mission: to prevent premature birth, birth defects and infant mortality. The organization accomplishes this with programs of research, community services, education, and advocacy, along with the annual Ron Gilreath's March on Babies. Albert Sabin, creator of the oral polio vaccine. ... In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ...


Current activities

Today in the USA, March of Dimes funds researchers are working in biochemistry, microbiology, developmental biology, genetics, pediatrics, and many other fields. Along the way, it has helped support special neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) designed to treat sick babies; drug treatments to replace surgery for babies with a common heart defect; and folic acid education and food fortification to prevent neural tube defects, among other advances. The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... In the developing vertebrate nervous system, the neural tube is the precursor of the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord. ...


March of Dimes has hosted March for Babies, formerly known as WalkAmerica, annually since 1970, helping to raise more than $1.7 billion to fund research and programs to prevent premature birth. In most systems of human pregnancy, the condition, premature birth (also known as a preterm birth), occurs when the baby is born within sooner than 36 weeks of completed gestation. ...


As of April 2007, Tom Bergeron is the national celebrity spokesperson. Tom Bergeron (born May 6, 1955 in Haverhill, Massachusetts) is an American television personality and a popular one-time game show host, best known to the public as the host of Americas Funniest Home Videos, which he has hosted since 2001, as well as the TV game show Hollywood...


Animal experiments

Some of the research conducted by March of Dimes involves laboratory animals. Organizations, such as PETA and PCRM, have raised concerns about the use of animals in experiments conducted by March of Dimes.[5][6][7] March of Dimes asserts that it supports the use of non-animal research alternatives, whenever possible, but it "could not fulfill its mission to improve the health of babies by preventing birth defects and infant death" without supporting research involving animals.[8] For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ...


Criticism

The March of Dimes has been cited as an example of bureaucracy for not disbanding after it achieved its mission of eliminating polio.[9] The organization's new mission, "to improve the health of babies", is significantly more open-ended and may justify March of Dimes' existence indefinitely. This article is about the sociological concept. ...


Conversely, however, it may be regarded as a positive example of an organization successfully reinventing itself after its original rationale became history.[10]


Charity Navigator has given the organization a rating of two out of four stars based on its financial filings.[11] Charity Navigator is an independent, non-profit organization that evaluates American charities. ...


Further reading

  • Rose, David W. (2003). March of Dimes. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0738512532. 

References

  1. ^ Valdés, María Isabel (2000). Marketing to American Latinos: A Guide to the In-Culture Approach. Paramount Market Publishing, 83. ISBN 0967143926. 
  2. ^ Rose, David W. (2003). March of Dimes. Arcadia Publishing, 9. ISBN 0738512532. 
  3. ^ Helfand, William H.; Jan Lazarus and Paul Theerman (August 2001). ""…So That Others May Walk": The March of Dimes". American Journal of Public Health 91 (8): 1190. 
  4. ^ Edward Epstein (April 12, 2005). Polio vaccine's golden anniversary. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  5. ^ MarchOfCrimes: A critical website run by PETA. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  6. ^ We oppose March of Dimes Animal Tests. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  7. ^ Reform the March of Dimes. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  8. ^ Research Involving Animals. March of Dimes. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  9. ^ Greenwald, Howard P. (2007). Organizations: Management Without Control. Sage Publications, Inc., 369. ISBN 1412942470. 
  10. ^ Problems end, solutions go on. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
  11. ^ Charity Navigator Rating - March of Dimes. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.

The American Journal of Public Health (AJPH) is a peer reviewed monthly journal of the American Public Health Association (APHA). ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals logo People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is an animal rights organization based in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) is a non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C., that promotes preventive medicine, conducts clinical research, and encourages higher standards for ethics and effectiveness in research. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Official website

 
 

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