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Encyclopedia > Marburg virus
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Marburg virus
Marburg virus
Marburg virus particles, approx. 100,000x magnification
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Filoviridae
Genus: Marburgvirus
Species: Lake Victoria Marburgvirus
Marburg Virus Disease
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 A98.3
ICD-9 078.89
DiseasesDB 7835
eMedicine ped/2406 
MeSH C02.782.417.560

The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Both the disease and virus are related to Ebola and originate in Uganda and Eastern Congo. The zoonosis is of unknown origin, but bats are suspected.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Families Paramyxoviridae Rhabdoviridae Filoviridae Bornaviridae The Mononegavirales are an order of viruses comprising species that have a non-segmented, negative sense RNA genome. ... Genera Marburgvirus Ebolavirus Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... A sampling of Bacillus anthracis—Anthrax A biological agent is an infectious disease that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the... Ebola is both the common term used to describe a group of viruses belonging to genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, and the common name for the disease which they cause, Ebola hemorrhagic fever. ... Zoonosis (pronounced ) is any infectious disease that may be transmitted from other animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to animals (the latter is sometimes called reverse zoonosis). ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ...


In the spring of 2005, the virus attracted widespread press attention for an outbreak in Angola. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

The Marburg virus

The viral structure is typical of filoviruses, with long threadlike particles which have a consistent diameter but vary greatly in length from an average of 800 nanometers up to 14,000 nm, with peak infectious activity at about 790 nm. Virions (viral particles) contain seven known structural proteins. While nearly identical to Ebola virus in structure, Marburg virus is antigenically distinct from Ebola virus — in other words, it triggers different antibodies in infected organisms. It was the first filovirus to be identified. Marburg virus was briefly described in the book written by Richard Preston entitled The Hot Zone. Genera Marburgvirus Ebolavirus Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Ebola is both the common term used to describe a group of viruses belonging to genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, and the common name for the disease which they cause, Ebola hemorrhagic fever. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Genera Marburgvirus Ebolavirus Filoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... Richard Preston (b. ... The Hot Zone, A Terrifying True Story is a best-selling 1994 non-fiction bio-thriller by Richard Preston describing the origins of and incidents involving the hemorrhagic fevers caused by Ebola and Marburg viruses. ...


Infection

Because many of the signs and symptoms of Marburg hemorrhagic fever are similar to those of other infectious diseases, such as malaria or typhoid, diagnosis of the disease can be difficult, especially if only a single case is involved. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ...


The disease is spread through bodily fluids, including blood, excrement, saliva, and vomit. Early symptoms are often non-specific, and usually include fever, headache and myalgia after an incubation period of 3-9 days. After five days, a macropapular rash is often present on the trunk. Later-stage Marburg infection is acute and can include jaundice, pancreatitis, weight loss, delirium and neuropsychiatric symptoms, hemorrhaging, hypovolemic shock and multi-organ dysfunction with liver failure most common. Accounts of external hemorrhaging from bodily orifices are pervasive in popular references to the disease but are in fact rare. Time course varies but symptoms usually last for one to three weeks until the disease either resolves or kills the infected host. The fatality rate is between 23-25%. [2] [3] Bodily fluids are fluids, which are generally excreted or secreted from the human body. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Feces (also spelled faeces or fæces) are the waste products from the digestive tract expelled through the anus during defecation. ... Saliva is the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and some animals. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia (also hypovolaemia) is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In a typical mammalian body such as the human body, the body orifices are: the nostrils, for breathing and the associated sense of smell the mouth, for eating and vocalizations such as speech the ear canals, for the sense of hearing the anus, for defecation the urethra, for urination (and...


If a patient survives, recovery is usually prompt and complete, though it may be prolonged in some cases. These symptoms may include inflammation or secondary infection of various organs, including: orchitis (testicles), hepatitis (liver), transverse myelitis (spinal cord), uveitis (eyes), or parotitis (salivary glands). Orchitis is an often very painful condition of the testicles involving inflammation, swelling and frequently infection. ... The testicle (from Latin testis, meaning witness [1], plural testes) or ballock is the male generative gland in animals. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Transverse myelitis is a neurological disorder caused by a loss of the myelin encasing the spinal cord, also known as demyelination. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Uveitis specifically refers to inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, termed the uvea but in common usage may refer to any inflammatory process involving the interior of the eye. ... A human eye Eyes are organs of vision that detect light. ... Parotitis is an inflammation of one or both parotid glands. ... For the toad wart, see parotoid gland. ...


Treatment and prevention

There is no specific antiviral therapy indicated for treatment Marburg, and hospital care is usually supportive in nature. Hypotension and shock may require early administration of vasopressors and haemodynamic monitoring with attention to fluid and electrolyte balance, circulatory volume, and blood pressure. Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) patients tend to respond poorly to fluid infusions and may develop pulmonary edema. In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ...


Caregivers require barrier infection control measures including double gloves, impermeable gowns, face shields, eye protection, leg and shoe coverings.


A few research groups are working on drugs and vaccines to fight the virus. In 1998, a group at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) published the first peer reviewed article detailing the development of the first experimental Marburg virus vaccine demonstrated to completely protect animals from lethal Marburg virus infection[4] Following, in 2002, Genphar, a company doing research for the United States Army's biodefense program, announced that an experimental vaccine protected animals from a high dose of Marburg virus. The tests were conducted by the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). According to the company, all animals in the control group died within days whereas all animals that received the regular dosage of the vaccine were fully protected. The company has moved on to non-human primate trials. [citation needed] Late in 2003, the US government awarded the company a contract worth $8.4 million for what was described as "a multivalent Ebola, Marburg filovirus vaccine program". [citation needed] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... It has been suggested that Blockbuster drug be merged into this article or section. ... USAMRIID banner The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID, pronounced U-Sam-Rid) is a military research institute for medicine based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland used for research of infectious disease that may have defensive applications against biological warfare that would protect the citizens of... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Biodefense refers to short term, local, usually military measures to restore biosecurity to a given group of persons in a given area — in the civilian terminology, it is a very robust biohazard response. ... The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases is based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In June 2005 scientists at Canada's National Microbiology Laboratory announced that they had also developed vaccines for both Marburg and Ebola that showed significant promise in primate testing. Studies on mice also suggested that the vaccine might be an effective treatment for the disease if it is administered shortly after a patient is infected. To make the vaccines the scientists fused a surface protein from the viruses they hope to protect against onto an animal virus - vesicular stomatitis - which is thought to be of no threat to humans.[5] In the rhesus macaque monkey model of the disease, the vaccine is effective even when given after infection with the virus.[6] The National Microbiology Laboratory (NML) is located in the Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health in Winnipeg, Manitoba. ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ...


Early outbreaks

This virus was first documented in 1967, when 31 people became ill in the German town of Marburg, after which it is named, as well as in Frankfurt am Main and the then Yugoslavian city of Belgrade. The outbreak involved 25 primary infections, with 7 deaths, and 6 secondary cases, with no deaths. The primary infections were in laboratory staff exposed to the Marburg virus while working with monkeys or their tissues. The secondary cases involved two doctors, a nurse, a post-mortem attendant, and the wife of a veterinarian. All secondary cases had direct contact, usually involving blood, with a primary case. Both doctors became infected through accidental skin pricks when drawing blood from patients. Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Marburg is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the Lahn river. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... // A nurse is a health care professional who is engaged in the practice of nursing. ... Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The outbreak was traced to infected African grivets of the species Cercopithecus aethiops taken from Uganda and used in developing polio vaccines. The monkeys were imported by Behringwerke, a Marburg company founded by the first winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Emil von Behring. The company, which at the time was owned by Hoechst, was originally set up to develop sera against tetanus and diphtheria. Binomial name Chlorocebus aethiops Linnaeus, 1758 The grivet is an Old World monkey with long white tufts of hair along the sides of the face. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... Type Species Simia aethiops Linnaeus, 1766 Species Chlorocebus sabaceus Chlorocebus aethiops Chlorocebus djamdjamensis Chlorocebus tantalus Chlorocebus pygerythrus Chlorocebus cynosuros The vervet monkeys or green monkeys are medium-sized primates from the family of Old World monkeys. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ... The term company may refer to a separate legal entity, as in English law, or may simply refer to a business, as is the common use in the United States. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Emil Adolf von Behring (March 15, 1854 - March 31, 1917) was born at Hansdorf, Germany. ... Hoechst AG was a company focusing on life sciences, specifically pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and animal health. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ...


In 1975, three people in the South African town of Johannesburg were infected by the Marburg virus by a man returning from Zimbabwe, resulting in one death. Two similar cases in 1980 and 1987 occurred in Kenya after European visitors went to Kitum Cave. Both later died. The next major outbreak occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo from 1998 to 2000, where 123 of 149 cases were fatal. This outbreak originated with miners in Durba and Watsa in Orientale, Congo. Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kitum Cave is a lava tube cave in Mount Elgon National Park in Kenya. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Orientale (also Oriental) (formerly Haute-Zaire) is a province of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ...


2004-2005 outbreak in Angola

In early 2005, the World Health Organization began investigating an outbreak of a then-undiagnosed hemorrhagic fever in Angola, which was centered around the northeastern Uige Province. The disease may have surfaced as early as March 2004 in a crowded children's ward. A doctor noted that a child, who subsequently died, was displaying signs of hemorrhagic fever. By October, the death rate on the ward went from three to five children a week to three to five a day. On March 22, 2005, as the death toll neared 100, the cause of the illness was identified as the Marburg virus. By July, 2005, Angola's health department reported more than 300 cases were fatal. There were cases in 7 of 18 provinces but the outbreak was mostly confined to Uige province. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Uige is a province of Angola. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to the World Health Organization, 80% of the deaths in the early stages of the Angola outbreak were children under the age of 15, but that dropped to 30 to 40% in later stages. [citation needed] The virus has also taken a toll on health care workers, including 14 nurses and two doctors.


There has been speculation that the high death rate among children in the early stages of this outbreak may simply be due to the initial appearance of the disease in the children's ward at the Uige hospital. Early death rates (prior to effective monitoring) are meaningless as only the dead are adequately counted.


Deaths by month

Monthly Reported Deaths
Month year Deaths reported during month
October 2004 3
November 2004 4
December 2004 7
January 2005 20
February 2005 30
March 2005 47
April* 2005 123
May** 2005 80
  • *This represents the difference between WHO reports of April 1 and April 29..
  • **This represents the difference between WHO reports of April 29 and May 27.

Deaths by week

Weekly Reported Deaths
WHO report date Cumulative deaths Deaths during prior week
April 1,2005 132 n/a
April 8, 2005 180 48
April 15, 2005* 207 27
April 22, 2005 244 37
April 29, 2005 255 11
May 6, 2005 277 22
May 11, 2005** 276 -1****
May 18, 2005 311 35
May 27, 2005*** 335 24
June 7, 2005*** 357 22
June 17, 2005*** 356 -1****
July 13, 2005 312 *****
  • *No WHO report was issued between the 15th and the 21st. This appears associated with the administrative reclassification of cases.
  • **Not an entire week. No WHO report for the 13th.
  • ***Over a week.
  • **** No explanation provided for the decrease in cumulative deaths.
  • ***** Report states that a review of data has led to a downward estimation in total deaths.

2007 Uganda cases

Marburg haemorrhagic fever (MHF) has been confirmed in a 29-year-old man in Uganda. The man became symptomatic on 4 July 2007, was admitted to hospital on 7 July and died on 14 July. The disease was confirmed by laboratory diagnosis on 30 July.


The man had had prolonged close contact with a 21-year-old co-worker with a similar illness to whom he had been providing care. The 21-year-old had developed symptoms on 27 June and was hospitalized with a haemorrhagic illness. He then recovered and was discharged on 9 July. Both men were working in a mine in western Uganda.


Control efforts

Countries with direct airline links, such as Portugal, screened passengers arriving from Angola. The Angolan government asked for international assistance, pointing out that there are only about 1,200 doctors in the entire country, with some provinces having as few as two. Health care workers also complained about a shortage of personal protection equipment such as gloves, gowns and masks. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) reported that when their team arrived at the provincial hospital at the center of the outbreak, they found it operating without water and electricity. Contact tracing is complicated by the fact that the country's roads and other infrastructure have been devastated after nearly three decades of civil war and the countryside remains littered with land mines. Médecins Sans Frontières ( (help· info)) (English: Doctors Without Borders) is a secular humanitarian-aid non-governmental organisation best known for its projects in war-torn regions and developing countries facing endemic disease. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. ... The Angolan War of Independence (1961–1989) was a multi-faction struggle for control of Angola. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ...


One innovation in the Angola outbreak has been the use of a portable laboratory operated by a team of Canadian doctors and technicians. The lab, which can operate on a car battery, has eliminated the need to send blood samples outside the country for testing. This has reduced the turnaround time from days or weeks to about four hours. Lead-acid car battery A car battery is a type of electric battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile. ...


Meanwhile, at Americo Boa Vida Hospital in the capital, Luanda, an international team prepared a special isolation ward to handle cases from the countryside. The ward was able to accommodate up to 40 patients, but there was some resistance to medical treatment. Because the disease almost invariably resulted in death, some people came to view hospitals and medical workers with suspicion and there was a brief period when medical teams were attacked in the countryside.[7] This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Luanda (formerly called Loanda) is the largest city and capital of Angola. ...


A specially-equipped isolation ward at the provincial hospital in Uige was reported to be empty during much of the epidemic, even though the facility was at the center of the outbreak. WHO was forced to implement what they described as a "harm reduction strategy" which entailed distributing disinfectants to affected families who refused hospital care. An education effort and an increase in the number of Angolan health practitioners in the outbreak area, resulted in improved relations with the community. [citation needed]


As a weapon

The former Soviet Union reportedly had a large biological weapons program involving Marburg. The development was conducted in Vector Institute under leadership of Dr. Ustinov who accidentally died from the virus. The samples of Marburg taken from Ustinov's organs were more powerful than the original strain. New strain called "Variant U" had been successfully weaponized and approved by Soviet Ministry of Defense in 1990. [8] United States bioterrorism grants are funding the research to develop vaccine for Marburg virus.[9] Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... The Vector State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, also known as the Vector Institute is a highly sophisticated biological research center in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Fiction

In the TV series Millennium, a prion version of the Marburg virus breaks out in Seattle, killing (amongst others) Frank Black's wife, Catherine. Millennium is a grim, suspenseful American television series, produced by Chris Carter (creator of The X-Files), and set during the years leading up to the dawn of the new millennium. ... A prion (IPA: [1] ) — short for proteinaceous infectious particle (-on by analogy to virion) — is a type of infectious agent composed only of protein. ...


In the TV series Medical Investigation, episode 17, the Marburg virus breaks out in New York City, killing 5 from a total of 6 infected persons. Medical Investigation was an American Medical drama television series that began September 1, 2004, on NBC. It ran for twenty one hour-long episodes before being cancelled in 2005. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


In the TV series ReGenesis, episode 11, the source of an earlier Marburg outbreak is investigated. ReGenesis is a Canadian television program produced by The Movie Network and Movie Central in conjunction with Shaftesbury Films. ...


In the Sarah Jane Smith series of audios (Series Two) the virus is used as a weapon by a Doomsday cult. here The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ...


In the novel Cain by James Byron Huggins, the being known as Cain, a genetically engineered monster, is infected with a modified form of the Marburg virus which, if released, could potentially wipe out humanity.


In the short story Hell Hath Enlarged Herself by Michael Marshall Smith, one of the original scientists is infected with Marburg in an attempt to test ImmunityWorks ver. 1.0. Michael Marshall Smith (born May 3, 1965) is a British novelist, screenwriter and short story writer. ...


In the novel Gravity by Tess Gerritsen, an outbreak of Marburg virus is suspected on the International Space Station. The infectious agent turns out to be not Marburg, but rather a chimera virus. Tess Gerritsen is a physician as well as an international and New York Times-bestselling thriller writer. ... Chimera (virus) defined The term chimera was originally defined as an individual organism whose body contained cell populations from different zygotes or an organism that developed from portions of different embryos. ...


In the novel Microserfs by Douglas Coupland, the Marburg virus is mentioned several times as a metaphor for the spread of information through the internet. Douglas Coupland (born December 30, 1961) is a major Canadian fiction writer as well as a playwright and visual artist. ...


In the film WW3: Winds of Terror (2001), directed by Robert Mandel, a variant of Marburg becomes a deadly bioweapon that can be used by terrorists.


In The novel Resident Evil: Caliban Cove a mad Scientist named Nicolas Griffith is referred to by Rebecca Chambers as having infected two men with the Marburg virus after they had been led to believe it was a harmless cold virus.


Further reading (Nonfiction)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Ebola is both the common term used to describe a group of viruses belonging to genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, and the common name for the disease which they cause, Ebola hemorrhagic fever. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Dr. Kanatjan Alibekov (or Americanized Ken Alibek) was born in Kazakhstan. ... The Hot Zone, A Terrifying True Story is a best-selling 1994 non-fiction bio-thriller by Richard Preston describing the origins of and incidents involving the hemorrhagic fevers caused by Ebola and Marburg viruses. ... Richard Preston (b. ... Laurie Garrett is a writer, author of the popular book The Coming Plague which discussed the vulnerability of the world to disease due to the lack of attention and funding given to health. ... William H. McNeill (born 1917, Vancouver, British Columbia) is a Canadian historian. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ...

References

  1. ^ Deadly Marburg virus discovered in fruit bats (English). Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
  2. ^ CDC special pathogins branch- Marburg page. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  3. ^ World Health Orginization - Report after final death 2004-2005 outbreak. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  4. ^ USAMRID report on immunizations on guinea pigs that prevented infection. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  5. ^ Jones SM, Feldmann H, Stroher U et al. (2005). "Live attenuated recombinant vaccine protects nonhuman primates against Ebola and Marburg viruses". Nature Med 11 (7): 786–90. DOI:10.1038/nm1258. PMID 15937495. 
  6. ^ Daddario-DiCaprio KM, Geisbert TW, Ströher U, et al.. "Postexposure protection against Marburg haemorrhagic fever with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human primates: an efficacy assessment". Lancet 367 (9520): 1399–1404. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68546-2. 
  7. ^ World Health Orginization workers attacked in angola. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  8. ^ Alibek,K. and S. Handelman. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World - Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran it. 1999. Delta (2000) ISBN 0-385-33496-6
  9. ^ Scientists Race to Find Vaccine for Ebola, Marbug -richard knox - NPR. Retrieved on 2007-05-03.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Marburg virus definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms (846 words)
Marburg virus: The virus that causes Marburg hemorrhagic fever, a disease which affects both humans and non-human primates.
Caused by a genetically unique zoonotic (that is, animal-borne) RNA virus of the filovirus family, its recognition led to the creation of this virus family.
Marburg virus was first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany and in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia).
Marburg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1281 words)
Marburg is the seat of the oldest Protestant university in the world, the University of Marburg, or Philipps-Universität, founded in 1527.
Marburg is famous for its medieval churches, especially the Elisabethkirche, one of the two or three first purely Gothic churches North of the Alps outside of France and thus an incunable of Gothic architecture in Germany, as well as for the castle.
The city's name is also connected to a filovirus, the Marburg virus, which was first noticed and described during an outbreak in the city due to workers being accidentally exposed to infected green monkey tissue at the city's main industrial plant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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