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Encyclopedia > Maratha Empire
Flag of the Maratha Empire
Flag of the Maratha Empire
Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. 1760.

The Maratha Empire (Marathi: मराठा साम्राज्य Marāṭhā Sāmrājya; also transliterated Mahratta) or the Maratha Confederacy was a Hindu state located in present-day India that existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the empire comprised territories covering 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of South Asia. Image File history File links Acap. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Marathas. ... Image File history File links Marathas. ... Marathi (मराठी ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western India (Maharashtrians). ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...

Contents

History

Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

After a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Shivaji founded an independent Maratha nation in 1674 from the Bijapur Sultanate, with his capital at Pune. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a large, but vulnerably located kingdom. The Mughals invaded, fighting an unsuccessful 25 year long war from 1682 to 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji, ruled as emperor until 1749. During his reign, Shahu appointed a Peshwa (prime minister) as head of government under certain conditions. The Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire, while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. Covering much of the subcontinent, the Maratha Empire kept the British forces at bay during much of the 18th Century, until dissension between the peshwas and their sardars removed the state's cohesion. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 806 KB) Summary This magnificant statue of Maharaj commands its view at the top of Raigad. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 806 KB) Summary This magnificant statue of Maharaj commands its view at the top of Raigad. ... Guerrilla warfare (also guerilla) is the unconventional warfare and combat with which small group combatants (usually civilians) use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to combat a larger, less mobile formal army. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) (19-02-1627 to 03-04-1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... Bijapur is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... , Pune (Marathi: पुणे ,pronunciation: ) is a city located in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ... Shrimant Shahu Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1682-1749) was the fourth ruler of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Shivaji, and was officially the Raja of Satara. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) (19-02-1627 to 03-04-1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... The Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 The Peshwa(Marathi:पेशवे or पेशवा) (also known in Marathi as Peshwe) were Brahmin Prime Ministers to the Maratha Chattrapatis (Kings), who began commanding Maratha armies and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. ... For the moth genus, see Satara (moth). ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


The Maratha Empire was at its height in the 18th century under Shahu and the Peshwa Baji Rao-I. Losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 halted further expansion of the empire and reduced the power of the peshwas. The empire gave way to a loose confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune; the Sindhias (originally "Shindes") of Malwa and Gwalior); the Holkars of Indore; the Bhonsles of Nagpur; and the Gaekwads of Baroda. A rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar dominated the confederation's affairs into the early 19th century, as did the clashes with the British and the British East India Company in the three Anglo-Maratha wars. In the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the last Peshwa, Baji Rao II, was defeated by the British in 1818. Most of the former Maratha Empire was absorbed by British India, although some of the Maratha states persisted as quasi- independent princely states until India became independent in 1947. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... , Pune (Marathi: पुणे ,pronunciation: ) is a city located in the western Indian state of Maharashtra. ... The Sindhia, also spelled Scindia , Sindia, or Shinde are a prominent Maratha family in India. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Gwalior State was an Indian kingdom ruled by the Sindhia dynasty. ... Jaswant Rao Holkar 1798-1811 AD Holkar of Indore Silver, Nazrana Rupee Minted at Indore in 1807 AD (1222 AH) Weight: 14. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर / Marathi:इंदूर),   is the commercial capital of the Malwa region and the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... The Bhonsle or Bhonsale were a prominent Maratha clan who served as rulers of several states in India . ... The Kingdom of Nagpur was a kingdom in east-central India founded by the Gond rulers of Deogarh in the early 18th century. ... The Gaekwad or Gaekwar (once rendered as Guicowar) (Gujarati: ગાયકવાડ ; Marathi: गायकवाड) was a Maratha dynasty that ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the mid-eighteenth century until 1947. ... Vadodara, also known as Baroda, is the third-most populated town in Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat (the three towns with a population of over 1 million in Gujarat). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The Anglo-Maratha Wars were three wars fought in India between the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company. ... The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817 - 1818) was a final and decisive conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India, which left Britain in control of most of India. ... Baji Rao II was the last Peshwa of the Maratha Confederacy. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ...


Shivaji (c. 1627-1680)

History of South Asia and History of India

Stone Age 70,000–3300 BCE
· Mehrgarh Culture · 7000–3300 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE
Vedic Period 1500–500 BCE
· Iron Age · 1200–500 BCE
Maha Janapadas 700–300 BCE
Magadha Empire 684 BCE–320 BCE
· Maurya Empire · 321–184 BCE
Middle Kingdoms 230 BCE–1279 CE
· Satavahana Empire · 230 BCE–199 CE
· Kushan Empire · 60–240
· Gupta Empire 40–550
· Pala Empire · 750–1174
· Chola Empire · 250 BCE–1279
Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596
· Delhi Sultanate · 1206–1526
· Deccan Sultanates · 1490–1596
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346
Kakatiya Empire 1083–1323
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1565
Mughal Empire 1526–1707
Sikh Empire 1801-1849
Maratha Empire 1674–1818
Colonial Era 1757–1947
Modern States 1947 onwards
Nation histories
Bangladesh · Bhutan · Republic of India
Maldives · Nepal · Pakistan · Sri Lanka
Regional histories
Bengal · Himachal Pradesh · Orissa
Pakistani Regions · North India · South India · Tibet
Specialised histories
Dynasties · Economy · Indology · Language · Literature
Maritime · Military · Science and Technology · Timeline
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The Hindu Marathas long had lived in the Desh region around Satara, in the western portion of the Deccan plateau, where the plateau meets the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats mountains. They had resisted incursions into the region by the Muslim Mughal rulers of northern India. Under their leader Shivaji, the Maratha freed themselves from the Muslim sultans of Bijapur to the southeast, and became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory, sacking the Mughal port of Surat in 1664. Shivaji proclaimed himself emperor (Chhatrapati) in 1674. The Marathas had spread and conquered some of central India by Shivaji's death in 1680, but later lost it to the Mughals and the British. According to historian Prof. Shejwalkar, Shivaji was inspired by the great Vijayanagara Empire, a bulwark against Muslim invasion of South India. The victories of the then king of Mysore, Kanthirava Narasaraja Wodeyar against the Sultan of Bijapur also inspired Shivaji[1]. Shivaji was the first king in India whose vision encompassed the dev (god), desh (country) and dharma (religion). This article is about the History of South Asia. ... The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BC. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... The // (c. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The Vedic period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the history of India when the sacred Vedic Sanskrit texts such as the Vedas were composed. ... The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707... The Sikh Empire (from 1801-1849) was formed on the foundations of the Sikh Confederacy by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. ... It has been suggested that European colonies in India be merged into this article or section. ... This article is under construction. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire Further information: History of Bangladesh The history of Bengal (including Bangladesh and West Bengal) dates back four millennia. ... Himachal Pradesh has been inhabited by human beings since the dawn of civilization. ... // Orissa has a history spanning a period of over 3000 years. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the territory... The history of South India covers a span of over two thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. ... Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... Science and technology in ancient India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ... A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Desh (hindi:देश) Derived from Sanskrit word (देशः) this word means country In the context of the history of Maharashtra, the Marathi people, and of the Maratha Empire or Maratha Confederacy, founded by Shivaji as the Hindawi Swaraj (Hindu Free State), Desh is an abbreviation... For the moth genus, see Satara (moth). ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... The Agasthiyamalai range of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a mountain range in India. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) (19-02-1627 to 03-04-1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ...


Sambhaji (c 1681-1689)

Shivaji had two sons: Sambhaji and Rajaram. Sambhaji, the elder son, was short-tempered and not very popular among the courtiers. In 1681, Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore. To nullify any Rajput-Maratha alliance, as well as to resume his long relations with the Deccan Sultanates, in 1682 the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb himself headed south with his entire imperial court, administration, and an army of about 400,000 troops which proceeded to conquer the sultanates of Bijapur and Golconda. During his eight years leading the Marathas, Sambhaji never lost a battle or a fort to Aurangzeb. However, in 1688, Sambhaji was cruelly killed by Aurangzeb. Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: धर्मवीर संभाजी राजे भोसले) (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the eldest son of the Maratha Empire founder Shivaji, and succeeded him as the Chhatrapati or the High Protector of the Maratha Empire. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: धर्मवीर संभाजी राजे भोसले) (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the eldest son of the Maratha Empire founder Shivaji, and succeeded him as the Chhatrapati or the High Protector of the Maratha Empire. ... The Wodeyar dynasty (also spelt as Wadiyar-by the British and the Royal family members themselves and also as Odeyar by some) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Mysore from 1399 to 1947, until the independence of India from British rule and the subsequent unification of... , For other uses, see Mysore (disambiguation). ... Rajput is a Hindu Kshatriya caste. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ... Golconda is a ruined city and fortress 11 km west of the city of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh state, India. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: धर्मवीर संभाजी राजे भोसले) (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the eldest son of the Maratha Empire founder Shivaji, and succeeded him as the Chhatrapati or the High Protector of the Maratha Empire. ... Aurangzeb (Persian: ), also known as Alamgir I (Persian: ), (November 3, 1618 – March 3, 1707) was the ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1658 until his death. ...


Rajaram & Tarabai (c 1689-1707)

Rajaram, Sambhaji's brother, now assumed the throne. Satara, whence Rajaram had moved the capital, came under siege in 1700 and eventually was surrendered to the Mughals. At about the same time Rajaram died. His widow, Tarabai, assumed control in the name of her son Shivaji. Although she offered a truce, this was rejected by the emperor. Then Tarabai heroically led the Marathas against the Mughals; by 1705, they had crossed the Narmada River and entered Malwa, then in Mughal possession. Shrimant Rajaram Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1670-1700 AD) was the younger son of the first Chattrapati Shivaji, step-brother of the second Chattrapati Sambhaji, and took over the Maratha Empire as the third Chattrapati after his brother was tortured and killed by Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb in 1689. ... For the moth genus, see Satara (moth). ... Tarabai (1675-1761) was a queen of the Maratha Empire in India. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... The Narmada or Nerbudda is a river in central India. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


Malwa was a decisive battle for the Maratha empire. The Mughals lost their eminent position on the Indian subcontinent forever and the subsequent Mughal Emperors became titular kings. The Marathas emerged as victorious after a long drawn-out and fiercely-fought battle. The soldiers and commanders who participated in this war achieved the real expansion of the Maratha empire. The victory also set the foundations for the imperial conquests achieved later, under the servants Peshwas. Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 The Peshwa(Marathi:पेशवे or पेशवा) (also known in Marathi as Peshwe) were Brahmin Prime Ministers to the Maratha Chattrapatis (Kings), who began commanding Maratha armies and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. ...


Shahu (c 1707-1749)

After Emperor Aurangzeb's death in 1707, Shahuji, son of Sambhaji (and grandson of Shivaji), was released by Bahadur Shah, the next Mughal emperor. He immediately claimed the Maratha throne and challenged his aunt Tarabai and her son. This promptly turned the now-spluttering Mughal-Maratha war into a three-cornered affair. Shrimant Shahu Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1682-1749) was the fourth ruler of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Chhatrapati Shivaji, and was officially the Raja of Satara (now in state of Maharashtra, India). ... Two Mughal Emperors have had the name of Bahadur Shah: Bahadur Shah I Bahadur Shah Zafar II. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. 1760(shown here in yellow)
Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. 1760
(shown here in yellow)

In 1713 Farrukhsiyar had declared himself Mughal emperor. His bid for power had depended heavily on two brothers, known as the Saiyids, one of whom had been the governor of Allahabad and the other the governor of Patna. However, the brothers had a falling-out with the emperor. Negotiations between the Saiyids and Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, a civilian representative of Shahu, drew the Marathas into the vendetta against the emperor. Download high resolution version (1154x1485, 222 KB)Extent of the Maratha Empire in 1760 Copyright Information: From The Public Schools Historical Atlas edited by C. Colbeck. ... Download high resolution version (1154x1485, 222 KB)Extent of the Maratha Empire in 1760 Copyright Information: From The Public Schools Historical Atlas edited by C. Colbeck. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Furrukhsiyar (or Farrukhsiyar, 1683–1719) was the mughal emperor of India from 1713. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... , Paá¹­nā   (Hindi: पटना) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. ...


An army of Marathas commanded by Parsoji Bhosale, and Mughals, marched up to Delhi unopposed and managed to depose the emperor. In return for this help, Balaji Vishwanath managed to negotiate a substantial treaty. Shahuji would have to accept Mughal rule in the Deccan, furnish forces for the imperial army, and pay an annual tribute. But in return he received a firman, or imperial directive, guaranteeing him Swaraj, or independence, in the Maratha homeland, plus rights to chauth and sardeshmukh (amounting to 35 percent of the toal revenue) throughout Gujarat, Malwa, and the now six provinces of the Mughal Deccan. This treaty also released Yesubai, Shahuji's mother, from Mughal prison. Firman refers to a royal mandate or decree issued from a sovereign in Western Asian countries such as Iran under the Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi or the Ottoman rulers. ... Self rule is the term used to described a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ... , Gujarat (Gujarati: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Yesubai was the wife of Sambhaji, a Maratha emperor. ... Shrimant Shahu Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1682-1749) was the fourth ruler of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Chhatrapati Shivaji, and was officially the Raja of Satara (now in state of Maharashtra, India). ...


Peshwa Baji Rao I (1720-1740)

Maratha Emperors (1674-1818)
Shivaji (1674 - 1680)
Sambhaji (1680 - 1689)
Rajaram (1689 - 1700)
Queen Tarabai (1700 - 1707)
Shahu (1707 - 1749)
Ramaraja (1749 - 1777)
The Peshwas (Prime Ministers) (1712-1818)
Balaji Vishwanath
(1712-1719)
Bajirao
(1719-1740)
Balaji Bajirao
(1740-1761)
Madhavrao Ballal
(1761-1772)
Narayanrao
(1772-1773)
Raghunathrao
(1773-1774)
Sawai Madhavrao
(1774-1795)
Bajirao II
(1795-1818)

After Balaji Vishwanath's death in April, 1719, his son, Baji Rao I was appointed as Peshwa by Chattrapati Shahuji, one of the most lenient emperors. Shahuji possessed a strong capacity for recognising talent, and actually caused a social revolution by bringing capable people into power irrespective of their social status. This was an indication of a great social mobility within the Maratha empire, enabling its rapid expansion. Chhatrapati also Chatrapati is an honorific or title for a ruler. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) (19-02-1627 to 03-04-1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... Sambhaji Raje Bhonsle (Marathi: धर्मवीर संभाजी राजे भोसले) (May 14, 1657 – March 11, 1689) was the eldest son of the Maratha Empire founder Shivaji, and succeeded him as the Chhatrapati or the High Protector of the Maratha Empire. ... Events First Portuguese governor was appointed to Macau The Swedish city Karlskrona was founded as the Royal Swedish Navy relocated there. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Shrimant Rajaram Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1670-1700 AD) was the younger son of the first Chattrapati Shivaji, step-brother of the second Chattrapati Sambhaji, and took over the Maratha Empire as the third Chattrapati after his brother was tortured and killed by Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb in 1689. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Cleopatra is one of the most well-known queens regnant A queen regnant (plural queens regnant) is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ... Tarabai (1675-1761) was a queen of the Maratha Empire in India. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Shrimant Shahu Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1682-1749) was the fourth ruler of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Shivaji, and was officially the Raja of Satara. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Ramaraja was the fifth monarch of the Maratha Confederacy. ... Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 The Peshwa(Marathi:पेशवे or पेशवा) (also known in Marathi as Peshwe) were Brahmin Prime Ministers to the Maratha Chattrapatis (Kings), who began commanding Maratha armies and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Balaji Vishwanath - (1712 to 1721) In 1712, Shahuji died and his minister or Peshwa, Balaji Vishwanath a Brahmin took over the throne. ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Bajirao (1700-1740), was a powerful 18th century Maratha general. ... // Events January 23 - The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire April 25 - Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe June 10 - Battle of Glen Shiel Prussia conducts Europes first systematic census Miners in Falun, Sweden find an apparently petrified body of Fet-Mats Israelsson in an unused... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... Nanasaheb Peshwa (also called Balaji Bajirao )(born 1720 or 1721 - Died 1761) was one of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Madhavrao Peshwa (born 1745 - died 1772) was the second son of Nanasaheb Peshwa. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Narayanrao Peshwa(born 1749 - 1773) became the Peshwa(1772-1773) after the death of Madhavrao Peshwa in 1772. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Raghunathrao was the younger brother of Nanasaheb Peshwa. ... 1773 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Baji Rao II was the last Peshwa of the Maratha Confederacy. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Bajirao (1700-1740), was Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the Maratha king Chhatrapati Shahu. ... Shrimant Shahu Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1682-1749) was the fourth ruler of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Chhatrapati Shivaji, and was officially the Raja of Satara (now in state of Maharashtra, India). ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Extent of the Maratha Empire ca. ...


Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Rao's death. He is also known as Thorala (Marathi for Elder) Baji Rao. Like his father, despite being a Brahmin, he took up leading his troops. During his lifetime, he never lost a battle. He is credited with expanding the Maratha Empire created by its founder, Shivaji, which reached its zenith twenty years after his death. Baji Rao is thus acknowledged as the most famous of the nine Peshwas.


Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761)

Baji Rao's son, Balaji Bajirao (Nanasaheb), was appointed as a Peshwa by Shahu. The period between 1741 and 1745 was one of comparative calm in the Deccan. Shahuji died in 1749. Nanasaheb Peshwa (also called Balaji Bajirao )(born 1720 or 1721 - Died 1761) was one of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Shrimant Shahu Shivaji Raje Bhonsle Chhatrapati Maharaj (1682-1749) was the fourth ruler of the Maratha Empire created by his grandfather, Chhatrapati Shivaji, and was officially the Raja of Satara (now in state of Maharashtra, India). ...


Nanasaheb encouraged agriculture, protected the villagers, and brought about a marked improvement in the state of the territory. Continued expansion saw Raghunath Rao, the brother of Nanasaheb, pushing into Punjab in the wake of the Afghan withdrawal after Ahmed Shah Abdali's plunder of Delhi in 1756. In Lahore, as in Delhi, the Marathas were now major players. By 1760, with a defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan, Maratha power had reached its zenith with a territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of South Asia. Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Ahmad Shah Durrani Ahmad Shah Abdali (c. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...

Eighteenth century painting of a Maratha Soldier ( by François Balthazar Solvyns)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

The Decline of the Empire

Shaniwar Wada: The palace of the Peshwas, founded by Peshwa Baji Rao I. The view looks towards the entrance gatehouse and outer walls of the palace, with a vegetable market on the open space in the foreground. Cira 1860
Shaniwar Wada: The palace of the Peshwas, founded by Peshwa Baji Rao I. The view looks towards the entrance gatehouse and outer walls of the palace, with a vegetable market on the open space in the foreground. Cira 1860

The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghans, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 13 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat. Their internal feuding cost them greatly in this battle. The battle checked Maratha expansion, prevented the capture of Delhi, and encouraged the fragmentation of the empire. Even today the phrase in Marathi, "meet your Panipat", has a similar meaning as the phrase "meet your Waterloo" does in English. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (884x712, 199 KB) Summary Photographer; Unknown Medium; Photographic print, 19x23. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (884x712, 199 KB) Summary Photographer; Unknown Medium; Photographic print, 19x23. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


After 1761, young Madhavrao Peshwa tried his best to rebuild the empire in spite of his frail health. In a bid to effectively manage the large empire, semi-autonomy was given to strongest of the knights. Thus, the autonomous Maratha states of the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore & Malwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of Gwalior (and Ujjain), Pawars of Udgir and Bhosles of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) came into being in far flung regions of the empire. Even in the Maharashtra itself many knights were given semi-autonomous charges of small districts which led to princely states like Sangli, Aundh, Miraj etc. The Gaekwad or Gaekwar (once rendered as Guicowar) (Gujarati: ગાયકવાડ ; Marathi: गायकवाड) was a Maratha dynasty that ruled the princely state of Baroda in western India from the mid-eighteenth century until 1947. ... , Vadodara (Gujarati: વડોદરા,Marathi:बडोदा)  ), also known as Baroda, is the third most-populated town in the Indian state of Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat. ... Jaswant Rao Holkar 1798-1811 AD Holkar of Indore Silver, Nazrana Rupee Minted at Indore in 1807 AD (1222 AH) Weight: 14. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर / Marathi:इंदूर),   is the commercial capital of the Malwa region and the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scindia Family of India. ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... , Ujjain   (Hindi:उज्जैन) (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri) is an ancient city of central India, in the Malwa region of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River. ... The Kingdom of Nagpur was a kingdom in east-central India founded by the Gond rulers of Deogarh in the early 18th century. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) (19-02-1627 to 03-04-1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... Tarabai (1675-1761) was a queen of the Maratha Empire in India. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , English: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


In 1775 the British East India Company, from its base in Bombay, intervened in a succession struggle in Pune, on behalf of Raghunathrao (alias Raghobadada), which became the First Anglo-Maratha War. That ended in 1782 with a restoration of the pre-war status quo. In 1802 the British intervened in Baroda to support the heir to the throne against rival claimants, and they signed a treaty with the new Maharaja recognizing his independence from the Maratha empire in return for his acknowledgement of British paramountcy. In the Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805), the Peshwa Baji Rao II signed a similar treaty. The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818), a last-ditch effort to regain sovereignty, resulted in the loss of Maratha independence: it left Britain in control of most of India. The Peshwa was exiled to Bithoor (near Kanpur, U.P.) as a pensioner of the British. The Maratha heartland of Desh, including Pune, came under direct British rule, with the exception of the states of Kolhapur and Satara, which retained local Maratha rulers. The Maratha-ruled states of Gwalior, Indore, and Nagpur all lost territory, and came under subordinate alliance with the British Raj as princely states that retained internal sovereignty under British 'paramountcy'. Other small princely states of Maratha knights were retained under the British Raj as well. The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... The First Anglo-Maratha War was the first of three Anglo-Maratha wars fought between the Great Britain and Maratha Empire in India. ... , Vadodara (Gujarati: વડોદરા,Marathi:बडोदा)  ), also known as Baroda, is the third most-populated town in the Indian state of Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat. ... The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803 - 1805) was a second conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India. ... Baji Rao II was the last Peshwa of the Maratha Confederacy. ... The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817 - 1818) was a final and decisive conflict between Britain and the Maratha empire in India, which left Britain in control of most of India. ... Bithoor (Brahmavarta) is a centre of Hindu pilgrimage. ... Kolhapur   (Marathi:कोल्हापुर) is a city situated in the south west corner of Maharashtra, India. ... For the moth genus, see Satara (moth). ... A princely state or native state was a feudal monarchy in British India ruled by a hereditary ruler, who was nominally sovereign. ...


The last Peshwa, Nana Sahib, born as Govind Dhondu Pant, was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II. He was one of the main leaders of the 1857 First War of Independence. He encouraged the people and the Indian Princes to fight against the British. Tantya Tope, his general, led the war and struck terror into the hearts of the British. Rani Lakshmibai was his childhood playmate and he had brotherly relations with her. Both of them fought against the British. He encouraged Indian soldiers to rise against the British. Though he was defeated in this war of independence his name is glorious in Indian history. The name of the Empire today is preserved in the Indian state of Maharashtra, which was created in 1960 as a Marathi-speaking state. Portrait of Nana Sahib. ... Combatants East India Company Sepoys, some princely states, Indian civilians in some areas. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lakshmibai, The Rani of Jhansi (c. ... India is a federal republic comprised of twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA:  , English: ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ...


Legacy of the Empire

Ruins of the Raigad fort, which served as a capital for Maratha Empire

Often painted as a kind of loose military organisation, the Maratha empire was actually revolutionary in nature. It did bring certain fundamental changes initiated by the genius of its founder, the celebrated Shivaji. They can be summarised as below: Image File history File links Raigad. ... Image File history File links Raigad. ...

  • Shivaji and almost all Maratha kings and generals including Peshwas.
  • Religious tolerance and religious pluralism, an important pillar of the nation-state, was belife of Shivaji.
  • The Maratha Empire was the only Indian empire which did adhere to the caste system. Here, the Brahmins (Peshwe) were the prime ministers of the Kshatriya (Maratha) emperors and lower caste Shudras (Holkars) were the trusted generals of the Brahmin Peshwas.
  • Since its start, many people of talent were brought into the leadership of the Maratha Empire which made it one of the most socially mobile regimes. Note that the ruler of Indore was a Dhangar, a tribal; the rulers of Gwalior and Baroda were from ordinary peasant families; the Peshwas of the Bhatt family were from ordinary backgrounds; and Shivaji's most trusted secretary Haider Ali Kohari was from an ordinary family.
  • Marathas militarily controlled huge tracts. Today's India is substantially the area of the Maratha confederacy.
  • The empire also created a significant navy. At its height this was led by the legendary Kanhoji Angre.

Armenian king Tigranes the Great. ... Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A nation shares a common identity, a common origin and other stuffs. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The Indian caste system is the traditional system of social stratification on the Indian Subcontinent, in which social classes are defined by a number of endogamous, hereditary groups often termed as jātis or castes. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... The Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 The Peshwa(Marathi:पेशवे or पेशवा) (also known in Marathi as Peshwe) were Brahmin Prime Ministers to the Maratha Chattrapatis (Kings), who began commanding Maratha armies and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Shudra (IAST: ) is the fourth Varna in the traditional four-section division in historic Hindu society. ... Jaswant Rao Holkar 1798-1811 AD Holkar of Indore Silver, Nazrana Rupee Minted at Indore in 1807 AD (1222 AH) Weight: 14. ... A Brahmin (anglicised from the Sanskrit adjective belonging to Brahma) also known as Brahman belonging to ; Vipra, Dvija twice-born, is considered to be the Priest class (varna) in the ancient universal Varna System and a caste found all over the world, especially India and Nepal in Indian caste system... The Maratha Empire at its peak in 1760 The Peshwa(Marathi:पेशवे or पेशवा) (also known in Marathi as Peshwe) were Brahmin Prime Ministers to the Maratha Chattrapatis (Kings), who began commanding Maratha armies and later became the hereditary rulers of the Maratha empire of central India from 1749 to 1818. ... , Indore (Hindi:इन्दौर / Marathi:इंदूर),   is the commercial capital of the Malwa region and the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... , Gwalior   is a city in Madhya Pradesh in India. ... Vadodara, also known as Baroda, is the third-most populated town in Gujarat after Ahmedabad and Surat (the three towns with a population of over 1 million in Gujarat). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bhat. ... Shivaji Bhosle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosle (Marathi: छत्रपती शिवाजी राजे भोसले) (19-02-1627 to 03-04-1680) was the founder of Maratha empire in western India in 1674. ... Maulana Haider Ali Kohari (b. ... The Marāthās (Marathi: , also Mahrattas) form an Indo Aryan group of Hindu warriors and peasants hailing mostly from the present-day state of Maharashtra, who created a the expansive Maratha Empire, covering a major part of India, in the late 17th and 18th centuries. ... Kanhoji Angre or Conajee Angria or Sarkhel Angre (? – 1729) was the first notable chief of the Maratha Navy in 18th century India. ...

Maratha rulers

The Royal House of Chhatrapati Shivaji

  • His Majesty Chhatrapati Shivaji (1630-1680)
  • His Majesty Chhatrapati Sambhaji (1657-1689)
  • His Majesty Chhatrapati Rajaram (1670-1700)
  • His Majesty Chhatrapati Shahu (alias Shivaji II, Son of Chhatrapati Sambhaji)
  • His Majesty Chhatrapati Ramaraja (nominally, grandson of His Majesty, Chhatrapati Rajaram - Queen Tarabai))

The Royal House of Kolhapur

  • Her Majesty Queen Tarabai (wife of Chatrapati Rajaram)...
  • His Majesty Chhatrapati Sambhaji (son of Chatrapati [Rajaram] from his second wife)...
  • His Majesty Chhatrapati Shahu IV of Kolhapur...

Peshwa

  • Balaji Vishwanath
  • Baji Rao I (brother Chimnaji Appa)
  • Balaji Bajirao (brother Raghunathrao, cousin Sadashivrao-bhau)
  • Peshwa Madhavrao (elder brother Vishwasrao)
  • Narayanrao Peshwa (younger brother of Madhavrao, murdered by uncle)
  • Raghunathrao Peshwa (uncle of Narayanrao, ousted in coup named "Barbhai" conspiracy)
  • Sawai Madhavrao Peshwa (son of Narayanrao)
  • Bajirao II (son of Raghunathrao)
  • Amritrao (brother of Bajirao II), Peshwa for a short period during Yashwantrao Holkar's siege of Pune. Bajirao was later reinstated by the British.
  • Nana Sahib Peshwa the second (adopted son of Bajirao II, lived in Uttar Pradesh in exile)

Balaji Vishwanath - (1712 to 1721) In 1712, Shahuji died and his minister or Peshwa, Balaji Vishwanath a Brahmin took over the throne. ... Shrimant Baji Rao Vishwanath Bhatt (August 18, 1699- April 25, 1740), also known as Baji Rao I, was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (King) Shahu between 1719 until Baji Raos death. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Nanasaheb Peshwa (also called Balaji Bajirao )(born 1720 or 1721 - Died 1761) was one of the Peshwas of the Maratha Empire. ... Madhavrao Peshwa (born 1745 - died 1772) was the second son of Nanasaheb Peshwa. ... Narayanrao Peshwa(born 1749 - 1773) became the Peshwa(1772-1773) after the death of Madhavrao Peshwa in 1772. ... Raghunathrao was the younger brother of Nanasaheb Peshwa. ... Baji Rao II was the last Peshwa of the Maratha Confederacy. ... Portrait of Nana Sahib. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...

See also

The History of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization, which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent from 3300 to 1700 BC. This Bronze Age civilization was followed by the Iron Age Vedic period, which witnessed the rise of major kingdoms known as the Mahajanapadas. ... Shaniwar Wada (, ) is a palace fort in the heart of Pune City, India. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... India has a long military history dating back several millennia. ... Flag of the Maratha Empire Maratha king Shivaji Bhonsale The Marāthās is a collective term referring to a group of Hindu, Marathi language speaking castes of warriors and peasants, hailing mostly from the Indian state of Maharashtra. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Suryanath U. Kamath (2001). A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore (Reprinted 2002), p243.

References

  • James Grant Duff - History of Marhattas, 3 vols. London, Longmans, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green (1826) ISBN 8170209560
  • Bombay University - Maratha History - Seminar Volume
  • Ranade, Mahadev Govind, Rise of the Maratha Power (1900); reprint (1999) ISBN 8171171818
  • Samant, S. D. - Vedh Mahamanavacha
  • Kasar, D.B. - Rigveda to Raigarh making of Shivaji the great, Mumbai: Manudevi Prakashan (2005)
  • Apte, B.K. (editor) - Chhatrapati Shivaji: Coronation Tercentenary Commemoration Volume, Bombay: University of Bombay (1974-75)
  • Goody Goody Gumdrops (1743-1976)
  • Desai, Ranjeet - Shivaji the Great, Janata Raja (1968), Pune: Balwant Printers - English Translation of popular Marathi book.
  • Zakaria, Rafiq - Communal Rage In Secular India, Popular Prakashan, Mumbai
  • Pagdi, Setu Madhavrao - Hindavi Swaraj Aani Moghul (1984), Girgaon Book Depot, Marathi book
  • Deshpande, S.R. - Marathyanchi Manaswini, Lalit Publications, Marathi book
  • Suryanath U. Kamath (2001). A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present, Jupiter books, MCC, Bangalore (Reprinted 2002), OCLC: 7796041.

The University of Mumbai is one of the outstanding universities of India. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ...


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Maratha affairs of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were dominated internal rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar, and by the three Anglo-Maratha wars with the British East India Company.
The Peshwa sent an army to challenge the Afghans, and the Maratha army was decisively defeated on January 13, 1761 at the Third Battle of Panipat.
Thus, the autonomous Maratha states of the Gaekwads of Baroda, the Holkars of Indore and Malwa, the Scindias (or Shinde's) of Gwalior (and Ujjain), Pawars of Udgir and Bhosles of Nagpur (no blood relation with Shivaji's or Tarabai's family) came into being in far flung regions of the empire.
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The "Marathas" were known by that name since their native tongue was almost invariably Marathi; however, not all those whose native tongue is Marathi are Marathas.
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