FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Marathon (sport)
Modern day marathon runners
Modern day marathon runners

The word marathon refers to a long-distance road running event of 42.195 km (26 miles 385 yards or 46145 yards). ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (4257x2918, 2019 KB) Summary Caption: 041031-N-0502D-398 Washington, D.C. (Oct. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (4257x2918, 2019 KB) Summary Caption: 041031-N-0502D-398 Washington, D.C. (Oct. ... Road running or road racing is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road (as opposed to track and cross country running). ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the yard. ...


The name "marathon" comes from the legend of Pheidippides, a Greek soldier who, according to legend, ran from the town of Marathon to Athens to announce that the Persians had been defeated in the Battle of Marathon, and died shortly after. There is no evidence that any such event took place; according to the Greek historian Herodotus, Pheidippides ran from Athens to Sparta. The legend that he ran from Marathon to Athens was invented by later writers and appears in Plutarch's On the Glory of Athens in the 1st century AD. The International Olympic Committee estimates the distance from the Marathon battlefield to Athens as 34.5 km (21.4 miles). Pheidippides (Greek: Φειδιππιδης, sometimes given as Phidippides or Philippides), hero of Ancient Greece, is the central figure in a myth which was the inspiration for the modern sporting event, the marathon. ... Marathon (Greek, Modern: Μαραθώνας Marathona or Marathonas, Ancient/ Katharevousa: Μαραθών, Marathon) is a town in Greece, the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the Athenian army defeated the Persians. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα Athína IPA ) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world. ... Combatants Athens Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus Darius I of Persia, Artaphernes Strength About 10,000 No more than 20,000 (26,000 according to Herodotus) Casualties 192 dead About 6,400 dead The Battle of Marathon (490 BC) was the culmination of King Darius I of Persias first major... Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Ήροδοτος, Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... Sparta (Σπάρτη) was a city in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ...

Contents


History

1896 Olympic marathon
1896 Olympic marathon

The idea of organising the race came from Michel Bréal, who wanted to put the event on the program of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. This idea was heavily supported by Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympics, as well as the Greeks. The Greeks staged a selection race for the Olympic marathon, and this first marathon was won by Charilaos Vasilakos in 3 hours and 18 minutes. Spiridon "Spiros" Louis, a Greek shepherd, finished fifth in this race but won at the Olympics in 2 hours, 58 minutes and 50 seconds, despite stopping on the way for a glass of wine from his uncle waiting near the village of Chalandri. The women's marathon was introduced at the 1984 Summer Olympics (Los Angeles, USA). Image File history File links 1896_Olympic_marathon. ... Image File history File links 1896_Olympic_marathon. ... Michel Jules Alfred Bréal (March 26, 1832 - 1915), French philologist, was born at Landau in Rhenish Bavaria, of French parents. ... The 1896 Summer Olympics, formally called the Games of the I Olympiad, were the first modern Summer Olympic Games and the first Games since Roman emperor Theodosius I banned the Ancient Olympic Games in AD 393 as part of the Christian campaign against paganism. ... 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Baron Pierre de Coubertin Pierre de Coubertin (January 1, 1863-September 2, 1937), born as Pierre de Frédy, was a French pedagogue and historian, but is best known as the founder of the modern Olympic Games. ... Spiridon Spiros Louis (January 12, 1873 – March 26, 1940) was a Greek water-carrier who won the marathon at the 1896 Summer Olympics, thereby becoming a national hero. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of grapes and grape juice. ... The Games of the XXIII Olympiad were held in 1984 in Los Angeles, United States. ... This article is about the largest city in California. ...


Distance

Year Distance (km)
1896 40
1900 40.26
1904 40
1906 41.86
1908 42.195
1912 40.2
1920 42.75
Since
1924
42.195

The length of a marathon was not fixed, since all that was important was that all athletes competed on the same course. The exact length of an Olympic marathon varied depending on the route established for each venue.


The choice of distance was somewhat arbitrary. The first Olympics in 1896 had a marathon distance of 40 km. The starting point for the 1908 Olympic marathon in London was modified so that the Royal Family could have a good view and the length happened to be 42.195 km (26 miles 385 yards). For the next Olympics in 1912, the length was changed to 40.2 km and changed again to 42.75 km for the 1920 Olympics. Of the first 7 Olympic games, there were 6 different marathon distances between 40 and 42.75 km (40 km being used twice). London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... For months before the Olympic Games, runners relay the Olympic Flame from Olympia to the opening ceremony. ...


A fixed distance of 42.195 km was adopted in 1921 by the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) as the official marathon distance. The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics (known in the US as track and field). It was founded in 1912 at its first Congress in Stockholm, Sweden by representatives from 17 national athletics federations as the International Amateur Athletics Federation. ...


World records and "world's best"

World records were not officially recognised by the IAAF until 1 January 2004; previously, the best times for the Marathon were referred to as the 'world best'. Courses must conform to IAAF standards for a record to be recognised. However, marathon routes still vary greatly in elevation, course, and surface, making exact comparisons impossible. Typically, the fastest times are set over relatively flat courses near sea level, during good weather conditions and with the assistance of pacesetters. A world record is the best performance in a certain discipline, usually a sports event. ... The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics (known in the US as track and field). It was founded in 1912 at its first Congress in Stockholm, Sweden by representatives from 17 national athletics federations as the International Amateur Athletics Federation. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics (known in the US as track and field). It was founded in 1912 at its first Congress in Stockholm, Sweden by representatives from 17 national athletics federations as the International Amateur Athletics Federation. ...


The world record time for men over the distance is 2 hours 4 minutes and 55 seconds, set in the Berlin Marathon by Paul Tergat of Kenya on September 28, 2003 (ratified as the world record by the IAAF on 1st January 2004), an improvement of 20 minutes and 44 seconds since 1947 (Marathon world best progression). The world record for women was set by Paula Radcliffe in the London Marathon on 13 April 2003, in 2 hours 15 minutes and 25 seconds. This time was set using male pacesetters - the fastest time by a woman without using a male pacesetter ('woman-only') was also set by Paula Radcliffe, again during the London Marathon, with a time of 2 hours 17 minutes and 42 seconds set on 17 April 2005. The Berlin Marathon is an annual marathon in Berlin, the capital of Germany. ... Paul Tergat (born June 17, 1969) is regarded by many as the father of Kenyan long distance running. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (272nd in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) is the international governing body for the sport of athletics (known in the US as track and field). It was founded in 1912 at its first Congress in Stockholm, Sweden by representatives from 17 national athletics federations as the International Amateur Athletics Federation. ... External link interactive graph on mens and womens marathon times plus race descriptions ... Paula Radcliffe Paula Jane Radcliffe (born December 17, 1973) is a British long-distance runner. ... Competitors at the London Marathon 2003 Crowds turn out on the Victoria Embankment to watch the London Marathon 2005 Fun runners surge out of the Blackfriars Bridge underpass onto the Victoria Embankment; four hours down and two miles to go The London Marathon is a marathon race that has been... 13 April is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


All-time men's best marathon times under 2h 10'30"


All-time women's best marathon times under 2h 30'00"


The Olympic traditions

Since the modern games were founded, it has become a tradition for the men's Olympic marathon to be the last event of the athletics calendar, with a finish inside the Olympic stadium, often within hours of the closing ceremonies. This tradition was further enhanced by a much older tradition in the 2004 Summer Olympics, as the long-established route from Marathon to Athens ended at Panathinaiko Stadium, the venue for the 1896 Summer Olympics. The 2004 Summer Olympics are officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad (the 28th Summer Olympic Games). ... Marathon (Greek, Modern: Μαραθώνας Marathona or Marathonas, Ancient/ Katharevousa: Μαραθών, Marathon) is a town in Greece, the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the Athenian army defeated the Persians. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα Athína IPA ) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world. ... The 1896 Summer Olympics, formally called the Games of the I Olympiad, were the first modern Summer Olympic Games and the first Games since Roman emperor Theodosius I banned the Ancient Olympic Games in AD 393 as part of the Christian campaign against paganism. ...


Running a marathon

Completing a marathon is often considered to be a superhuman effort, but many coaches believe that it is possible for anyone willing to put in the time and effort.


Glycogen and "the wall"

Carbohydrates that a person eats are converted by the liver and muscles into glycogen for storage. Glycogen burns quickly to provide quick energy. Runners can store about 8 MJ or 2,000 kcal worth of glycogen in their bodies, enough for about 30 km - 20 miles of running. Many runners report that running becomes noticeably more difficult at that point. When glycogen runs low, the body must then burn stored fat for energy, which does not burn as efficiently. When this happens, the runner will experience dramatic fatigue. This phenomenon is called bonking or hitting the wall. The aim of training for the marathon, according to many coaches, is to maximize the limited glycogen available so that the fatigue of the "wall" is not as dramatic. Carbohydrates are chemical compounds that contain oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon atoms. ... Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... The joule (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy, or work. ... A calorie is a unit of measurement for energy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fatigue is a state, following a period of mental or physical activity, characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment, usually accompanied by a feeling of weariness, sleepiness, or irritability. ... Bonk is a jargon term used by endurance athletes, primarily cyclists, to describe a condition when athletes glycogen stores in the liver and muscles are depleted, resulting in a major performance drop. ...


Training

For most runners, the marathon is the longest run they have ever attempted. Many coaches believe that the most important element in marathon training is the long run. Usually recreational runners try to reach a maximum of about 30 km - 20 miles at one time and about 60 km - 40 miles a week when training for the marathon. More experienced marathoners may run a longer distance, and more miles or kilometers during the week. Greater weekly training mileages can offer greater results in terms of distance and endurance, but also carries a greater risk of training injury. Some elite marathon runners will have weekly mileages of over 160 km - 100 miles per week. (Daniels, 2005)


A good training program lasts a minimum of five or six months, with a gradual increase in the distance run every two weeks. Many trainers including Dr. Daniels recommend a weekly increase in mileage of no more than 10%. It is also often advised to maintain a consistent running program for six months or so before beginning a marathon training program to allow the body to adapt to the new stresses. (Burfoot, 1999)


During marathon training, it is considered important to give your body adequate recovery time. If fatigue or pain is felt, it is recommended to take a break for a couple of days or more to let your body heal. Overtraining is a condition that results from not getting enough rest to allow the body to recover from difficult training. It can actually result in a lower endurance and speed and place a runner at a greater risk for injury. (Daniels 2005)


Before the race

During the last two or three weeks before the marathon, runners typically reduce their weekly training (typically by as much as 50%-75% of peak distance) and take at least a couple of days of complete rest to allow their bodies to recover for a strong effort. Many marathoners carbo-load (increase their carbohydrate intake while holding total caloric intake constant) during the week before the marathon to allow their bodies to store more glycogen. This phase of training is also called tapering. In sports, carbohydrate loading, also known as carbo-loading, is a strategy employed by endurance athletes such as marathon runners to maximize the storage of glycogen in the muscles. ...


Immediately before the race, many runners will refrain from eating solid food to avoid digestive problems. They will also ensure that they are fully hydrated and that they urinate and defecate beforehand. Many races will have portable toilet facilities, but lines can be long, especially at larger marathons. Light stretching before the race is believed by many to help keep muscles limber.


During the race

Coaches recommend trying to maintain as steady a pace as possible when running a marathon. Many novice runners make the mistake of trying to "bank time" early in the race by starting with a quicker pace than they can actually hope to maintain for the entire race. This strategy inevitably results in the runner bonking before completing the race. Bonk is a jargon term used by endurance athletes, primarily cyclists, to describe a condition when athletes glycogen stores in the liver and muscles are depleted, resulting in a major performance drop. ...


Carbohydrate-based "energy" gels such as PowerGel are also a good way to get more energy, but these should be diluted with water when taken; otherwise they can cause nausea and vomiting. Honey is a natural, economical substitute for energy gels. Nausea (Greek Ναυτεία) is the sensation of unease and discomfort in the stomach with an urge to vomit. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Honey Honey (born May 26, 1990 in New York City, America) is an international supermodel. ...


To achieve a good time, runners must be prepared to abandon normal standards of hygiene. For example, most serious runners will crap right in their pants instead of stopping to find a toilet. Hygiene is the maintenance of healthy practices. ...


Typically, there is a maximum allowed time of about six hours after which the route is closed, although some larger marathons keep the course open considerably longer. For those running just as a hobby, times under four hours are considered good. Having a target time makes it easier to keep a steady pace.


Water consumption issues

Water and light sports drinks such as Gatorade offered along the race course should be consumed regularly in order to avoid potentially dangerous dehydration. However, in the extreme, overconsumption of water could dangerously dilute the blood, leading to hyponatremia that may result in a coma and even death. A patient suffering hyponatremia can be given a small volume of a concentrated salt solution intravenously, to raise sodium concentrations in blood. Sports drinks are not administered. Since taking and testing a blood sample takes time, runners should weigh themselves before running and put the numbers on their bibs. If anything goes wrong, the first aid workers can use the weight information to tell if the patient had taken too much water. The amount of water required to cause complications from drinking too much is about a gallon (4L) or more depending on the person. This typically only happens in situations where a runner is overly concerned about being dehydrated and overdoes the effort to drink enough. A sports drink is a beverage which is supposed to rehydrate athletes, as well as restoring electrolytes, sugar, and other nutrients. ... Gatorade logo Gatorade Xtra Gatorade is a non-carbonated sports drink marketed by PepsiCo. ... Dehydration is the removal of water (hydor in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia exists when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Flash point Non-flammable R/S statement R: none S: none RTECS number VZ4725000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... First aid is a series of simple, life-saving medical techniques that a non-doctor or layman can be trained to perform. ... The gallon (abbr. ...


An elite runner never has the time to drink too much water. However, a slower hobby runner can easily drink too much water during the four or more hours. If the 4+ hour runner drinks about 4-6 ounces of fluids every 15-20 minutes, good hydration levels are maintained, without the fear of hyponatremia. Alternating water and sports drinks helps maintain a good balance, and eating salty snacks can be helpful as well.


After the marathon

It is normal to experience muscle soreness after the marathon. This is usually attributed to microscopic tears in the muscles. Most runners will take about three weeks to recover to pre-race condition. The immune system is reportedly suppressed for a short time. Studies have indicated that an increase in vitamin C in a runner's post-race diet decreases the chance of sinus infections, a relatively common condition, especially in ultramarathons. Changes to the blood chemistry may lead physicians to mistakenly diagnose heart malfunction. An ultramarathon is any running event longer than the marathon length of 42. ...


Marathon races

See also: List of marathon races

More than 800 annual marathons are organized in most countries of the world. Some of the largest and most prestigious races, in Boston, New York City, Chicago, London and Berlin, form the biannual World Marathon Majors series, a world cup for elite runners. Other notable large marathons include Honolulu, Los Angeles and Paris. Many cities around the world organise an annual marathon run, including: Athens Classic Marathon - http://www. ... The 100th running of the Boston Marathon, 1996 The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon sporting event hosted by the city of Boston, Massachusetts on Patriots Day, the third Monday of April. ... Late in the 2005 marathon, on Central Park West near the finish line. ... The Chicago Marathon is one of the largest marathon road races in the world and one of the fastest growing. ... Competitors at the London Marathon 2003 Crowds turn out on the Victoria Embankment to watch the London Marathon 2005 Fun runners surge out of the Blackfriars Bridge underpass onto the Victoria Embankment; four hours down and two miles to go The London Marathon is a marathon race that has been... The Berlin Marathon is an annual marathon in Berlin, the capital of Germany. ... The World Marathon Majors is a championship style competition that will start in 2006 including the New York City, Boston, Chicago, London and Berlin marathons. ... The Honolulu Marathon is one of the worlds largest marathons. ... Seal of the Los Angeles Marathon The Los Angeles Marathon is an annual marathon held in Los Angeles, California. ... The Paris Marathon is an annual marathon foot-race which takes place from the Champs Elysées heading towards the Place de la Concorde and continuing through the city to finish at Foch Avenue. ...


Notable marathon runners

This is a list of elite athletes notable for their performance in marathoning. For a list of people notable in other fields who have also ran marathons, see List of marathoners. This is a list of notable people who have completed a marathon. ...


Men

Abebe Bikila (August 7, 1932 - October 25, 1973) was a Ethiopian runner and two time Olympic marathon champion from Ethiopia. ... Waldemar Cierpinski (born August 3, 1950) is a former East German athlete and two time Olympic Champion in the marathon. ... Derek Clayton an Australian athlete, but born in Lancashire, England and raised in Northern Ireland. ... Steve Jones is a Welsh athlete, former world marathon champion. ... Juma Ikangaa (born July 19, 1957 in Tanzania) is a world-class marathon runner, a sentimental favorite in Boston after finishing second three years in a row at the Boston Marathon from 1988-1990. ... Khalid Khannouchi (born December 22, 1971 in Meknes, Morocco) is a marathon athlete who now represents the United States of America. ... Cogwagee (Thomas Longboat) (1887–1949) was an Onondaga distance runner from the Six Nations Indian reserve near Brantford, Ontario. ... Carlos Lopes (born February 18, Portuguese athlete, winner of the marathon race at the 1984 Summer Olympics. ... Spiridon Spiros Louis (January 12, 1873 – March 26, 1940) was a Greek water-carrier who won the marathon at the 1896 Summer Olympics, thereby becoming a national hero. ... Jim Peters is a New Zealand politician who was born in Kawakawa. ... William Henry Bill Rodgers (born December 23, 1947 in Hartford, Connecticut) is an American runner who is best known for his victories in the Boston Marathon and the New York City Marathon in the late 1970s. ... Evans Rutto Evans Rutto is a Kenyan athlete who won the 2003 Chicago Marathon with debutant world record time of 2:05:50, the 2004 London Marathon, and the 2004 Chicago Marathon. ... Alberto Salazar (born August 7, 1958) is an American marathon runner of the 1980s. ... Toshihiko Seko (born July 15, 1956) is a Japanese long-distance runner, a world-class marathon competitor in the 1980s. ... Frank Shorter (born October 31, 1947) is a former American athlete and winner of the marathon race at the 1972 Summer Olympics. ... Paul Tergat (born June 17, 1969) is regarded by many as the father of Kenyan long distance running. ... Ed Whitlock (b. ... Emil Zátopek   listen? (September 19, 1922 - November 22, 2000) was a Czech athlete and Olympic gold medalist in long distance running. ...

Women

Deena Kastor (née Drossin) (1973-) is an American distance runner. ... Ingrid Kristiansen (born March 21, 1956), from Norway, was the best female long distance runner in the second half of the 1980s. ... Rosa Mota is a Portuguese former marathonist, one of her countrys foremost athletes. ... Catherine Ndereba (born: July 31, 1972) is a Kenyan athlete. ... Mizuki Noguchi (Japanese: 野口みずき, born July 3, 1978) is a female long-distance athlete (track and field) from Japan. ... Paula Radcliffe Paula Jane Radcliffe (born December 17, 1973) is a British long-distance runner. ... Fatuma Roba (born December 18, 1973) is an long-distance runner from Addis Abeba, Ethiopia most known for winning an gold medal in the marathon race at the 1996 Summer Olympics. ... Joan Benoit Samuelson (born May 16, 1957) was an American marathon runner who won gold at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. ... Naoko Takahashi (born May 6, 1972 in Gifu) is a Japanese long-distance runner competing mainly in marathon. ... Grete Waitz (born October 1, 1953) is a former Norwegian marathon runner who won nine New York City Marathons between 1978 and 1988. ...

See also

In athletics, a half marathon is a race over half the distance of a marathon, i. ... The Man versus Horse Marathon is an annual marathon, with human and (mounted) equine contestants, which takes place in the Welsh town of Llanwrtyd Wells. ... Mountain Marathon - an extended fell race, usually over two days and often with a strong orienteering element. ... An ultramarathon is any running event longer than the marathon length of 42. ... A ski marathon is a long distance cross-country skiing race. ...

References

  • Daniels, J. PhD (2005). Daniels' Running Formula, 2nd Ed., Human Kinetics Publishing. ISBN 0736054928.
  • Burfoot, A. Ed (1999). Runner's World Complete Book of Running : Everything You Need to Know to Run for Fun, Fitness and Competition, Rodale Books. ISBN 1579541860.

External links

  • IAAF International Association of Athletic Federations
  • Hyponatremia among Runners in the Boston Marathon by Christopher S.D. Almond, M.D., M.P.H., Andrew Y. Shin, M.D., Elizabeth B. Fortescue, M.D., Rebekah C. Mannix, M.D., David Wypij, Ph.D., Bryce A. Binstadt, M.D., Ph.D., Christine N. Duncan, M.D., David P. Olson, M.D., Ph.D., Ann E. Salerno, M.D., Jane W. Newburger, M.D., M.P.H., and David S. Greenes, M.D.
  • American Family Physician: Sudden death in young athletes: screening for the needle in a haystack among other statistics, this reference link mentions the estimate that there is approximately 1 fatality per every 50000 people finishing a marathon.


Athletic events
Sprints: 60m | 100m | 200m | 300m | 400m; ".." Hurdles: 100m Hurdles | 110m Hurdles | 400m Hurdles

Middle distance: 800m | 1500m | 3000m | steeplechase Sprints are races in athletics. ... 60 metres is a sprint event in athletics. ... 100 m is the classic sprints race distance. ... 200 m is a sprint running event. ... 400 m is a common track running event. ... Hurdling is running over obstacles. ... Hurdling is running over obstacles. ... Middle distance track events are track races longer than sprints up to (and arguably including) 5000 meters. ... 800m is a common track running event. ... The 1500 metres is a premier middle distance race. ... The steeplechase was initially a form of horse-racing, but the term is now applied to similar other events as well. ...


Long distance: 5,000m | 10,000m | half marathon | marathon | ultramarathon Long-distance track event races require runners to balance their energy. ... 5000 metres, a popular running distance also known as a 5 km, colloquially five-K. This distance is typical for all types of running races; from cross-country, to the road, to the track. ... ... In athletics, a half marathon is a race over half the distance of a marathon, i. ... An ultramarathon is any running event longer than the marathon length of 42. ...


Relays: 4 x 100m, 4 x 400m; ".." Race walking During a relay race, members of a team take turns swimming or running (usually with a baton) parts of a circuit or performing a certain action. ... The 4 × 100 metres relay or sprint relay is an athletics track event run in lanes over one lap of the track with four runners completing 100 meters each. ... The 4 x 400 metres relay or long relay is an athletics track event in which teams comprise four runners who each complete 400 metres or 1 lap. ... It has been suggested that Lifting be merged into this article or section. ...


Throws: Discus | Hammer | Javelin | Shot put The discus throw is an athletics (track and field) throwing event. ... Insert non-formatted text herehrown is a heavy steel ball attached to a wire rope, maximum 4 ft (1. ... The javelin throw is an athletics (track and field) throwing event where the object to be thrown is the javelin, a spear-like object made of metal, fibreglass and in some javelins, carbon fibre. ... Shot put The shot put is an athletics (track and field) event involving putting (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy metal ball, also called the shot, as far as possible. ...


Jumps: High jump | Long jump | Pole vault | Triple jump Gold medal winner Ethel Catherwood of Canada scissors over the bar at the 1928 Summer Olympics. ... Officials watch as Salim Sdiri of France jumps at the GE Money Grand Prix in Helsinki, July 2005. ... Pole vaulting is an athletics event where competitors use a long, flexible pole as an aid to leap over a bar, similar to the high jump, but at much greater heights. ... The triple jump is an athletics (track and field) event, previously also known as hop, step and jump, whose various names describe the actions a competitor takes. ...


Combination: Men's pentathlon | Women's pentathlon | Modern pentathlon | Heptathlon | Decathlon The pentathlon (as opposed to the modern pentathlon) was an athletics event in the Olympic Games and other Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece. ... The womens pentathlon was contested in the Olympics from 1964 until 1980, and it was replaced in the 1984 games with the heptathlon. ... Competitors in the final round of the Mens Modern Pentathlon pull for the finish line at the Goudi Sports Complex on August 26, 2004. ... A heptathlon is a sportive contest made up of seven events (from the Greek hepta (seven) and athlon (contest)). More specifically, the term heptathlon refers to an athletic (track and field) event consisting of seven events. ... A decathlon is a sportive contest made up of 10 events. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Marathon (sport) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1811 words)
The name "marathon" comes from the legend of Pheidippides, a Greek soldier who, according to legend, ran from the town of Marathon to Athens to announce that the Persians had been defeated in the Battle of Marathon, and died shortly after.
The legend that he ran from Marathon to Athens was invented by later writers and appears in Plutarch's On the Glory of Athens in the 1st century AD.
The length of a marathon was not fixed, since all that was important was that all athletes competed on the same course.
MSN Encarta - Marathon (sport) (677 words)
Marathons have become increasingly popular around the world, and the larger events—such as races held in Boston, Massachusetts; London, England; Berlin, Germany; and New York City—attract thousands of runners and spectators annually.
The marathon's name and distance date back to the ancient story of a Greek soldier named Pheidippides who, according to legend, ran from the village of Marathon to Athens in 490 bc to deliver the news of a military victory.
The standard marathon distance used today was first introduced at the 1908 Olympic Games in London, England, and was the distance from Windsor Castle to the city’s Olympic stadium.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m