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Encyclopedia > Marbled Polecat
iMarbled polecat
Adult marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna) Photographer: Laszlo Szabo-Szeley ©AVESTOURS
Adult marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna) Photographer: Laszlo Szabo-Szeley ©AVESTOURS
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Mustelidae
Subfamily: Mustelinae
Genus: Vormela
Species: Vormela peregusna
Binomial name
Vormela peregusna
(Güldenstädt, 1770)

The marbled polecat (V. peregusna) is a small mammal belonging to the monotypic genus Vormela within the Mustelinae subfamily. Vormela is from the German word Wormlein. The term peregusna comes from pereguznya, which is Ukrainian for polecat. Marbled polecats are generally found in the dryer areas and grasslands of south-eastern Europe to western China. Like other members of Mustelinae, it can emit a strong smelling secretion from anal sacs under the tail when threatened. Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera Subregnum Eumetazoa Placozoa Orthonectida Rhombozoa Radiata (unranked) Ctenophora Cnidaria Bilateria (unranked) Acoelomorpha Myxozoa Superphylum Deuterostomia Chordata Hemichordata Echinodermata Chaetognatha Xenoturbellida Superphylum Ecdysozoa Kinorhyncha Loricifera Priapulida Nematoda Nematomorpha Onychophora Tardigrada Arthropoda Superphylum Platyzoa Platyhelminthes Gastrotricha Rotifera Acanthocephala Gnathostomulida Micrognathozoa Cycliophora Superphylum Lophotrochozoa Sipuncula Nemertea Phoronida Bryozoa Entoprocta... {{{subdivision_ranks}}} See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Orders Multituberculata (extinct) Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Cingulata Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Leptictida (extinct) Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia (extinct) Notoungulata... Families 17, See classification The diverse and interesting order Carnivora IPA: (from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ... Mustelinae is a Subfamily of Family Mustelidae and includes wolverines, weasels, ferrets, martens, and similar carnivorous mammals of Order Carnivora. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Monotypic refers to a taxonomic group with only one subgroup at the next (smaller) taxonomic level, for example, a monotypic genus has only one species. ... Mustelinae is a Subfamily of Family Mustelidae and includes wolverines, weasels, ferrets, martens, and similar carnivorous mammals of Order Carnivora. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...

Contents

Description

Ranging in length from 29–35 cm (head and body), the marbled polecat has a short muzzle and very large, noticeable ears. Limbs are short and claws are long and strong. While the tail is long, with long hair, overall pelage is short. Black and white marks the face, with a black stripe across the eyes and white markings around the mouth. Dorsally, pelage is yellow and heavily mottled with irregular reddish or brown spots. Tail is dark brown with a yellowish band in the mid-region. The ventral region and limbs are a dark brown.[1] Female mass ranges from 295g up to 600g and males can range from 320g to 715g. [2] [3] [4] Browse images In mammals, pelage is the hair, fur, or wool that covers the animal. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? Mass is a property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ...


Distribution

The marbled polecat is found from south-east Europe to Russia and China. Range includes Bulgaria, Romania, Asia Minor, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Iran, Afghanistan, north-western Pakistan, Yugoslavia, Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan and north to the Altai Steppes in Siberia[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] In 1998 marbled polecat was recorded on the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt[15] World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Siberian Federal District (dark red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


Behavior

Marbled polecats are most active during the morning and evening. [16] [17] [18] Their eye sight is weak and they rely on a well-developed sense of smell. [19] Vocalization is limited and consists of shrill alarm cries, grunts and a submissive long shriek. [20]


Marbled polecats are solitary and move extensively through their 0.5 to 0.6 km² home range. They generally only stay in a shelter once. When they encounter each other they are usually aggressive. [21]


When alarmed, marbled polecats raise up on their legs while arching their back and curling their tail over their back with long tail hair erect. They also raise their head, bare their teeth and give shrill, short hisses. [22] [23] If threatened, they can expel a foul-smelling secretion from enlarged anal glands under their tail. [24]


To dig, such as when they are excavating dens, marbled polecats dig out earth with their forelegs while anchoring themselves with their chin and hind legs. They will use their teeth to pull out obstacles such as roots. [25]


Reproduction

Marbled polecats mate during March to early June. [26] [27] Gestation can be long and variable (243 days to 327 days). [28] Parturition has been observed to occur from late January to mid-March. [29] [30] Delayed implantation allows marbled polecats to time the birth of their cubs for favorable conditions, such as when prey is abundant. [31] Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy used by close to 100 different mammals in seven different orders. ... Prey can refer to: Look up Prey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A prey animal eaten by a predator in an act called predation. ...


Litter size ranges from 4–8 cubs. [32] [33] [34] Only females care for the young. Cubs open their eyes at around 38–40 days, are weaned at 50–54 days and leave their mother (disperse) at 61–68 days. [35]


Ecology

Habitat

Marbled polecats are found in open desert, semi-desert, semi-arid rocky areas in upland valleys and low hill ranges, steppe country and arid subtropical scrub forest. They avoid mountainous regions. [36] [37] [38] Marbled polecats have been sighted in cultivated areas such as melon patches and vegetable fields. [39] Erg Chebbi, Morocco In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. ... Semi-arid generally describes regions that receive low annual rainfall (25 to 50 cm /10 to 20 in) and generally have scrub or grass vegetation. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step, Kazakh: - dala), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being...


Burrows of large ground squirrels or similar rodents such as the great gerbil (Rhombomys opinus) and Libyan jird are used by marbled polecats for resting and breeding. They may also dig their own dens or live in underground irrigation tunnels. [40] [41] In the winter, marbled polecats will line their den with grass. [42] Genera Many: see text. ...


Diet

Marbled polecats are known to eat ground squirrels, Libyan jirds (Meriones libycus), Armenian hamsters (Cricetulus migratorius), voles, mole rats (Spalax lecocon ehrenbergi), house mice (Mus musculus), and other rodents, small hares, birds, lizards, frogs, insects (e.g. snails, beetles, crickets) as well as fruit and grass. [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] They are also recorded as taking small domestic poultry such as chickens and pigeons as well as stealing smoked meat and cheese. [48] [49] [50] Genera Many: see text. ... Genera see text This article is about the animal. ... A vole is a small rodent resembling a mouse but with a stouter body; a shorter, hairy tail; and smaller ears and eyes. ... Subfamilies see text Spalacidae is a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea. ... Binomial name Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus musculus is the common house mouse. ... Genera Lepus Caprolagus Pronolagus Hares and Jackrabbits belong to family Leporidae, and mostly in genus Lepus. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... This page is about Lizards, the order of reptile. ... Genera See text. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Symphypleona - globular springtails Subclass Archaeognatha (jumping bristletails) Subclass Dicondylia Monura - extinct Thysanura (common bristletails) Subclass Pterygota Diaphanopteroidea - extinct Palaeodictyoptera - extinct Megasecoptera - extinct Archodonata - extinct Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Blattodea (cockroaches) Mantodea (mantids) Isoptera (termites) Zoraptera Grylloblattodea Dermaptera (earwigs) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets... Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan Class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... A tree cricket sitting on a leaf. ... Alternate uses: Chicken (disambiguation) Binomial name Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758) A chicken is a type of domesticated bird which is usually raised as a type of poultry. ... Pigeon redirects here. ...


Conservation Status

V. peregusna is listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species[51] and was assessed vulnerable in the 1996 evaluation. It is thought that decline in marbled polecat populations may be due to habitat destruction (cultivation), rodenticide and reduction in available prey[52] [53] [54] The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. ... Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... Rat poisons are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rats. ... Prey can refer to: Look up Prey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A prey animal eaten by a predator in an act called predation. ...


Remarks

The marbled polecat had once been sought for its fur; also known as fitch in the fur trade.


In 1945 it was recorded that Kabul shopkeepers kept marbled polecats to exterminate rodents. [55] Kabul, Kâbl (locally: کابل), is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population of approximately 3 million people. ...


Other names for the marbled polecat include aladzhauzen (Turkmen); berguznya (Kuban); chokha (Kalmuck); fessyah (stinky in Arabic); abulfiss (Arabic); Ma-nai-ho (Chinese); myshovka (Terek cossak dialect); pereguznya, pereguzka, perevishchik (Ukrainian); perevozchik (southern Russia); perewiaske (Polish); suur-tyshkan (Kirgiz); putois marbré, putois de Pologne (French); Tigeriltis (German); mottled polecat; sarmatier; Syrian marbled polecat and tiger polecat. [56] Kuban (Russian: ) is a region of Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between Ukraine and the Caucasus. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Terek (Те́рек) is a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flowing through Georgia and Russia into the Caspian Sea. ... Kirghiz (also Kyrgyz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ...


There are several subspecies of V. peregusna, including:

  • V. p. alpherakyi
  • V. p. euxina
  • V. p. negans
  • V. p. pallidor
  • V. p. peregusna
  • V. p. syriaca

References

  1.   Akhtar, S. A. (1945). "On the habits of the marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna". Journal of Bombay Natural History Society 45: 142.
  2.   Bodenheimer, F.S. (1935). Animal life in Palestine: an introduction to the problems of animal ecology and zoogeography. Jerusalem, Israel: L. Mayer.
  3.   Ben-David, M. (1988). The biology and ecology of the Marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna syriaca, in Israel. Israel: Tel-Aviv University.
  4.   Ben-David, M. (1998). "Delayed implantation in the marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna syriaca (Carnivora, Mustelidae): evidence from mating, parturition, and post-natal growth". Mammalia 62: 269-283.
  5.   Gorsuch, W. (2005). "Vormela peregusna". Mammalian Species 779: 1-5.
  6.   Harrison, D. (1968). Mammals of Arabia Volume 2. London: Ernest Benn Limited.
  7.   Kryštufek, B. [2000]. “Mustelids in the Balkans – small carnivores in the European biodiversity hot-spot.”, H. J. Griffiths: Mustelids in a modern world: management and conservation aspects of small carnivore and human interactions. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 281-294.
  8.   Lewis, R. E., J. H. Lewis, and S. I. Atalla (1968). "A review of Lebanese mammals: Carnivora, Pinnipedia, Hyracoidea, and Artiodactyla". Journal of Zoology London 154: 517-531.
  9.   MacDonald, D.; Barrett, P. (1993). Mammals of Britain and Europe. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
  10.   Milenković; M. Pavnović, H. Abel, and H. J. Griffiths [2000]. “The marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna (Güldenstaedt 1770) in FR Yugoslavia and elsewhere”, H. J. Griffiths: Mustelids in a modern world: management and conservation aspects of small carnivore and human interactions. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 321-329.
  11.   Novikov, G.A. (1962). Carnivorous mammals of the fauna of the USSR. Jerusalem: Israeli Program of Scientific Translation,.
  12.   Özkurt, Ş., M. Sözen, N. Yiğit, and E. Çolak (1999). "A Study on Vormela peregusna Guldenstaedt, 1770 (Mammalia: Carnivora) in Turkey". Turkish Journal of Zoology 23: 141-144.
  13.   Qumsiyeh, M. B., Z. S. Amr, and D. M. Shafei (1993). "Status and conservation of carnivores in Jordan". Mammalia 57: 55-62.
  14.   Rifai, L. B., D. M. Al Shafee, W. N. Al Melhim, and Z. S. Amr (1999). "Status of the marbled polecat, Vormela peregusna (Gueldenstaedt, 1770) in Jordan". Zoology in the Middle East 17: 5-8.
  15.   Roberts, T.J. (1977). The mammals of Pakistan. England: Ernest Benn Limited.
  16.   Saleh, M. A., and M. Basuony (1998). "A contribution to the mammalogy of the Sinai Peninsula". Mammalia 62: 557-575.
  17.   Schreiber, A.; R. Wirth, M. Riffel, and H. van Rompaey. (1989). Weasels, civets, mongooses and their relatives: an action plan for the conservation of mustelids and viverrids. Broadview, Illinois: Kelvyn Press, Inc.
  18.   Stroganov, S.U. (1969). Carnivorous mammals of Siberia. Jerusalem, Israel: Israeli Program of Scientific Translation.
  19.   Mustelid Specialist Group 1996. Vormela peregusna ssp. peregusna. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 April 2006.

See also

Subfamilies Lutrinae Melinae Mellivorinae Taxidiinae Mustelinae Mustelidae is a family of carnivorous mammals. ...

External links

  • Centre for Russian Nature Conservation
  • Noah’s Ark Centre for the Recovery of Endangered Species
  • Foundation for Wildlife Conservation in Romania

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Marbled polecat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1034 words)
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Marbled polecats are found in open desert, semi-desert, semi-arid rocky areas in upland valleys and low hill ranges, steppe country and arid subtropical scrub forest.
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