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Encyclopedia > Maori
Te Puni, Māori Chief
Te Puni, Māori Chief

Māori is the name of the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their language. It is also the name of the people and language of the Cook Islands, referred to as Cook Islands Māori. Te Puni or Greedy, Maori Chief. ... Te Puni or Greedy, Maori Chief. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ...


The word māori means "normal" or "ordinary" in the Māori language and is widely applied ("wai māori" is fresh water as distinct from seawater). "Māori" has similarities in some other Polynesian languages such as Hawaiian in which the cognate word maoli means native, indigenous, real or actual. The use of the term Māoris as the plural of Māori is now generally used outside New Zealand. For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Sea water is water from a sea or ocean. ... The Polynesian languages are a group of related languages spoken in the region known as Polynesia. ... Hawaiian is the ancestral language of the indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands, the Hawaiians, a Polynesian people. ...


Today, many Māori prefer to refer to themselves as tāngata whenua (literally "people of the land").

Contents


Māori arrival in New Zealand

Recent maternal mitochondrial DNA analysis suggests that Polynesians, including Māori, are genetically linked to indigenous peoples of parts of Southeast Asia including those of Taiwan and the Andaman Islands. Current theory suggests that peoples from these areas made their way into the Pacific over the course of many centuries, passing through Melanesia and moving eastwards, colonizing previously-unsettled islands as far east as what is now French Polynesia, Hawai'i and Rapa Nui. Polynesian seafarers achieved Pacific settlement by making very long canoe voyages, in some cases against the prevailing winds and tides, and their navigation skills were very well developed. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Ethnolinguistic map of the precolonial Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... Melanesia (from Greek black islands) is a region extending from the west Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and north-east of Australia. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ...


There is evidence that Polynesian voyagers reached the South American mainland and made contact with indigenous South Americans; the strongest evidence lies in the sweet potato, known to Māori as kumara, which is widely grown around the Pacific but originated in the Andes. There is no evidence that Pacific peoples actually settled on the South American mainland or that South American peoples voyaged into the Pacific. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Ipomoea batatas Linnaeus, This article is about the plant. ... Kumara is the general Polynesian word for the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas Kumara is also the name of a town on the West Coast of New Zealand Kumara or Kumaraswami is a name for Kartikeya, the Hindu god of war This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists...


Polynesian voyagers are believed to have migrated to what is now New Zealand from eastern Polynesia in the latter part of the 1st millennium CE. As their descendents adjusted their practices and culture to their new environment, they became the Māori. There is no credible evidence of settlement in New Zealand prior to Māori settlement, and New Zealand was one of the last Pacific island groups reached by humans. Polynesia (from Greek, poly = many and nesi = island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands in the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... (1st millennium BC – 1st millennium – 2nd millennium – other millennia) Events Beginning of Christianity (30s) and Islam (7th century) London founded by Romans as Londinium Diaspora of the Jews The Olympic Games observed until 393 The Library of Alexandria, largest library in the world, burned Rise and fall of the Roman...


Archaeological evidence suggests that there were probably several waves of migration over to New Zealand between around 800 and 1300. Māori oral history describes their arrival from a place called Hawaiki by large ocean-going canoes (waka). Migration accounts vary among Māori tribes or iwi, whose members can identify with the different waka in their genealogies or whakapapa. For other uses, see number 800. ... Events Beginning of the Renaissance. ... Hawaiki is the mythical island that the Polynesians trace their origins to. ... Ocean (from Okeanos, a Greek god of sea and water; Greek ωκεανός) covers almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth. ... Canoe at El Nido, Philippines A canoe is a relatively small human-powered boat. ... Iwi (pronounced ee-wee) are the largest everyday social units in Māori society. ... Whakapapa or genealogy is a fundamental principle that permeates the whole of Maori culture. ...


According to Sir Peter Buck - 1949 there are 10 Maori Tribes resulting from the Main Fleet 1350 CE. Peter Henry Buck (ca. ...


According to Ngapuhi, one of the northern tribes, their ancestors sailed from Hawaiki, and their journey was aided by the gods in that the sun did not set for three days. A possible reason for this claim is that their voyage coincided with the appearance in the sky of the Crab Nebula supernova which for several days was bright enough to be seen in daylight. Contemporary Chinese and Arab astronomers also recorded this event and dated it equivalent to July 1054. Ngapuhi form one of the major and (with over 100,000 members) most numerous of the Maori tribes or iwi in New Zealand, occupying much the Northland Peninsula, also known as Tai Tokerau, north of the city of Auckland. ... Messier Object 1, the Crab Nebula. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ...


European arrival

European colonization of New Zealand occurred relatively recently, causing the late New Zealand historian Michael King to state in his book, The Penguin History Of New Zealand, that Māori were "the last major human community on earth untouched and unaffected by the wider world." Dr Michael King OBE (15 December 1945 - 30 March 2004) was a widely respected Pakeha New Zealand historian, author and biographer. ...


The early European explorers of New Zealand, including Abel Tasman and James Cook, reported encounters with Māori. Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 - 1659) was a Dutch seafarer and explorer, born in Lutjegast, a village in the province of Groningen, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644, in the service of the VOC (Dutch East India Company). ... British explorer James Cook, portrait by Nathaniel Dance, c. ...


These early reports described the Māori as a fierce and proud warrior race. Inter-tribal warfare was a way of life, with the conquered being enslaved or in some cases eaten. From as early as the 1780s Māori had encounters with European sealers and whalers, some even crewed on their ships. There was also a continuous trickle of escaped convicts from Australia and deserters from visiting ships. By 1830 it was estimated that there were as many as 2,000 Pakeha living among the Māori, status varying from slaves through to high ranking advisors, from prisoners to those who abandoned European culture and identified themselves as Māori. Pakeha were valued for their ability to describe European skills and culture and their ability to obtain European items in trade, particularly weaponry. These Europeans were known as Pakeha Māori. When Pomare led a war party against Titore in 1838, among his warriors were 132 Pakeha mercenaries. Frederick Edward Maning, an early settler, wrote two colourful contemporaneous accounts of life at that time which have become classics of New Zealand literature: Old New Zealand and History of the War in the North of New Zealand against the Chief Heke. Governor George Grey learned the language and recorded much of the mythology. Events and Trends 1787 United States Constitution 1788 Great Britain established the prison colony of New South Wales in Australia. ... Categories: Disambiguation | Stub ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch Whaling is the hunting and killing of whales. ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Pakeha is a New Zealand English word for European New Zealanders, that is, New Zealanders of predominantly European descent. ... 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Frederick Edward Maning (July 5, 1812 - July 25, 1883) was a notable early settler in New Zealand, a writer and judge of the Native Land Court. ... A governor is also a device that regulates the speed of a machine. ... Statue of Sir George Grey in Albert Park, Auckland Sir George Edward Grey KCB (April 14, 1812 - September 19, 1898) was a soldier, explorer, Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Cape Colony (South Africa), Premier of New Zealand and a writer. ...


Musket wars

During this period the acquisition of muskets by those tribes in close contact with European visitors destabilised the existing balance of power between Māori tribes, and there was a period of bloody inter-tribal warfare, known as the Musket Wars, during which several tribes were effectively exterminated and others were driven from their traditional territory. European diseases also killed a large but unknown number of Māori during this period. Estimates vary between ten and fifty percent. Musket Wars refers to battles in the early 1800s when there was deadly inter-tribal conflict between various groups of Maori, primarily on the North Island in New Zealand. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ...


Annexation

With increasing European missionary activity and settlement in the 1830s as well as perceived European lawlessness, the British Crown, as a predominant world power, came under pressure to intervene. Ultimately this led to William Hobson being dispatched with instructions to take possesssion of New Zealand. Before he arrived, Queen Victoria annexed new Zealand by royal proclamation in January 1840. On arrival in February, Hobson negotiated the Treaty of Waitangi with the surrounding northern chiefs. This treaty was subsequently signed by many other Māori chiefs, though by no means all. The treaty gave Māori British citizenship in return for a guarantee of property rights and tribal autonomy. A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... The Crown is a term which is used to separate the government authority and property of the state in a kingdom from any personal influence and private assets held by the current Monarch. ... William Hobson (September 26, 1792 - September 10, 1842), was the first Governor of New Zealand and co-author of the Treaty of Waitangi. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Te Tiriti o Waitangi) was signed on 6 February 1840 at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. ... The United Kingdom has arguably the worlds most complex nationality laws, because of its former status as an imperial power. ...


Disputes and decline

In the 1860s, disputes over questionable land purchases and the attempts of Māori in the Waikato to establish a rival British-style system of royalty led to the New Zealand wars. Although these resulted in relatively few deaths, large tracts of tribal land were confiscated by the colonial government. Settlements such as Parihaka in Taranaki are remembered as sites of violent conflict that took place there during that period. Events and trends Italian unification under King Victor Emmanuel II. Wars for expansion and national unity continue until the incorporation of the Papal States (March 17, 1861 - September 20, 1870). ... Waikato is the name of a region in the North Island of New Zealand. ... The term New Zealand Wars, once called the Māori Wars, or sometimes The Land Wars, refers to a series of conflicts that took place in New Zealand between 1845 and 1872. ... Parihaka is a small community in Taranaki region, New Zealand, nestling half way between Mount Taranaki and the Tasman Sea. ... Taranaki is a region in New Zealands North Island and the name of the mountain which is the regions main feature, Geography and people Taranaki is situated on a peninsula on the west coast of the North Island, surrounding the volcanic peak. ...


With the loss of much of their land, Māori went into a period of decline, and in the late 19th century it was believed that the Māori population would cease to exist as a separate race and be assimilated into the European population.


Revival

The predicted decline did not occur, and population levels recovered. Despite a high degree of intermingling between the Māori and European populations, Māori were able to retain their cultural identity and in the 1960s and 1970s Māoridom underwent a cultural revival. This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1960s. ... This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ...


Since that time, sympathetic governments and political activism have led to compensation for certain instances of unjust confiscation of land and the violation of other property rights. A special court, the Waitangi Tribunal, was established to investigate and make recommendations on such issues. As a result of the compensation paid, Māori now have significant interests in the fishing and forestry industries. // Use of the term The concept of property or ownership has no single or universally accepted definition. ... A court is an official, public forum which a public power establishes by lawful authority to adjudicate disputes, and to dispense civil, labour, administrative and criminal justice under the law. ... The Waitangi Tribunal is a New Zealand court empowered to compensate Maori people for land obtained by fraud or by force since 1840. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, the most abundant fish species in the world. ...


Māori culture and language is taught in most New Zealand schools, and pre-school kohanga reo or language nests teach tamariki or young children exclusively in Māori. Māori Television, a government-funded TV station committed to broadcasting primarily in te reo, began broadcasting on March 28, 2004. The Māori language has the equivalent status to English in government and law. Māori politicians have seven designated Māori seats in the New Zealand parliament (and may stand in the General seats), and consideration and consultation with Māori are routine requirements for many New Zealand councils and government organisations. Māori culture is a distinctive component of New Zealand culture. ... The kohanga reo (English: language nests) are kindergartens where all instruction is given in the Maori language. ... Tamariki is the New Zealand Maori name for young children. ... Twentieth-century broadcasting in Māori was provided by various New Zealand TV stations. ... Māori (or Maori) is a language spoken by the native peoples of New Zealand and the Cook Islands. ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in Leap years). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Law (a loanword from Old Norse lag), in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, proscribe or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide punishments for those who do not follow... For most of the time since the establishment of Westminster-style Parliamentary Government in New Zealand, the Maori inhabitants have had allotted to them specific seats in the New Zealand Parliament. ... The debating chamber or hemicycle of the European Parliament in Brussels. ...


Despite significant social and economic advances during the 20th century, Māori still perform negatively in most health and education statistics, labour participation as well as being over-represented in criminal and corrections statistics. The New Zealand Department of Corrections The New Zealand Department of Corrections was established on 1 October 1995, following government decisions on the recommendations of the Review of the New Zealand Department of Justice in 1994. ...


In 2001 a dispute arose between Danish toymaker LEGO and several Māori tribal groups fronted by lawyer Maui Solomon, and also several members of an online discussion forum Aotearoa Cafe, over the popular LEGO toy line, Bionicle, which used many words that were an appropriation of Māori language, imagery and folklore, was settled amicably. LEGO refused to withdraw the game, saying the names it used were drawn from many cultures, but later agreed that it had taken the names from Māori, and agreed to change certain names or spellings to help set the toy line apart from the Māori legends. This, however, did not prevent the many Bionicle users from continuing to use the disputed words, resulting in the popular Bionicle website BZPOWER coming under a denial of service attack for four days by a cyber attacker using the name Kotiate. Lego Group logo Lego sets feature a large variety of themed (“minifigures”), including the Space, Castle, and City figures above. ... The Aotearoa Cafe is the largest Maori discussion forum on the internet. ... Lego Group logo Lego sets feature a large variety of themed (“minifigures”), including the Space, Castle, and City figures above. ... Bionicle is a line of toys made by LEGO and marketed at 6-12 year-old boys. ... Bionicle is a line of toys made by LEGO and marketed at 6-12 year-old boys. ... Bionicle is a line of toys made by LEGO and marketed at 6-12 year-old boys. ... A denial-of-service attack (also, DoS attack) is an attack on a computer system or network that causes a loss of service to users, typically the loss of network connectivity and services by consuming the bandwidth of the victim network or overloading the computational resources of the victim system. ...

  • Lego Site Irks Māori Sympathizer

Several artistic collectives have been established by Māori tribal groups. These collectives have begun creating and exporting jewellery (such as bone carved hei matau pendants and greenstone jewellery) and other artistic items (such as wood carvings and textiles). Several actors who have recently appeared in high-profile movies filmed in New Zealand have come back wearing such jewellery, the most notable of which is Viggo Mortensen of The Lord of the Rings fame, who is now never without a Hei Matau hanging around his neck. These events have contributed towards a worldwide interest in traditional Māori culture and arts. A collective is a group of people who are organized around an issue or to accomplish a goal together. ... Jewellery (spelled jewelry in American English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... A hei matau is a bone carving in the shape of a highly stylized fish hook typical of the Maori people of New Zealand. ... This article is about a form of green nephrite jade found in New Zealand. ... A news/talk radio station on the frequency of 1300 AM in Grand Rapids, Michigan. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Viggo Mortensen as Aragorn Viggo Mortensen (born October 20, 1958 in New York City), is a Danish-American theater and movie actor, a published poet, photographer and painter. ... Wikicities has a wiki about The Lord of the Rings: The Lord of the Rings Wiki The Encyclopedia of Arda - Mark Fishers tribute site to the works of Tolkien Tolkien Gateway Tolkien Collectors Gateway The Tolkien Wiki Community TheOneRing. ...


See also

In New Zealand, Native Schools were established to provide education for the Maori. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Māori (or Maori) is a language spoken by the native peoples of New Zealand and the Cook Islands. ... The Maori are the native peoples of New Zealand. ... The Aotearoa Cafe is the largest Maori discussion forum on the internet. ... Apirana Ngata, perhaps the most prominent Maori politician Maori politics is the politics of the Maori people, who were the original inhabitants of New Zealand and who are now the countrys largest minority. ...

External Links

  • maori.org.nz The largest Māori site on the net, covering a wide range of topics.
  • Māori Sovereignty Yahoogroup
  • Aotearoa Cafe Discussion forum about Māori history, politics and art.
  • Aotearoa Māori Internet Organisation
  • Māori related news headlines
  • Ta Moko A website about the famous 'Moko', unique Māori body art.
  • Māori theology - by the late Michael Shirres
  • Te Ara Encylopedia of New Zealand - Government-funded encyclopedia

 
 

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