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Encyclopedia > Mar Thoma Church
Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church

Founder St. Thomas the Apostle
Independence Apostolic Era
Recognition Independent heirarchical Church
Primate His Grace The Most Rt. Rev. Dr. Joseph Mar Thoma Metropolitan
Headquarters Tiruvalla, Kerala
Territory Universal
Possessions Australia, Canada, Germany, Middle East(Gulf Region), Ireland, Malaysia, New Zealand, Scotland, Singapore, South Africa, United States, United Kingdom.
Language Malayalam, English, Hindi, Tamil, Kannada, Syriac
Adherents one million worldwide[1]
Website www.marthomasyrianchurch.org

On the south western coast of India, lies a small state known as Kerala. It was here, in the first century, Thomas a disciple of Jesus of Nazareth arrived to preach the gospel to the Jewish community. Some of the Jews and locals became followers of Jesus of Nazareth. The remnant of that Church, still independent and under local leadership is called Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church also known as Mar Thoma Church. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Thomas was one of the 12 apostles of Jesus. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... In 1975 Joseph Mar Irenaeus and Easow Mar Timotheos were consecrated as Bishops. ... , Thiruvalla ( previously spelled Tiruvalla) or തിരുവല്ല as it is spelled in malayalam, is a city and a Taluk located in Pathanamthitta district in the State of Kerala in South-West India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Look up universal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the country. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      St... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ...


Mar Thoma Church, is Apostolic in origin, Universal in nature, Biblical in faith, Evangelical in principle, Ecumenical in outlook, Oriental in worship, Democratic in function, and Episcopal in character.[2] Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... Look up universal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... Look up evangelist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word ecumenical comes from a Greek word that means pertaining to the whole world. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... The word episcopal is derived from the Greek επίσκοπος, transliterated epískopos, which literally means overseer; the word, however, is used in religious contexts to refer to a bishop. ...


The Church presently has around one million members. The majority of the membership of the Church is in the southern Indian state of Kerala but it has spread with the 20th century Indian diaspora to North America, Europe, the Middle East, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, this in addition to a sizeable population in the rest of India. , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

Contents

Defintions

Part of a series on
Christianity
in India
Background

Christianity
Syrian Malabar Nasrani
Saint Thomas Christians
Holy Apostolic Throne of St. Thomas
Malankara Metropolitans
Knanaya
Distribution of Christian population in different Indian states [1] Christianity is Indias third-largest religion, following Hinduism and Islam. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ... The Saint Thomas Christians are a group of Christians from the Malabar coast (now Kerala) in South India, who follow Syriac Christianity. ... The Throne of St. ... The Nasrani Menorah also known as the Mar Thoma sliba Knanaya (Heb:קנאים, Ar:قينان), literally meaning Knai people, are an endagamous Jewish people from Kerala, India. ...

Events

Synod of Diamper
Coonan Cross Oath
Goa Inquisition
Synod of Diamper - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... // The Coonan Cross Oath was taken in 1653,[1] by a group of Saint Thomas Christians, enraged by the persecution of their Church by the Portuguese colonials and Jesuit missionaries who sought to bring it under Portuguese Padroado or Propaganda Fide , swore the Coonan Cross Oath, vowing that neither they... St. ...

People

St Thomas
St Francis Xavier
Mother Teresa
Blessed Kuriakose Chavara
Henry Martyn‎
William Carey
Anthony Norris Groves
Hugh Findlay
Sister Alphonsa
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      St... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Mother Teresa (born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu IPA: ) (August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was a Roman Catholic nun who founded the Missionaries of Charity and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work. ... Blessed Kuriakose Elias Chavara was the co-founder and first prior-general of the Congregation of the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate and of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Mother of Carmel. ... Henry Martyn (February 18, 1781 - October 6, 1812), English missionary to India, was born at Truro, Cornwall. ... William Carey (August 17, 1761 – June 9, 1834) was an English missionary and Baptist minister, known as the father of modern missions. ... Anthony Norris Groves (February 1, 1795 - May 20, 1853), has been described as the father of faith missions. He launched the first Protestant mission to Arabic-speaking Muslims, and settled in Baghdad, now the capital of Iraq, and later in southern India. ... Hugh Findlay, born in 1822 in New Milns, Ayrshire, Scotland, was one of the first two Mormon missionaries to enter India. ... Blessed Alphonsa Muttathupadathu Blessed Alphonsa Muttathupadathu (August 19, 1910–July 28, 1946) was born Anna Muttathupadathu in Kudamaloor, a rural village near Kottayam (Kerala, India) to Joseph and Mary Muttathupadathu. ...

Churches

Chaldean Syrian Church
Church of North India
Church of South India
Indian Brethren
Indian Pentecostal Church
Jacobite Syrian Church
Malabar Independent Church
Mar Thoma Church
Orthodox Syrian Church
Roman Catholic Church
St. Thomas Evangelical Church
Syro-Malankara Catholic Church
Syro-Malabar Catholic Church
Advent Christian Conference Anglican Church of India Apatani Christian Fellowship Apostolic Christian Assembly Apostolic Church of Pentecost Apostolic Fellowship Tabernacle Apostolic Pentecostal Church Armenian Apostolic Church Asia Evangelistic Fellowship Assam Baptist Convention Assemblies of Christ Church Assemblies of God Assemblies of Jesus Christ Assembly Hall Churches Association of Vineyard Churches... Chaldean Syrian Church is the name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India. ... The Church of North India has united various denominations and missions and orders in India. ... CSI St. ... The Indian Brethren is a Christian religious movement, a constituent of the larger group known as the Plymouth Brethren. ... The Indian Pentecostal Church of God (IPC) is the largest indigenous Pentecostal movement in India, with its headquarters at Hebron, Kumbanad, Kerala-689547 India. ... The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East), is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family. ... The Roman Catholic Church in India is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... St. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Indian Christianity Portal



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Malankara Marthoma Suryani Sabha (Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church) is the official name of the Mar Thoma Church. ‘’Malankara.” Maliankara, a place near Muziris, where Thomas the Apostle first landed in Kerala was the headquarters of the Church from the 1st century. (Malankara is cognate of this name Maliankara). “Mar Thoma” or “Marthoma” is Aramiac, means Saint Thomas. Image File history File links Portal. ... Muziris is a lost port city in the southern Indian state of Kerala, locally known as Vanchi, which was a major center of trade, especially pepper and other spices, with the Roman Empire from the 1st or 2nd century BCE to probably as late as 6th century CE. Large hoards... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...


“Sabha” means a place where God is worshipped.[3] In modern English, it is the Church, a word originated from Greek.


"Palli" is the building where worship services are held. That name comes from Buddhist tradition


The title of the head of the Church is “Marthoma” and is addressed as “Marthoma Metropolitan”.


Early period

First century BC

On the south western side of the Indian peninusula; between the mountains and the Erythraean Sea (now Arabian Sea); stretching from Kannoor to Kanyakumari was the land called Cherarajyam, which was ruled by local chieftens. Later this land came to be known as Malabar (now Kerala or ‘God’s Own Country’). Muziris (now known as Pattanam[4] near Cochin) was the imortant entry port. After the discovery of Hippalus, every year 100 ships arrived here from various parts of the then known world, including Red Sea ports. For the district with the name Kannur, see Kannur District. ... For other uses, see Kanyakumari (disambiguation). ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Muziris is a lost port city in the southern Indian state of Kerala, locally known as Vanchi, which was a major center of trade, especially pepper and other spices, with the Roman Empire from the 1st or 2nd century BCE to probably as late as 6th century CE. Large hoards... Pattanam is potentially the lost Roman port city of Muziris Paravur taluk in the southern Indian state of Kerala which was a major center of Roman trade. ... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe... Hippalus was a Greek navigator who probably lived in the 1st century BCE. He is sometimes conjectured to have been the captain of the Greek explorer Eudoxus of Cyzicus ship. ...


Even before the time of Christ, during the time of Moses and King Solomon, there was trade in spices and luxury articles between Malabar Coast and Palestine.[5] During the second exile (586 BC) some of the Jews came and settled in Kerala. They were known as Bene Israel. (Most of them have returned to Israel by twentieth century.[6] While Augustus Caesar (31 BC- 14 AD) was the Emperor of Rome and Herod the Great (37-4 BC) was King of Judea, ambassadors from Malabar visited the Emperor Augustus.[7] These ambassadors are called The Wise Men From the East in the Bible.[8] Even today, the descendants of these Wise Men gather on October 8 every year at a place in Kerala called Piravom. The name Piravom comes from “Piravi” which means “Birth.”[9] It has been suggested that Sulayman be merged into this article or section. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... The Bene Israel (Hebrew: Sons of Israel) are a group of Jews who migrated in the nineteenth century from west Maharashtra to the nearby Indian cities, primarily Mumbai, but also to Pune, Ahmadabad, and Karachi (Karachi later became a part of Pakistan). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Herod the Great. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Piravom is a town in Muvattupuzha Taluka of Ernakulam district in Kerala state, south India. ... Piravom is a town in Muvattupuzha Taluka of Ernakulam district in Kerala state, south India. ...


Arrival of Saint Thomas

St.Thomas

It was to this country Kerala, Thomas the Apostle, one of the disciples of Jesus Christ arrived in the first century, (believed to be in 52 AD). He landed at Muziris (now known as Pattanam,[10] near Cochin on the Malabar Coast). During his stay some of the Jews and the Wise Men became followers of Jesus of Nazareth.[11] They were called Nazranis, meaning “followers of Jesus of Nazareth.” By twenty-first century they called themselves as Christians. Image File history File links St_thomas_apostle. ... Image File history File links St_thomas_apostle. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      St... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Muziris is a lost port city in the southern Indian state of Kerala, locally known as Vanchi, which was a major center of trade, especially pepper and other spices, with the Roman Empire from the 1st or 2nd century BCE to probably as late as 6th century CE. Large hoards... Pattanam is potentially the lost Roman port city of Muziris Paravur taluk in the southern Indian state of Kerala which was a major center of Roman trade. ... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe... Malabar Coast, Kerala Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala The Malabar Coast also known as the Malabarian Coast, is a long and narrow south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


It is believed that St. Thomas proceeded to the East coast of India and died a martyrs’ death at a place called Mylapore in Tamil Nadu. , Mylapore is one of the oldest areas within Chennai (formerly Madras), the capital of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ...


First 15 centuries

The Most Rev. Dr. Juhanon Mar Thoma Metropolitan concludes the chapter on the St Thomas tradition in his book Christianity in India and a Brief History of the Mar Thoma Church, as follows: His Grace The Rt. ...


The History of the Christian Church in the first century does not depend entirely on historical documents. Tradition is often more true and more compelling than plain historic proof. In this sense St Peter’s founding of the Roman Church and St Thomas founding of the Malabar Church, may be said to stand on the same footing. Both are supported by traditions which are sufficiently early and sufficiently strong.[12] [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ...


Those who were converted by St. Thomas continued to attend the worship in synagogues. Then they moved to their homes and by the second century, they began to build their own churches in various places. We may assume that there were such small gatherings at Maliankara, Piravom , and Niranam (Nelcynda).[13] A synagogue (from , transliterated synagogē, assembly; beit knesset, house of assembly; or beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Piravom is a town in Muvattupuzha Taluka of Ernakulam district in Kerala state, south India. ... Niranam is a small village in Southern part of Kerala in India. ...


Visitors

190 AD- Pantaenus the Philosopher visited India and found that there were many evangelists in India with them he found a copy of the Gospel According to Matthew in Hebrew.[14] Saint Pantaenus (d. ...


345 AD. – There is a tradition that during the time of King Shapur II (310-379) of Persia, a group of 400 immigrants from Persia arrived in Malabar under the leadership of a merchant named Thomas of Cana, known as Knaye Thommen. Mention is made also of another immigration from Persia in the year 825 under the leadership of a Persian merchant named Marwan Sabriso with two Bishops named Mar Sapro and Mar Prodh. They cooperated with the Malankara Church, attended worship services together but remained a separate identity. Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


883 AD. – Alfred the Great (849-899), King of Wessex, England sent gifts to Mar Thoma Christians of India through Sighelm, bishop of Sherbon.[15] For the 10th century Bishop of Sherborne, see Alfred (bishop). ...


1225 AD. – Chau-Ju-Kua a Chinese traveller visited Kerala. In his writings he described the dress of a St.Thomas Christian bishop.[16] , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


1282 AD. – Kublai Khan (1215-1294) Emperor of China sent an emissary to Kollam, It was followed by an emissory from Kollam under the leadership of a St. Thomas Christian.[17] For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... , For the district with the same name, see Kollam District. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kollam District. ...


1292 AD. – Marco Polo (1254-1324) on his return journey from China visited Kerala, mentioned that there were Christians and Jews in Kerala.[18]


Collection of deeds

The rulers of Kerala, in appreciation their assistance, gave to the Malankara Nazranis, three deeds on copper plates. Five sheets of them are now in the custody of St. Thomas Christians. , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...

  1. Iravi Corttan Deed: In the year 1225 AD. Sri Vira Raghava Chakravarti, gave a deed to Iravi Corttan of Mahadevarpattanam in 774 (?). Two Brahmin families are witness to this deed showing that Brahmins were in Kerala by the eighth century. According to history of Brahmins they started arriving in Kerala by the third century.
  2. Tharissa palli Deed I: Perumal Sthanu Ravi Gupta (844-885) gave a deed in 849 AD, to Isodatta Virai for Tharissa Palli (church) at Curakkeni Kollam. According to historians, this is the first deed in Kerala that gives the exact date.[19]
  3. Tharissa palli Deed II: Continuation of the above, given after 849 AD.

The term Brahmin denotes both a member of the priestly class in the Hindu varna system, and a member of the highest caste in the caste system of Hindu society. ...

Administration

During the first fifteen centuries, each parish appointed its own elders (Idavaka Mooppen). These elders met together and elected their Elder (Malankara Mooppen). Laying of hands on the Malankara Mooppen was by twelve Idavaka Mooppens. By 1500, Malankara Church was spread from Kannur in the North to Kollam in the South. For the district with the name Kannur, see Kannur District. ...


At the Synod of Diamper, Archbishop Menezes used the word ‘Malankara Mooppen’ a number of times, but the Latin word Archidãconus was used only three times, because the Latin word was not familiar to Malankara people. Synod of Diamper - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...


Arrival of the Portuguese

The Portuguese started settling in India with the arrival of Vasco Da Gama on Sunday, May 20, 1498. From that time the Portuguese were powerful in the western parts of India and had control over the sea routes. For other uses, see Vasco da Gama (disambiguation). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Synod of Diamper

The Malankara Church had hardly any contact with the Christians of Europe. Manyof them did not even know that there was a Pope in Rome. But the Roman Catholic Church made use of the Portuguese power to bring the Malankara Church under the supremacy of Rome. A powerful Archbishop Aleixo de Menezes[20] arrived in Goa in 1595. He then convened a Synod at Udayamperoor, south of Ernakulam, from 20–26 June, 1599. This is known as the Synod of Diamper. Here the Archbishop demanded obedience to the supreme Bishop of Rome. The representatives sent from various parishes in and around Cochin were forced to accept the decrees read out by the Archbishop. Thus those parishes of the Malankara Church were made part of the Roman Catholic Church under Pope of Rome. But the remaining churches continued their original Apostolic beliefs and practices.[21] Synod of Diamper - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Aleixo de Menezes, was born in 1559. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Udayamperoor is a small town situated in Kerala state in India. ... Synod of Diamper - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe...


The Great Swearing - Coonen Kurisu Sathyam

Under the leadership of Malanakra Mooppen Thomas, Nazraniesaround Cochin gathered at Mattancherry church on Friday, January 24, 1653 (M.E. 828 Makaram 3) and made an oath that is known as Oath at the crooked Cross. // The Coonan Cross Oath was taken in 1653,[1] by a group of Saint Thomas Christians, enraged by the persecution of their Church by the Portuguese colonials and Jesuit missionaries who sought to bring it under Portuguese Padroado or Propaganda Fide , swore the Coonan Cross Oath, vowing that neither they... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe... The Jain temple at Mattancherry Mattancherry is the western part of Kochi corporarion in Ernakulam district of Kerala, south India. ...


Syrian Christian

After the Swearing, out of about 200,000 persons about 400 joined the Catholics.[22] Their language of worship was Latin while that of Malankara Church was Syriac. So the Roman Catholics started using the name Latin Christians for Catholics and Syrian Christians for Malankara Church. Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...


During the Synod of Diamper, Archbishop used old converts (Pazhay Margam) to refer Malankara Nazraies and new converts (Puthen Margam) for Catholics. But in 1758, Roman bishop of Verapoly used the name Old community (Pazya koottu/Pazhyakur) for Catholics and New community (Puthen koottu /Puthenkur) for Nazranis.[23]


Marthoma metropolitans

After the The Great Swearing in Ceremony, the parish elders (Idavaka Mooppens) of the Church met together and elected Kuravilangad Parampil Thomas Kathanar as Malankara Elder (Malankara Mooppen). Following the ancient custom, twelve Idavaka Mooppens laid their hands on him and appointed him as Malankara Mooppen. Catholics started making fun of it, because this was not the pracitce in their Chuch in Rome. So the Marthoma Nazranis send letters to various other eastern Churches for a bishop. In 1854, Mar Gregorios Abdul-Jaleel, Patriarch of Jerusalem arrived. Thus began the relation between the Malankara Church and the Anthiochian Jacobites. St. ... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ...

Malankara Throne,The throne used for this consecration of Mar Thoma I in 1653
Malankara Throne,The throne used for this consecration of Mar Thoma I in 1653

Mar Thoma I. - In 1653, Malankara Mooppen Thomas, was consecrated with the title Mar Thoma by Mar Gregorios. The throne used for this consecration in 1653 is still in the possession of the Mar Thoma Church and kept in the Poolatheen, the residence of the Malankara Marthoma Metropolitan at Tiruvalla. It has been used in the installation of every Mar Thoma Metropolitan, to this day, so that the continuity of the throne of Mar Thoma is ensured. Mar Thoma survived a number of assassination attempts. He died on April 25, 1670 and was laid to rest in Ankamali Marthommen Palli. (church). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1670 (MDCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Mar Thoma II. – (1670-1686) Consecrated by Mar Thoma I and Mar Gregorios. Died on April 14, 1686 and was laid to rest at Niranam Palli. Mar Thoma II was consencrated by Mar Thoma I and Mar Gregorios. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1686 (MDCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Niranam is a small village in Southern part of Kerala in India. ...


Mar Thoma III. – (1686-1688) Consecrated by Mar Ivanios Hirudyathulla (from Antioch), died on April 21, 1688. Laid to rest at Kadampanad, Near Adoor. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... , Adoor is a bustling town situated in Pathanamthitta district, Kerala state, India. ...


Mar Thoma IV. - (1988-1728). Consecrated by Mar Ivanios Hirudyathulla. Died on March 24, 1728 and was laid to rest at Kandanad Palli. Mar Thoma IV was consencrated by Mar Ivanious. ...


Mar Thoma V. - (1728-1765) – Consecrated by Mar Thoma IV. Died on May 8, 1765 and laid to rest at Niranam Palli. Mar Thoma V was the only metropolitian to recive no help from a foreign bishop. ... Niranam is a small village in Southern part of Kerala in India. ...


Mar Thoma VI. – (1765-1808) Consecrated by Mar Thoma V. Died on April 8, 1808 and laid to rest at Puthenkavu palli. Important events: His Grace Mar Thoma VI Metropoitan was reconsencrated by foreign bishops and took the name Dionysius. ...

  1. On June 1770, to avoid a split in the Church, he accepted re-consecration and the title Dionysius from Antiochan bishops.
  2. Mar Thoma VI did not approve the appointment of Kattumangattu Abraham Mar Coorilos as a metropoiltan by a bishop from Antioch. This was the beginning of Malabar Independent Syrian Church.
  3. Forced to conduct a service according to Catholic rites, but escaped during a rebellion in Travancore under Velu Thampi.[24]
  4. Rev.Dr. Claudius Bucahanan visited and made arrangement for the translation of the Bible into Malayalam. Marthoma gave him the manuscript of the Bible written in the oldest Syrian. This manuscript was deposited in the public library of the University of Cambridge.[25]

Mar Thoma VII. – (1808-1809) Consecrated by Mar Thoma VI in 1796. During his time on December 1, 1808, a sum of 3000 Star Pagoda (in 2002 one Star Pagoda coin had a market value of £475) was given as loan in perpetuity to the British resident Col. Maccaulay. This is known as Vattipanam. MarThoma died on July 4,1809 and was laid to rest at Kolencherry palli. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... Flag for former princely state of Travancore Travancore or Thiruvithaamkoor (Malayalam: തിരുവിതാങ്കൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാംകൂര്‍ [], തിരുവിതാങ്കോട് []) was a princely state in India with its capital at Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram). ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... His Grace Mar Thoma VII Metropolitan was a deeply religious person, his time was short and died in 1809. ...


Mar Thoma VIII. – (1809-1816) Consecrated on July 2, 1809 by Mar Thoma VII. During his time Kottayam Suryani Seminary was opened and modern education began in Kerala. Mar Thoma died on January 26 1816 and was laid to rest at Niranam palli. His Grace Mar Thoma VIII Metropolitan An element of vagueness surround his consecration. ... , This article is about the town of Kottayam, See Kottayam district also. ...


Mar Thoma IX. – (1816-1817). Consecrated by Marthoma VIII without the consent of the people. So he retired to Kadamattom palli and spent the rest of his days in prayer and fasting. His Grace Mar Thoma IX Metropolitan He was consecrated by the 8th Mar Thoma. ...


Mar Thoma X. – (1816-1816). Also known as Pulikottil Mar Dionysius, was consecrated by Mar Philoxenos II, of the Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyoor Sabha). Mar Thoma died on November 25, 1816 and laid to rest at Seminary palli. Important events: The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ...

  1. First Metropolitan to be recognised by Travancore and Cochin as Malankara Metropolitan, by a Royal Proclamation to receive interest of Vattipanam (Fixed Deposit).
  2. Opened the Kottayam Suryani Seminary.
  3. Church Missionary Society (C.M.S.) missionaries arrived to teach there.

Mar Philoxenos II. – of the Malabar Independent Syrian Church. (November 25, 1816 – October 10, 1817). Due to the sudden demise of Mar Thoma X, Mar Philoxenos II took charge of the Malankara Church. He was accepted as Malankara Metropolitan by the governments by Royal Proclamation. , This article is about the town of Kottayam, See Kottayam district also. ... The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ...


Mar Thoma XI. – (1817-1825) Also known as Punnathra Geevargis Mar Dionysius. Consecrated by Malakara Metropolitan Mar Philoxenos II on October 10, 1817. The Reformation of the Malankara Church began during his time.. MarThoma XI, died on May 17, 1825 and was laid to rest at Kottayam Cheria palli.


Mar Thoma XII. – (1825-1852). Also known as Cheppattu Philipose Mar Dionysius. To select a successor representatives of the parishes met together. So they proposed the names of three clergies. After prayer they cast votes. The cast fell to Philipose Kathanar. So he was consecrated as the Mar Thoma on August 27, 1825. After the demise of Mar Philoxenos II on February 4, 1829, he was approved by the governments as Malankara Metropolitan on March 20, 1829.[26] Important events: 1781 - 1855 Malankara Metropolitan St George Orthodox Church is the resting place of Cheppad Philipose Mar Dionysius, Malankara Metropolitan of Malankara Orthodox Church during 1825 - 1855. ...

  1. Problems arose with C.M.S. Missionaries. So he convened a meeting of the representatives of the parishes at Mavelikara (January 16, 1836) and proclaimed allegiance to the Patriarch of Antioch. He did not support Reformation of the Church. Abraham Malpan and many other leaders of reformation did not attend this meeting.
  2. C.M.S. missionaries formed C.M.S. Church. By a government award known as Cochin Award, they were given a few properties of the Malankara Church. From this time Malankara Church was also called The Jacobite Church.
  3. He was not able to consecrate a successor. But Palakunnathu Mathews, nephew of Abraham Malpan went to Anitoch and was consecrated as Mathews Mar Athanasius by the Patriarch of Antioch.

Mar Thoma XII abdicated in 1852 as the Malankara Metropolitan. Died on October 9, 1855 and laid to rest at Cheppat palli. The funeral service was conducted by Mathews Mar Athanasius Metropolitan. Abraham Malpan was one of the main reformers of the Malankara Church. ... Abraham Malpan was one of the main reformers of the Malankara Church. ... His Grace the Late Rt. ... Patriarch of Antioch is the traditional title carried by the Bishop of Antioch. ...


Mar Thoma XIII. – (1852-1877). Mathews Mar Athanasius Metropolitan was consecrated by Moran Mar Elias Patriarch of Antioch at Mardin on February 17, 1842. He was approved by the Governments of Kerala and Cochin as Malankara Metropolitan on August 30, 1852. after Cheppattu Philipose Mar Dionysius abdicated due to ill health. So he was able to collect the interest of Vattipanam (Fixed Deposit) from the government. During his time Reformation of the Church became strong. Ouseph Kathanar from Kunnamkulam, who objected to Reformation went to Antioch and was consecrated as Joseph Mar Dionysius on April 3, 1865. After his return, those who opposed Mathews Mar Athanasius invited the Patriarch of Antioch. The large majority of the people were conservative and the reform party was a very small minority. Mathews Mar Athanasius Metropolitan died on July 16, 1877 and was laid to rest at Maramon palli. Funeral service was conducted by Thomas Mar Athanasius Metropolitan and Ouseph Mar Koorilose of Malabar Independent Syrian Church. , Kunnamkulam is a city and a municipality in Thrissur district in the Indian state of Kerala. ... His Grace the Late Rt. ... Maramon is a small town on the Pampa River, opposite to Kozhencherry town in the state of Kerala, India. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ...


Mar Thoma XIV. – (1877- 1893). Thomas Mar Athanasius Metropolitan was consecrated by Mathews Mar Athanasius Metropolitan on June 1, 1868. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


During his time Joseph Mar Dionysius made a claim to be the Malankara Metropolitan and demanded the possession of the Seminary and the control of assets of the Church. Mar Dionysius and his supporters filed a case on March 4, 1879. The final verdict came after ten years. Before the verdict was made known, Maharaja of Travancore called the two Metropolitans and two represetntives from both sides. In that meeting Thomas Mar Athanasius Metropolitan informed that Malankara Church was never under any foreign rule and he was unwilling to move away from the traditional teachings and give away the authority and Church possessions to a foreign Patriarch. The Church was split into two. The majority under the leadership of Mar Dionysius and six Metropolitans appointed by Antioch chose to be under Antioch. The reform party decided to remain as an independent Malankara Church.


Without a place to live except his own house, Thomas Mar Athanasius Metropolitan returned to Maramon, Died on August 10, 1893 and was laid to rest at Maramon palli. Maramon is a small town on the Pampa River, opposite to Kozhencherry town in the state of Kerala, India. ...


Mar Thoma XV. – (1893-1910). Titus I Mar Thoma Metropolitan was consecrated by Ouseph Mar Athanasius assisted by Geevarghis Mar Coorilos both of Malakara Independent Syrian Church on January 18, 1894 at Kottayam Cheria palli. Died on October 2, 1909 and was laid to rest at S.C. palli, Tiruvalla. His Grace The Late Rt. ...


Mar Thoma XVI. – (1910-1944). Titus II Mar Thoma Metropolitan was consecrated by Titus I Mar Thoma Metropolitan assisted by Geevarghis Mar Coorilos of Malankara Independent Syrian Church at Puthencavu palli. During his time the reform party chose the name Malankara Mar Thoma Suryani Church. Died on July 6, 1944 and was laid to rest at S.C. palli, Tiruvalla. His Grace the Late Rt. ...

His Grace the Most Rt. Rev. Dr. Philipose Mar Thoma Valia Metropolitian
His Grace the Most Rt. Rev. Dr. Philipose Mar Thoma Valia Metropolitian

Mar Thoma XVII. – (1944-1947). Abraham Mar Thoma Metropolitan was consecrated by Titus I Mar Thoma Metropolitan on December27, 1917 at Tiruvalla. Died on September 1, 1947 and was laid to rest at S.C. palli, Tiruvalla. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Mar Thoma XVIII. – (1947-1976). Dr.Juhanon Mar Thoma Metropolitan was consecrated by Titus II Mar Thoma Metropolitan on December 30, 1937 at Tiruvalla. He was a great social reformer and was the one of the Presidents of World Council of Churches (1954-1961). On January 26, 1961, a few members of the clergy and their followers formed Saint Thomas Evangelical Church of India. Dr. Juhanon Mar Thoma died on September 27, 1976 and was laid to rest at S.C. palli, Tiruvalla. His Grace The Rt. ...


Mar Thoma XIX. – (1976-1999). Dr. Alexander Mar Thoma Metropolitan was consecrated by Dr. Yuhanon Mar Thoma Metropolitan on May 23, 1953, at Tiruvalla. Was installed as Valia Metropolitan on November 23, 1999 and handed over the responsibilities of the Church to Mar Thoma XX. Died on January 11, 2000 and was laid to rest at S.C. palli, Tiruvalla. This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...


Mar Thoma XX. – (1999 – 2007). Dr. Philipose Mar Chrysostem Mar Thoma Metropolitan was consecrated by Dr. Yuhanon Mar Thoma Metropolitan on May 23, 1953, at Tiruvalla. Was installed as Valia Metropolitan on October 2, 2007, and handed over the responsibilities of the Church to Mar Thoma XXI. His Grace The Most Rt. ...


Mar Thoma XXI. – (2007- ). Dr. Joseph Mar Thoma Metropolitan was consecrated by Dr. Yuhanon Mar Thoma Metropolitan on February 8, 1975 at Tiruvalla. Was installed as Mar Thoma Metropolitan on October 2, 2007. In 1975 Joseph Mar Irenaeus and Easow Mar Timotheos were consecrated as Bishops. ...

Dr. Joseph Mar Thoma Metropolitan
Dr. Joseph Mar Thoma Metropolitan

For the consecrations, from 1917 onwards bishops from other Churches were invited as guests. But the consecration was done only by the Metropolitan assisted by the other Metropolitans of Mar Thoma Church and of Malabar Independent Syrian Church.


Suffragan metropolitans

  1. Rt.Rev. Dr. Thomas Mar Athanasius Suffragan Metropolitan, was consecrated by Dr. Yuhanon Mar Thoma Metropolitan on May 23, 1953, at Tiruvalla. Passed away on November 27, 1984 and was laid to rest at S.C. palli, Tiruvalla.
  2. Rt.Rev. Dr. Zacharias Mar Theophilus Suffragan Metropolitan, was Consecrated by Dr. Alexander Mar Thoma Metropolitan on May 1, 1980 at Tiruvalla.

Episcopas

  1. Rt.Rev. Dr. Mathews Mar Athanasius Episcopa, was Consecrated by Titus II Mar Thoma Metropolitan on December 30, 1937 at Tiruvalla. Died on September 23, 1973 and was laid to rest at S.C. palli, Tiruvalla.
  2. Rt. Rev. Easow Mar Timotheos Episcopa, was Consecrated by Dr. Yuhanon Mar Thoma Metropolitan on February 8, 1975 at Tiruvalla. Died on April 11, 1988 and was laid to rest at S.C. palli, Tiruvalla.
  3. Rt.Rev. Geevarghese Mar Athanasius Episcopa, Rt.Rev. Dr. Geevarhese Mar Theodosius Episcopa and Rt.Rev. Dr. Euyakim Mar Coorilos Episcopa were consecrated by Dr. Alexander Mar Thoma Metropolitan, on December 9, 1989 at Tiruvalla.
  4. Rt.Rev. Joseph Mar Barnabas Episcopa, Rt.Rev. Dr. Thomas Mar Timotheos Episcopa and Rt.Rev. Dr. Isaac Mar Phioxenos Episcopa were consecrated by Dr. Alexander Mar Thoma Metropolitan, on October 2, 1993 at Tiruvalla.
  5. Rt.Rev. Dr. Abraham Mar Paulos Episcopa was consecrated by Dr. Philipose Mar Chrysostem Mar Thoma Metropolitan on May 14, 2005 at Tiruvalla.

Purification Movement (Reformation)

Mar Thoma Church uses the Malayalam word “Sucheekarana Prasthanam” which means Purification Movement. But in English, the word Reformation is used which has a slightly different meaning.


History

During the time of Marthoma VI, Rev.Dr. Claudius Buchanan visited Malankara. He met Marthoma in 1806.[27] With his help Bible was translated from the original Aramaic language and was distributed to the parishes. Soon after his meeting, representatives of the parishes met at Aarthattu church and declared (Aarthattu Padiola) that the people should not follow the teachings by Rome, Antioch and other foreign Churches.[28] The open Bible and this meeting can be considered to be the beginning of the Purification Movement in Malankara Church.


Mar Thoma XI, (Punnathra Mar Dionysius) convened a meeting of representatives of the Malankara Church at Mavelikkara, on December 3, 1818. In that meeting a committee was appointed to recommend reforms in the Church. Abraham Malpan, Kaithayil Geevarghese Malpan, Eruthikkal Markose Kathanar, Adangapurathu Joseph Kathanar were members of this committee. This was the beginning of Reformation in Malankara Church. , Mavelikara is a town and a municipality in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. ... Abraham Malpan was one of the main reformers of the Malankara Church. ...


Mar Thoma XII, (Cheppattu Mar Dionysius) did not support the idea of Reformation. So he convened a Synod at Mavelikkara on January 16, 1836, in which the Synod accepted the supremacy of the Church of Antioch. Abraham Malpan did not attend this synod. , Mavelikara is a town and a municipality in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. ... The Antiochian Orthodox Church is one of the five churches that comprised the One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church before the Great Schism, and today is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... Abraham Malpan was one of the main reformers of the Malankara Church. ...


Trumpet call

On September 5, 1856, the battle cry for reformation was sounded. Strategy was formed by a group of 12 senior clergy under the leadership of Abraham Malpan. They issued a letter describing the wrong teachings and a statement listing twenty-four evil practices of the Church which crept in by its association with other Churches and religions.[29]


Reforms

  1. Gave first preference to the Open Bible.
  2. Worship services including Kurbana (Holy Communion) were conducted in Malayalam, the language of the people.
  3. Kurbana was not celebrated when there were none to communicate.
  4. Holy elements in the Kurbana were served in both kinds.
  5. Prayers to the saints and prayers for the dead were discarded.
  6. Auricular confession was discontinued.
  7. Icons, pictures and drawings of saints were removed from homes, churches, and other places of worship.
  8. Changes were made in the various prayers in the prayer books incorporating the divine light received through the study of the Bible.

Holy Qurbana - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...

Reformation in action

Maramon Mar Thoma Church (2005)
Maramon Mar Thoma Church (2005)

Abraham Malpan on Sunday, August 27, 1837 conducted the Holy Communion service in Malayalam at his home parish at Maramon. Clergy, who supported him also did the same thing in various other parishes on the same day. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1666 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mar Thoma Church Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1666 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mar Thoma Church Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Abraham Malpan was one of the main reformers of the Malankara Church. ... Maramon is a small town on the Pampa River, opposite to Kozhencherry town in the state of Kerala, India. ...


Every year on October 5, there was a church festival at Maramon, connected with a certain saint of the church. A wooden image of the saint named ‘Muthappen,’ was taken around in procession and people used to offer prayers and offerings to it. In 1837, Abraham Malpan took the image and threw it into a well saying, “Why consult the dead on behalf of the living?” (Isaiah 8:19). So when the festival came there was no image to be taken out for procession. This offended some people, but the practice was stopped.


The use of the revised liturgy and the changes he brought about in practices offended Marthoma XII. So Abraham Malpan and was excommunicated and deacons trained under him were refused priesthood. But Abraham Malpan was not disheartened. He continued with the reforms. He returned to Maramon. Many of his students joined him to continue their studies. All those who believed that the Church need to revitalize also joined him. Members of parishes in Kozhencherry, Kumbanad, Eraviperoor, Thumpamon, Elanthoor, Kundara, Kottarakara, Mavelikkara, Mallapally, and many other places made trips to Maramon to attend the service in Malayalam and listen to his sermons. Doors were also opened for reformation in other places by clergy who supported him. Abraham Malpan was one of the main reformers of the Malankara Church. ... Kozhencherry is a small town in Pathanamthitta district of Central Travancore region (South Central Kerala) in Kerala state, South India. ... Kumbanad is a village situated on the Tiruvalla - Kozhencherry road, in the State of Kerala, in India. ... Kundara is a place located in Kollam district of Kerala, India. ... Kottarakara [1] is a town located in the district of Kollam, formerly known as Quilon, in the Kerala state of India. ... , Mavelikara is a town and a municipality in Alappuzha district in the Indian state of Kerala. ... Mallappally is a taluk in Pathanamthitta district of Kerala state, south India. ...


At this stage he had three choices in front of him. Repent and go back to the old beliefs under Antioch; join the Anglican Church with western beliefs; or go forward with the reformation restoring the Church to its original purity. He chose the most difficult third choice. Abraham Malpan died in 1845. Abraham Malpan was one of the main reformers of the Malankara Church. ...


Mathen, a nephew of Abraham Malpan also followed his uncle’s steps. He went to Antioch and returned consecrated by the Patriarch of Antioch as Mathews Mar Athanasius Metropolitan. After Cheppattu Philipose Mar Dionysius abdicated due to ill health, to collect the interest of the Vattipanam (Fixed Deposit), Mar Athanasius was approved as Malankara Metropolitan by the governments of Kerala and Cochin on August 30, 1852.[30] Mar Athanasius published the liturgy without the prayer to St. Mary.[31] He consecrated the bishop for Malabar Independent Church.[32] All these angered some clergy and they sent Pulikkottil Ouseph Kathanar to Antioch in 1864. He returned as Joseph Mar Dionysius in 1865. During the time of Thomas Mar Athanasius Metropolitan, Mar Dionysius demanded the possession of the Seminary and the control of assets of the Church. Mar Dionysius and his supporters filed a case on March 4, 1879. During a meeting convened by the Maharaja of Travancore, Mar Athanasius informed that Malankara Church was never under any foreign rule and he was unwilling to move away from the traditional teachings and give away the authority and Church possessions to a foreign Patriarch. The final verdict came after ten years was against the reform party. Thus the Malankara Church gave all its possessions to the Patriarch of Antioch. Abraham Malpan was one of the main reformers of the Malankara Church. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Patriarch of Antioch is the traditional title carried by the Bishop of Antioch. ... His Grace the Late Rt. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Reform Party decided to remain as an independent Malankara Church, follow the teachings of Jesus Christ as it was before 1500 CE., and gave preference to the Open Bible. Later it chose the name Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church.


History of the name

It is necessary to understand how the name Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church evolved. Malankara now known as Kerala is the name of the place in South India where these Christians lived from the first century. Only in the twentieth century they began to move out of Kerala. In the first century,the name was Malankara Sabha (Group of believers in Malankara). The people were known as Nazranis (followers of Jesus of Nazereth). They were not called Christians because Apostle Thomas left for India before the Greeks were called Christians.[33] Mar Thoma literally means Saint Thomas. This is because gospel was first preached in Malabar by Saint Thomas the disciple of Jesus Christ. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Liturgy

The word Syrian in the name of the Church is very often misunderstood by people of foreign origin. It does not mean that the Mar Thoma Christians were Syrians (people who came from Syria) or the Church is under a Syrian Church. The origianl liturgical language used by Malanakara Church was Aramiac. The Bible that was in use was in Hebrew.[34] Their traditions was also Jewish as was in first century churches. Later when Syriac replaced Aramiac in eastern countries, Malankara Church also started using Syriac. Their Bible during that period was Estrangelo Syriac.[35][36] This was the Bible that was in use till Malayalam (language of Kerala) translation was available. It is interesting to note that even though bishops from Syrian churches visited Kerala regularly, they did not change the Bible into one of the new forms of Syriac. In June 1876, Patriarch of Antioch Ignatius Pathrose IV, visited Kerala and a majority of Malankara Church joined him. They became part of Antiochan Syrian Church and were known as Jacobites. But those who did not join and kept their original identity are the members of the Mar Thoma Church. Note that the Syriac used by Mar Thoma Church is different from that of those who joined the Antiochian Church. So the word Syrian in the name is because Syriac is used sparingly in its liturgy. Now the Church has the liturgy translated into various languages including Syriac, Malayalam, English, Hindi, Tamil, etc. Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church was never under any of the Syrian Churches. The traditions are a combination of Jewish and Indian traditions.


Syrian Christians

After the arrival of the Portuguese, they converted a number of Nazranis in and around Cochin to Roman Catholic faith. In 1599, at the Synod of Udayamperoor, Roman Archbishop Alejo-de-Menezes referred the original Christians as Marthoma Nazranis or Malankara Nazranis. Nowhere it is mentioned that they were Syrians or Christians. The language of liturgy of the Roman Church was Latin and that of Nazranis was Syrian (Aramiac). To distinguish these two groups, later the Roman Catholics called themselves Latin Christians and the other Malankara Nazranis, Syrian Christians.[37]


Puthenkootu (Puthenkur)

In the synod of Diamper Marthoma Nazranis were referred as Pazhaya Margam (Old path) and Catholics, Puthya Margam (New path). It is after 1758 when Roman Bishop of Verapoly wrote to the Dutch Company, that the Marthoma Nazranis were new to Malankara, the Puthenkootu (New House) came into use.[38]


Jacobites

After the Cochin Award in April 1840, some of the Nazranis joined the Anglican missionaries and formed the C.M.S. Church. They called the remaining Malankara Nazranis, Jacobites.


Reformed Christians

When the Purification Movement (Reformation) began in the church. there were two groups in the Church. They were known as Metran Kakshy (followers of the Metropolitan) and Bava Kakshy (followers of Patriarch of Antioch). Anglicans gave the name Reformation Church for Metran Kakshi, but Bava Kakshi was continued to be called Jacobites. The Metran Kakshi met together in 1909 and decided to accept the name Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, combining the original name with the names that Malankara Nazranis received in the course of time.[39] It is now generally known as Mar Thoma Church. But whatever name others have given, Malakara Church remained as Malankara Church.


Independence of the Church

During the course of a litigation that went on from 1879 to 1889, Thomas Mar Athansius Metropolitan answered a question that , “ The Episcopal throne of Patriarch was the throne of St. Peter, while the throne of Malankara Church was that of St. Thomas. Malanakara Church is as old as the Church in Antioch, equal in status, and both are independent.” During the course of a litigation (1879-1889), answering a question Thomas Mar Athanasius Metropolitan said, “ The Episcopal throne of Patriarch is the throne of St. Peter, while the throne of Malankara Church is that of St. Thomas. Malankara Church is as old as the Church in Antioch, equal in status, and both are independent.”


Administration

Mar Thoma church has a well defined constitution. His Grace the Metropolitan is the supremo of the Church. It has a democratic pattern of administration with a Legislative assembly (Prathinidhi Mandalam), an executive body of the Mandalam (Sabha Council) and an Episcopal Synod. Its regular work as well as special projects are almost entirely financed by contributions from its members at home and abroad.


Administrative divisions

For administrative purpose, the Church is divided into 12 Dioceses headed by a Metropolitan or by an Episcopa. They are: Diocese of Adoor; Diocese of Chengannur_Mavelikara.; Diocese of Chennai-Bangalore; Diocese of Delhi; Diocese of Kottayam-Kochi; Diocese of Kunnamkulam-Malabar; Diocese of Malaysia-Singapore-Australia; Diocese of Mubai; Diocese of Niranam-Maramon; Diocese of North America-U.K. & Europe; Diocese of Ranny-Nilackel; Diocese of Thiruvananthapuram-Kollam


Organizations

They are : Mar Thoma Evangelistic Association; Mar Thoma Sunday School Samjam; Mar Thoma Yuvajana Sakyam; Mar Thoma Suvishesha Sevika Sangham; Mar ThomaVoluntary Ebvangelists’ Association; Department of Sacred Music and Communications.


Also there are: Development Department; Christian Agency for Rural Development (CARD); Mar Thoma Medical Mission; Mar Thoma Sabha Mandiram Fellowship; Social Welfare Institutions; Theological Institutions; Educational Institutions; Technical Institutions; Study Centres; Church Animation Centre; and Camp Centres.


The Church has been active in the field of education and owns 9 colleges, 6 higher secondary schools, 1 vocational higher secondary school, 8 high schools and 1 training school plus other educational institutions owned and managed by individual parishes. It has 5 technical institutions.


The Church has 38 social welfare institutions, 14 destitute homes and ten hospitals. The Mar Thoma Theological Seminary, Kottayam (established 1926), E.J. Institute of Evangelism, and 5 other institutes cater to the theological education of both the clergy and the laity. Further, there are three study centers at Managanam, Kottayam and Trivandrum for arranging regular study programs and to provide opportunities for creative dialogue between Church and society on various ethical, moral, social and religious issues. The religious education of children is looked after by the Sunday School Samajam (organized in 1905) and the work among youth is carried on by the Youth Department, (the Yuvajana Sakhyam organized in 1933). The Church has a Women's Department (the Mar Thoma Suvisesha Sevika Sanghom organized in 1919). All these Institutions are vigorously active. , This article is about the town of Kottayam, See Kottayam district also. ... , This article is about the town of Kottayam, See Kottayam district also. ...


Maramon Convention

Maramon Convention
Maramon Convention

The Maramon Convention is the largest annual Christian gathering in Asia ,organized by the Mar Thoma Evangelistic Association, the missionary wing of the Mar Thoma Church. It takes place at Maramon, during the month of February on the vast sand-bed of the Pampa River next to the Kozhencherry Bridge. The first convention was held in 1895 March, for a period of 10 days. The convention tent has a seating capacity in excess of 150,000 and is made of interwoven coconut leaves by the parishners of nearby churches. All around the tent there are temporary sheds and tents for various purposes related to the Convention. Stalls for the sale of religious literature, Church offices and restaurants run by charity organizations are allowed to operate in the vicinity of the tent under the strict control of the Church authorities. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Maramon is located next to Kozhencherry, on the banks of the river Pampa, 12 kilometers of the district headquarters, Pathanamthitta. ... Maramon is a small town on the Pampa River, opposite to Kozhencherry town in the state of Kerala, India. ... Kozhencherry is a small town in Pathanamthitta district of Central Travancore region (South Central Kerala) in Kerala state, South India. ...


The Maramon Convention is pre-eminently an assembly of Christians who once a year come here for listening to the gospel as read and expounded by leaders of Christian thought from all over India as well as abroad. But those who attend sit on the sand bed, (old & invalid people are given chairs) men on one side and ladies on the other. Without caste, creed, colour or age they come and listen to the messages. One after noon session is for ecumenical messages from invited leaders of other Churches.


Ecumenical relations

The Church actively participates in the programs of the World Council of Churches, the Christian Conference of Asia, the National Council of Churches and the Kerala Christian Council. The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... The Christian Conference of Asia is a regional ecumenical organisation representing 15 National Councils and over 100 churches in Aotearoa New Zealand, Australia, Bangladesh, Burma, Cambodia, East Timor, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Laos, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Thailand. ... The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA (usually identified as National Council of Churches, or NCC) is an association of 35 Christian faith groups in the United States with 100,000 local congregations and more than 45,000,000 adherents. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


Mar Thoma Church was attending the meetings of World Council of Churches from its first meeting in 1948. At the WCC meeting held in Evanston, Dr. Juhanon Mar Thoma Metropolitan was elected as one of its presidents. Since then the Chuch representatives attended all the General meetings. The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... His Grace The Rt. ...


The Mar Thoma Church is in communion relationship with the Independent Syrian Church of Thozhiyoor, although the doctrinal positions are not mutually accepted in full. The Church also is in Communion with Anglican Church (1958), Episcopal Church in the United States (1981), Anglican Church of Canada (1983), Church of South India & Church of North India (2004) and Anglican Church, Australia (2007). The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the nations capital is the national cathedral of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. ... Anglican Church of Canada The Anglican Church of Canada (the ACC) is the Canadian branch of the Anglican Communion. ... CSI St. ... The Church of North India has united various denominations and missions and orders in India. ...


Customs and traditions

Marthoma Church still follows some of the ancient customs. One of them is given below:


Weddings

Usually weddings are held on Thursdays. Before leaving their homes, the couple give gifts (Dhakshina) to their first teacher and elders of the family.


Ceremony at the church is in two parts. First is Betrothal or blessing of the ring. This is to make sure that the bride agrees to the wedding. The groom passes a ring to the officiating priest who examines it and hand it over to the bride requesting her to accept it. If she accepts the ring, wedding ceremony will continue. If it is returned the wedding will not be held. The value of the ring should not be more than what the poorest in the community can pay for. Before seventh century it was the practice for the groom to give copper coins, ‘from his earnings,’ to the bride through a third party. Now coins have been replaced by a ring. A Marthoma lady will wear her wedding ring till the end of her life. This ring is not an ornament, it is part of her life.


Because they are going to be the heads of a new family, they are to be crowned as king and Queen of the new home. The crown used is a golden chain, the one used by the earlier generations. Then the husband ties a gold pendant, known as minnu on his wife’s neck. Pendant is in the shape of a banyan tree leaf. A Marthoma lady will wear her pendant till the end of her life. This pendant is not an ornament, it is part of her life. To show that the husband is capable of protecting her, he clothes her in a new dress known as manthrakodi. Soon after the wedding ceremony, she changes to her new dress. A Marthoma lady will keep this dress till the end of her life and at her death, the body is dressed in her Manthrakodi.


After all the wedding ceremony, there is a function at home with immediate relations only. There, the groom gives a dress to bride’s mother. From that moment he is entitled to call her ‘Mother’.


Further reading

In English:

    1. Juhanon Marthoma Metropolitan, The Most Rev. Dr. (1952). ‘’Christianity in India and a Brief History of the Marthoma Syrian Church’’. Pub: K.M. Cherian.
    2. Mathew, K.V. Dr. (1985) The Faith and Practice of The Mar Thoma Church.
    3. Mathew N.M. (2003). ‘’St. Thomas Christians of Malabar Through Ages’’, C.S.S. Tiruvalla. ISBN 81-4821-008-8 and CN 80303
    4. Pothen, S.G. (1963). ‘’The Syrian Christians of Kerala’’. Asia Publishing House, London.
    5. #Zac Varghese Dr. & Mathew A. Kallumpram. (2003). ‘’Glimpses of Mar Thoma Church History’’. London, England. ISBN 81/900854/4/1

In Malayalam: [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...

    1. Chacko, T.C. (1936) Malankara Marthoma Sabha Charithra Samgraham. (Concise History of Marthoma Church), Pub: E.J. Institute, Kompady, Tiruvalla.
    2. Daniel, K.N. (1924) Malankara Sabha Charitravum Upadesangalum, (History and Doctrines of Malankara Church). M.C.Chacko, R.V.Press, Tiruvalla.
    3. Daniel, K.N. (1952). Udayamperoor Sunnahadosinte Canonukal. (Canons of Synod of Diamper) Pub: C.S.S., Tiruvalla.
    4. Eapen, Prof. Dr. K.V. (2001). Malankara Marthoma Suryani Sabha Charitram. (History of Malankara Marthoma Syrian Church). Pub: Kallettu, Muttambalam, Kottayam.
    5. Mathews Mar Athanasius Metropolitan. (1857). Mar Thoma Sleehayude Idavakayakunna Malankara Suryani Sabhaudai Canon. (Canon of the Malankara Syrian Church of Saint Thomas). Printed at Kottayam Syrian Seminary.
    6. Mathew, N.M. (2007). Malankara Marthoma Sabha Charitram, (History of the Marthoma Church), Volume 1.(2006), Volume II (2007). Volume III (2008) Pub. E.J.Institute, Thiruvalla
    7. Varughese, Rev.K.C., (1972). Malabar Swathantra Suryani Sabhyude Charitram (History of the Malankar Independednt Suryani Chuch)
    8. Mar Thoma Sabha Directory. (1999) Pub. The Publication Board of The Mar Thoma church, Tiruvalla, Kerala, India.

Udayamperoor is a small town situated in Kerala state in India. ... His Grace the Late Rt. ... , This article is about the town of Kottayam, See Kottayam district also. ...

References

  1. ^ National Council of Churches General Assembly (November 12, 1997). Accessed 2008-03-10.
  2. ^ Rev.C.P.Philipose, in Introduction to Concise History of Malankara Marthoma Church (1936) by T.C. Chacko, Page 12-13.
  3. ^ Psalm 74:8
  4. ^ Kerala Council of Historical Research findings in 2006-07.
  5. ^ ‘’Bible’’; I Kings. 9:26-28; 10:11,22; 2 Chro: 8:18; 9:21.
  6. ^ N.M.Mathew, ‘’Malankara Mar Thoma Sabha Charitram’’. Vol. I (Malyalam) Page 25, 32, 33
  7. ^ J.W.McCrindle, ‘’Ancient India As Described in Classical Literature’’, pp 77-78. Passages given by Nilakanda Sastri, K. G. (1939) in, ‘’Foreign Notices of South India’’. University of Madras. Strabo, ‘’Geographica’’ Book 15; Nicolaus Damascus, ‘’Universal History’’, Florus Lucius Annacus, ‘’Epitome of Rome from beginning to Augustus’’
  8. ^ Matthew 2:1
  9. ^ N.M.Mathew, ‘’Malankara Mar Thoma Sabha Charitram’’. Vol. I (Malyalam) Page 36.
  10. ^ Kerala Council for Historical Research findings in 2006-07.
  11. ^ Bowler, Gerry. (2000). ‘’The World encyclopedia of Christmas’’. McClelland Stewart Ltd., Toronto, Canada. ISBN 0771015313. LCCN: C009312471, 00931247. Page 139.
  12. ^ The Most Rev. Dr. Juhanon Marthoma Metropolitan. (1952). Christianity in India and a Brief History of the Mar Thoma Church, Page 10-11. Pub. K.M.Cherian.
  13. ^ ’’Periplus Maris Erythraei’’, Para 54.
  14. ^ Eusebius. (first pub. in C. 316). ‘’The History of the Church from Christ to Constantine’’, Book V, Chapter X.
  15. ^ ’’The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle’’ Part II, A.D. 750-919 (Everyman Press, London, 1912). Translation by Rev. James Ingram, London, 1823.
  16. ^ Nilakanda Sastri, K. G. (1939). ‘’Foreign Notices of South India’’. University of Madras. Page 147.
  17. ^ Nilakanda Sastri, K. G. (1939). Foreign Notices of South India. University of Madras. Page 147.
  18. ^ Marco Polo. The Book of Travels. Page 287.
  19. ^ Sreedhara Menon, A. A Survey of Kerala History.(Mal).Page 54.
  20. ^ Also known as Alejo-de-Menezes, and in Kerala people called him as Allosos Metran
  21. ^ Herberts. (1636). Some years Travels Into Asia And Afrique. London. Pub. In 1938 by Tamil Nadu Archives. Page. 304-305.
  22. ^ Travancore Manuel. Volume II, Page 185
  23. ^ Press List of Ancient Dutch Records – 1657-1825. Diary 1758. Page 64.
  24. ^ Sankunny Menon, P. (1878) A History of Travancore from the Earliest Times, Higgins Botham & co., Madras. Malayalam: Thiruvithancore Charitram (1988 ed.) Page 246.
  25. ^ Buchanan, Rev. Claudius, LL.D.(1811). Memoir of the Expediency of an Ecclesiastical Establishment for British India. Second Cambridge Edition. Page 76.
  26. ^ N.M.Mathew. Malankara Marthoma Sabha Charitram, Vol.I. E.J.Institute. Page 253-254.
  27. ^ Buchanan, Rev. Claudius. Memoir of the Expediency of an Ecclesiastical Establishment for British India, Page 76.
  28. ^ Aarthattu padiola
  29. ^ Zac Varghese & Mathew A.Kallumpram. (2003). Glimpses of Mar Thoma Church History. Page28-33. Mar Thoma Sabha Directory. (1999). Page 82-89.
  30. ^ Agur, C.M. (1903). Church History of Travancore. Asian Education Services.
  31. ^ Mathew, N.M. (2007). Malankara Marthoma Sabha Charitram, Volume II. Page 63.
  32. ^ Varughese, Rev. K.C., Malabar Swathantra Suryani Sabhyude Charitram.
  33. ^ Holy Bible Acts 11:26
  34. ^ Church History of Eusebius (AD 260-341) Book V, Chapter 10.)
  35. ^ Buchanan, Rev. Claudius in Memoir of the Expediency of an Ecclesisatical Establishment for British India. Foot notes Page 76
  36. ^ A copy of this Bible given to Dr. Buchanan for translation was later presented to him and is kept in Cambridge University Library.
  37. ^ Canons of Synod of Diamper
  38. ^ Press List of Ancient records, 1657-1825, Letters to Batavia, Page 64.
  39. ^ George, Dr. K.K. Rev.Naveekaranathinte Thrithya Jubilie (Third Jubilee of Reformation) Page 63.

The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Geographia may refer to: The work Geographia by Ptolemy. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei ) is a Greek periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along East Africa and India. ...

External links


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