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Encyclopedia > Mao Zedong
毛泽东
Mao Zedong


In office
1945 – 1976
Preceded by Chen Duxiu
Succeeded by Hua Guofeng

In office
1954 – 1959
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Liu Shaoqi

Born December 26, 1893(1893-12-26)
Hunan, China
Died September 9, 1976 (aged 82)
Flag of the People's Republic of China Beijing, China
Nationality Chinese
Political party Communist Party of China
Spouse Yang Kaihui (1920-1930)
He Zizhen (1930-1937)
Jiang Qing (1939-1976)

Mao Zedong pronunciation  (Simplified Chinese: 毛泽东; Traditional Chinese: 毛澤東; Pinyin: Máo Zédōng; Wade-giles: Mao Tse-tung; December 26, 1893September 9, 1976) was a Chinese military and political leader, who led the Communist Party of China (CPC) to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War, and was the leader of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles), aka Chairman Mao leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Chairman of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党主席 pinyin: Zhōngguo´ Go`ngchÇŽndÇŽng ZhÇ”xi´), was the most powerful position in the Communist Party of China until the death of Mao. ... Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) played many different roles in Chinese history. ... Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席 pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhǔxí) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a Chinese Communist leader. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links China_Qing_Dynasty_Flag_1889. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yang Yáng Kāihuì (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; courtesy name: Yúnjǐn 云锦; 1901 – November 14, 1930) was the second wife of Mao Zedong from 1920 to 1927. ... Hè ZǐzhÄ“n (贺子珍) (September 1909 - April 19, 1984) was the third wife of Mao Zedong from May 1928 to 1939. ... Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ ShÅ«méng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of... Image File history File links Zh-Mao_Zedong. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... People on the stairs to the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago In general, the English word people refers to a specific group of humans, or to persons in a general sense. ...


Regarded as one of the most important figures in modern world history,[1] Mao is still a controversial figure today, over thirty years after his death. He is held in high regard in China where he is often portrayed as a great revolutionary and strategist who eventually defeated Chiang Kai-shek in the Chinese Civil War, and transformed the country into a major power through his policies. However, many of Mao's socio-political programs such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution are blamed by critics from both within and outside China for causing severe damage to the culture, society, economy and foreign relations of China, as well as enormous and unnecessary loss of lives, a peacetime death toll in the tens of millions.[2] Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The foreign relations of the Peoples Republic of China draws upon traditions extending back to China in the Qing Dynasty and the Opium Wars, despite China having undergone many radical upheavals over the past two and a half centuries. ...


Although still officially venerated in China, his influence has been largely overshadowed by the political and economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping and other leaders since his death.[3][4] Mao is also recognized as a poet and calligrapher.[5] Chinese Economic Reform (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) refers to the program of economic changes called Socialism with Chinese characteristics in the mainland of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) that were started in 1978 by pragmatists within the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Deng Xiaoping and are ongoing... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... Calligraphy (from Greek καλλι calli beauty + γραφος graphos writing) is the art of decorative writing. ...

Contents

Early life

The eldest child of a relatively prosperous peasant family, Mao Zedong was born on December 26, 1893 in a village called Shaoshan in Xiangtan County (湘潭縣), Hunan province. His ancestors migrated from Jiangxi province during the Ming Dynasty, and had settled there as farmers. Due to his family's relative wealth, his father was able to send him to school and later to Changsha for more advanced schooling. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Shaoshan (韶山, pinyin Sháo Shān) is a city of Xiangtan, Hunan Province, known as the birthplace of Mao Zedong, the founder of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xiāngtán City (湘潭市) is a city located in Xiangtan County in the center of Hunan province, China. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Changsha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital city of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ...

Names
Given name Style name
Trad. 毛澤東 潤之¹
Simp. 毛泽东 润之
Pinyin Máo Zédōng Rùnzhī
WG Mao Tse-tung Jun-chih
IPA /mau̯ː˧˥ tsɤ˧˥.tʊŋ˥/ /ʐuənː˥˩ tʂ̩˥/
Surname: Mao
¹Originally 詠芝(咏芝) then 润芝, in Xiangtan dialect
have the same pronunciation yùnzhī

During the 1911 Revolution, Mao enlisted as a soldier in a local regiment in Hunan which fought on the side of the revolutionaries. Once the Qing Dynasty had been effectively toppled, Mao left the army and returned to school.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Chinese style name, sometimes also known as a courtesy name, is an extra name that could be used in place of the given name. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... The Xinhai Revolution (or Hsinhai Revolution, Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnh ng), named for the Chinese year of Xinhai (1911), was the overthrow (October 10, 1911-February 12, 1912) of Chinas ruling Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late...


After graduating from the First Provincial Normal School of Hunan in 1918, Mao traveled with Professor Yang Changji, his high school teacher and future father-in-law, to Beijing during the May Fourth Movement in 1919. “Peking” redirects here. ... Students in Beijing rallied during the May Fourth Movement. ...


Professor Yang held a faculty position at Peking University. Because of Yang's recommendation, Mao worked as an assistant librarian at the University with Li Dazhao as curator. Mao registered as a part-time student at Beijing University and audited many lectures and seminars by famous intellectuals, such as Chen Duxiu, Hu Shi, Qian Xuantong, etc. During his stay in Beijing, he read as much as possible, and through his readings, he was introduced to Communist theories. He married Yang Kaihui, Professor Yang's daughter who was his fellow student, despite an existing marriage arranged by his father at home. Mao never acknowledged this marriage. In October 1930, the Kuomintang (KMT) captured Yang Kaihui with her son, Anying. The KMT imprisoned them both and Anying, then 8, was later forced to watch as the KMT tortured and killed his mother, Yang Kaihui.[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Li Dazhao (李大釗, Wades-Giles: Li Ta-chao) (October 29, 1888 - April 28, 1927) was a Chinese intellectual who cofounded the Communist Party of China with Chen Duxiu in 1921. ... Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) played many different roles in Chinese history. ... Hu Shih (Simplified: 胡适, Traditional: 胡適, Pinyin: Hú Shì), (December 17, 1891-February 24, 1962) was a Chinese philosopher and essayist. ... Qian Xuantong (錢玄同 in pinyin: Qián Xuántóng) (1887-1939) was a Chinese phonetician who promoted vernacular Chinese (baihua). ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yang Yáng Kāihuì (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; courtesy name: Yúnjǐn 云锦; 1901 – November 14, 1930) was the second wife of Mao Zedong from 1920 to 1927. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yang Yáng Kāihuì (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; courtesy name: Yúnjǐn 云锦; 1901 – November 14, 1930) was the second wife of Mao Zedong from 1920 to 1927. ...


Mao turned down an opportunity to study in France because of poverty. Later, he claimed that it was because he firmly believed that China's problems could be studied and resolved only within China. Unlike his contemporaries, Mao concentrated on studying the peasant majority of China's population.


On July 23, 1921, Mao, age 27, attended the first session of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China in Shanghai. Two years later, he was elected as one of the five commissars of the Central Committee of the Party during the third Congress session. Later that year (1923), Mao returned to Hunan at the instruction of the CPC Central Committee and the Kuomintang Central Committee to organise the Hunan branch of the Kuomintang.[7] In 1924, he was a delegate to the first National Conference of the Kuomintang, where he was elected an Alternate Executive of the Central Committee. In 1924, he became an Executive of the Shanghai branch of the Kuomintang, and Secretary of the Organisation Department. is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a party congress that is held about once every five years. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


For a while, Mao remained in Shanghai, an important city that the CPC emphasized for the Revolution. However, the Party encountered major difficulties organizing labour union movements and building a relationship with its nationalist ally, the Kuomintang. The Party had become poor, and Mao was disillusioned with the revolution and moved back to Shaoshan. During his stay at home, Mao's interest in the revolution was rekindled after hearing of the 1925 uprisings in Shanghai and Guangzhou. His political ambitions returned, and he then went to Guangdong, the base of the Kuomintang, and took part in the preparations for the second session of the National Congress of Kuomintang. In October 1925, Mao became acting Propaganda Director of the Kuomintang.[7] The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in...


In early 1927, Mao returned to Hunan where, in an urgent meeting held by the Communist Party, he made a report based on his investigations of the peasant uprisings in the wake of the Northern Expedition. This is considered the initial and decisive step towards the successful application of Mao's revolutionary theories.[8] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Political ideas

Main article: Maoism

Mao had a great interest in academic study as a child, encouraged by his father.[9] In addition to his limited formal education, Mao spent six months studying independently. Mao was first introduced to communism while working at Peking University, and in 1921 he co-founded the Communist Party of China(or CPC).[10] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1920, Mao also developed his theory of violent revolution. His theory was inspired by the Russian revolution and was likely influenced by the Chinese literary works: Outlaws of the Marsh and Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Mao sought to subvert the alliance of imperialism and feudalism in China. He thought the Nationalists to be both economically and politically vulnerable and thus that the revolution could not be steered by Nationalists. He concluded that violent revolution must be conducted by the proletariat under the supervision of a Communist party. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... For other uses, see Romance of the Three Kingdoms (disambiguation). ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


Throughout the 1920s, Mao led several labour struggles based upon his studies of the propagation and organization of the contemporary labour movements. [9]However, these struggles were successfully subdued by the government, and Mao fled from Changsha after he was labeled a radical activist. He pondered these failures and finally realized that industrial workers were unable to lead the revolution because they made up only a small portion of China's population, and unarmed labour struggles could not resolve the problems of imperial and feudal suppression. Changsha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital city of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ...


Mao began to depend on Chinese peasants who later became staunch supporters of his theory of violent revolution. This dependence on the rural rather than the urban proletariat to instigate violent revolution distinguished Mao from his predecessors and contemporaries. Mao himself was from a peasant family, and thus he cultivated his reputation among the farmers and peasants and introduced them to Marxism.[8][11]


War and Revolution

In 1927, Mao conducted the famous Autumn Harvest Uprising in Changsha, Hunan, as commander-in-chief. Mao led an army, called the "Revolutionary Army of Workers and Peasants", but was defeated and scattered after fierce battles. Afterwards, the exhausted troops were forced to leave Hunan for Sanwan, Jiangxi, where Mao re-organized the scattered soldiers, rearranging the military division into smaller regiments. Mao also ordered that each company must have a party branch office with a commissar as its leader who would give political instructions based upon superior mandates. This military rearrangement in Sanwan, Jiangxi initiated the CPC's absolute control over its military force and has been considered to have the most fundamental and profound impact upon the Chinese revolution. Later, they moved to the Jinggang Mountains, Jiangxi. The Autumn Harvest Uprising was an insurrection that took place in Hunan province in China in 1927, led by Mao Zedong (later known as Chairman Mao). ... Changsha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital city of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... Jinggangshan as represented by Communist painter Li Keran (1907-1989). ...


In the Jinggang Mountains, Mao persuaded two local insurgent leaders to pledge their allegiance to him. There, Mao joined his army with that of Zhu De, creating the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China, Red Army in short. (the Fourth Front of Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China). Zhu De Zhū Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: Yùjiē 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 – July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


From 1931 to 1934, Mao helped establish the Soviet Republic of China and was elected Chairman of this small republic in the mountainous areas in Jiangxi. Here, Mao was married to He Zizhen. His previous wife, Yang Kaihui, had been arrested and executed in 1930, just three years after their departure. The Jiangxi Soviet, formally called the Chinese Soviet Republic (中华苏维埃共和国 Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Sūwéiāi Gònghēguó), also translated as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, existed from 1931 to 1934. ... Hè ZǐzhÄ“n (贺子珍) (September 1909 - April 19, 1984) was the third wife of Mao Zedong from May 1928 to 1939. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yang Yáng Kāihuì (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; courtesy name: Yúnjǐn 云锦; 1901 – November 14, 1930) was the second wife of Mao Zedong from 1920 to 1927. ...


In Jiangxi, Mao's authoritative domination, especially that of the military force, was challenged by the Jiangxi branch of the CPC and military officers. Mao's opponents, among whom the most prominent was Li Wenlin, the founder of the CPC's branch and Red Army in Jiangxi, were against Mao's land policies and proposals to reform the local party branch and army leadership. Mao reacted first by accusing the opponents of opportunism and kulakism and then set off a series of systematic suppressions of them.[12] Later the suppressions were turned into bloody physical elimination. It is reported that horrible forms of torture and killing took place. Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that victims were subjected to a red-hot gun-rod being rammed into the anus, and that there were many cases of cutting open the stomach and scooping out the heart.[13] The estimated number of the victims amounted to several thousands and could be as high as 186,000.[14] Through the so-called revolutionary terrorism, or red terrorism, Mao's authority and domination in Jiangxi was secured and reassured. Opportunism is a term used in politics and political science. ... The collectivisation campaign in the USSR, 1930s. ...


Mao, with the help of Zhu De, built a modest but effective army, undertook experiments in rural reform and government, and provided refuge for Communists fleeing the rightist purges in the cities. Mao's methods are normally referred to as Guerrilla warfare; but he himself made a distinction between guerrilla warfare (youji zhan) and Mobile Warfare (yundong zhan). Zhu De Zhū Dé (朱德, Wade-Giles: Chu Teh, zi: Yùjiē 玉阶) (December 1, 1886 – July 6, 1976) was a Chinese Communist military leader and statesman. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ...


Mao's Guerrilla Warfare and Mobile Warfare was based upon the fact of the poor armament and military training of the red army which consisted mainly of impoverished peasants, who, however, were all encouraged by revolutionary passions and aspiring after a communist utopia. “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ...


Around 1930, there had been more than ten regions, usually entitled "soviet areas," under control of the CPC.[15] The prosperity of "soviet areas" startled and worried Chiang Kai-shek, chairman of the Kuomintang government, who waged five waves of besieging campaigns against the "central soviet area." More than one million Kuomintang soldiers were involved in these five campaigns, four out of which were defeated by the red army led by Mao. By June 1932 (the height of its power), the Red Army had no less than 45,000 soldiers, with a further 200,000 local militia acting as a subsidiary force.[16] Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ...


Under increasing pressures from the KMT encirclement campaigns, there was a struggle for power within the Communist leadership. Mao was removed from his important positions and replaced by individuals (including Zhou Enlai) who appeared loyal to the orthodox line advocated by Moscow and represented within the CPC by a group known as the 28 Bolsheviks. Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... The Twenty Eight Bolsheviks were a group of Chinese students who studied at the Moscow Sun Yat-sen University from the late 1920s until early 1935. ...

Mao in 1935
Mao in 1938, writing On Protracted War
Mao in 1938, writing On Protracted War

Chiang Kai-shek, who had earlier assumed nominal control of China due in part to the Northern Expedition, was determined to eliminate the Communists. By October 1934, he had them surrounded, prompting them to engage in the "Long March," a retreat from Jiangxi in the southeast to Shaanxi in the northwest of China. It was during this 9,600 kilometer (5,965 mile), year-long journey that Mao emerged as the top Communist leader, aided by the Zunyi Conference and the defection of Zhou Enlai to Mao's side. At this Conference, Mao entered the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China. Young Mao This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Young Mao This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Mao Zedong ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Mao Zedong ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China and allied warlords Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek various, eventually Mao Zedong Strength over 300,000 First Front Red Army: 86,000 (October 1934) 7,000 (October 1935) The Long March (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a massive military retreat undertaken...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... As a well-organized and highly disciplined party, the Communist Party of China made important decisions and enforced its policies by holding different meetings. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949...


According to the standard Chinese Communist Party line, from his base in Yan'an, Mao led the Communist resistance against the Japanese in the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).[citation needed] More critical examinations of his role reveal that Mao was primarily concerned with expanding CPC influence and weakening the KMT[citation needed]; Under Mao's leadership CPC officials arranged ceasefires with the Japanese in central areas to protect Japanese train lines and allow time for an increase in CPC membership, all while pretending to be vigorously opposing the Japanese. In fact, as of late 1940, Mao was so focused on opposition to the KMT that he confided to top CPC officials that he wished for continued Japanese occupation of China. [17] Mao further consolidated power over the Communist Party in 1942 by launching the Zheng Feng, or "Rectification" campaign against rival CPC members such as Wang Ming, Wang Shiwei, and Ding Ling. Also while in Yan'an, Mao divorced He Zizhen and married the actress Lan Ping, who would become known as Jiang Qing. Yanan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yen-an), is a city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China. ... Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime... Zheng Feng (整风运动), or Cheng Feng, more commonly known as the Rectification, was a mass movement initiated by Mao Zedong in the 1940’s with deep influence in modern history of China. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Dīng Líng (丁玲) was the pseudonym of Jiǎng Bīngzhī (蒋冰之), also known as Bīn Zhǐ (彬芷) (October 12, 1904 - March 4, 1986), a contemporary Chinese author from Linli (临澧), Hunan province. ... Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ Shūméng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of...

Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong met in the wartime capital of Chongqing, to toast to the Chinese victory over Japan, but their shaky alliance was short-lived.

During the Sino-Japanese War, Mao Zedong's strategies were opposed by both Chiang Kai-shek and the United States. The US regarded Chiang as an important ally, able to help shorten the war by engaging the Japanese occupiers in China. Chiang, in contrast, sought to build the ROC army for the certain conflict with Mao's communist forces after the end of World War II. This fact was not understood well in the US, and precious lend-lease armaments continued to be allocated to the Kuomintang. In turn, Mao spent part of the war (as to whether it was most or only a little is disputed) fighting the Kuomintang for control of certain parts of China. Both the Communists and Nationalists have been criticised for fighting amongst themselves rather than allying against the Japanese Imperial Army. However the Nationalists were better equipped and did most of the fighting against the Japanese army in China.[18] This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Lend-Lease program was a program of the United States during World War II that allowed the United States to provide the Allied Powers with war material without becoming directly involved in the war. ...


In 1944, the Americans sent a special diplomatic envoy, called the Dixie Mission, to the Communist Party of China. According to Edwin Moise, in Modern China: A History 2nd Edition: The United States Army Observation Group, commonly known as the Dixie Mission, was sent during World War Two to Yenan, China, to establish the first official relations between the Communist Party of China and the United States of America. ...

Most of the Americans were favourably impressed. The CPC seemed less corrupt, more unified, and more vigorous in its resistance to Japan than the Guomindang. United States fliers shot down over North China...confirmed to their superiors that the CPC was both strong and popular over a broad area. In the end, the contacts with the USA developed with the CPC led to very little.

Then again, modern commentators have disputed such claims. Amongst others, Willy Lam stated that during the war with Japan: The Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist Party of China (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; pinyin: Zhōngguó Guómíndǎng; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguo Guomindang; literally the National Peoples Party of China...

The great majority of casualties sustained by Chinese soldiers were borne by KMT, not Communist divisions. Mao and other guerrilla leaders decided at the time to conserve their strength for the "larger struggle" of taking over all of China once the Japanese Imperial Army was decimated by the U.S.-led Allied Forces.[18]
Mao in 1946 at Yan'an
Mao in 1946 at Yan'an

After the end of World War II, the US continued to support Chiang Kai-shek, now openly against the Communist Red Army (led by Mao Zedong) in the civil war for control of China. The US support was part of its view to contain and defeat world communism. Likewise, the Soviet Union gave quasi-covert support to Mao (acting as a concerned neighbor more than a military ally, to avoid open conflict with the US) and gave large supplies of arms to the Communist Party of China, although newer Chinese records indicate the Soviet "supplies" were not as large as previously believed, and consistently fell short of the promised amount of aid. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Mao Zedong ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Mao Zedong ... Yanan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yen-an), is a city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China. ... For other uses, see Peoples Liberation Army (disambiguation) The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the military of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War...


On January 21, 1949, Kuomintang forces suffered massive losses against Mao's Red Army. In the early morning of December 10, 1949, Red Army troops laid siege to Chengdu, the last KMT-occupied city in mainland China, and Chiang Kai-shek evacuated from the mainland to Taiwan (Formosa) that same day. is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Cheng-tu), located in southwest China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a sub-provincial city. ...


Leadership of China

The People's Republic of China was established on October 1, 1949. It was the culmination of over two decades of civil and international war. From 1954 to 1959, Mao was the Chairman of the PRC. During this period, Mao was called Chairman Mao (毛主席) or the Great Leader Chairman Mao (伟大领袖毛主席). The Communist Party assumed control of all media in the country and used it to promote the image of Mao and the Party. The Nationalists under General Chiang Kai-Shek were vilified as were countries such as the United States of America and Japan. The Chinese people were exhorted to devote themselves to build and strengthen their country. In his speech declaring the foundation of the PRC, Mao announced: "The Chinese people have stood up!" is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ...


Mao took up residence in Zhongnanhai, a compound next to the Forbidden City in Beijing, and there he ordered the construction of an indoor swimming pool and other buildings. Mao often did his work either in bed or by the side of the pool, preferring not to wear formal clothes unless absolutely necessary, according to Dr. Li Zhisui, his personal physician. (Li's book, The Private Life of Chairman Mao, is regarded as controversial, especially by those sympathetic to Mao.) An aerial view of Zhongnanhai The Zhongnanhai (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngnánhăi) is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China which serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... Dr. Li Zhisui (b. ... The Private Life of Chairman Mao is an extensive biography of Mao Zedong, published in 1994 by his personal physician Dr. Li Zhisui after fleeing to the USA following Mao Zedongs death. ...

A meeting between Mao and Joseph Stalin after the CPC's 1949 victory over the KMT in the Chinese Civil War.

Mao’s first political campaigns after founding the People’s Republic were land reform and the suppression of counter-revolutionaries, which centered on mass executions, often before organized crowds. These campaigns of mass repression targeted former KMT officials, businessmen, former employees of Western companies, intellectuals whose loyalty was suspect, and significant numbers of rural gentry.[19] The U.S. State department in 1976 estimated that there may have been a million killed in the land reform, 800,000 killed in the counterrevolutionary campaign.[20] Mao himself claimed a total of 700,000 killed during these early years (1949–53).[21] However, because there was a policy to select "at least one landlord, and usually several, in virtually every village for public execution",[22] 1 million deaths seems to be an absolute minimum, and many authors agree on a figure of between 2 million and 5 million dead.[23][24] In addition, at least 1.5 million people were sent to "reform through labour" camps (laogai).[25] Mao’s personal role in ordering mass executions is undeniable.[26][27] He defended these killings as necessary for the securing of power.[28] Mao and Stalin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mao and Stalin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... -1... Map of laogai in China Laogai (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), the abbreviation for Laodong Gaizao(勞動改造), which means reform through labor, is a slogan of the Chinese criminal justice system and has been used to refer to the use of prison labor in the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Following the consolidation of power, Mao launched the First Five-Year Plan (1953-8). The plan aimed to end Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become a world power. With the USSR's assistance, new industrial plants were built and agricultural production eventually fell to a point where industry was beginning to produce enough capital that China no longer needed the USSR's support. The success of the First Five Year Plan was to encourage Mao to instigate the Second Five Year Plan, the Great Leap Forward, in 1958. Mao also launched a phase of rapid collectivization. The CPC introduced price controls as well as a Chinese character simplification aimed at increasing literacy. Land was taken from landlords and more wealthy peasants and given to poorer peasants. Large scale industrialization projects were also undertaken. Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ...


Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred Flowers Campaign, in which Mao indicated his supposed willingness to consider different opinions about how China should be governed. Given the freedom to express themselves, liberal and intellectual Chinese began opposing the Communist Party and questioning its leadership. This was initially tolerated and encouraged. After a few months, Mao's government reversed its policy and persecuted those, totalling perhaps 500,000, who criticized, and were merely alleged to have criticized, the Party in what is called the Anti-Rightist Movement. Authors such as Jung Chang have alleged that the Hundred Flowers Campaign was merely a ruse to root out "dangerous" thinking.[29] Others such as Dr Li Zhisui have suggested that Mao had initially seen the policy as a way of weakening those within his party who opposed him, but was surprised by the extent of criticism and the fact that it began to be directed at his own leadership.[citation needed] It was only then that he used it as a method of identifying and subsequently persecuting those critical of his government. The Hundred Flowers movement led to the condemnation, silencing, and death of many citizens, also linked to Mao's Anti-Rightist Movement, with death tolls possibly in the millions. The Hundred Flowers Campaign, also termed the Hundred Flowers Movement, (Chinese: 百花运动, bǎihuā yùndòng) is the period referring to a brief interlude in the Peoples Republic of China from 1958 to 1966 during which the Communist Party authorities permitted or encouraged a variety of views and solutions... The Anti-Rightist Movement (反右派运动)) of the Peoples Republic of China in the 1950s and early 1960s consisted of a series of campaigns to purge alleged rightists within the Communist Party of China and abroad. ... Jung Chang (Traditional Chinese: 張戎, Simplified Chinese: 张戎, Wade-Giles: Chang Jung, Pinyin: Zhāng Róng; born March 25, 1952) is a Chinese-born British writer, best known for her family autobiography Wild Swans, selling over 10 million copies worldwide, but banned in mainland China. ... Dr. Li Zhisui (b. ...


Great Leap Forward

Main article: Great Leap Forward

In January 1958, Mao launched the second Five-Year Plan known as the Great Leap Forward, a plan intended as an alternative model for economic growth to the Soviet model focusing on heavy industry that was advocated by others in the party. Under this economic program, the relatively small agricultural collectives which had been formed to date were rapidly merged into far larger people's communes, and many of the peasants ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and the small-scale production of iron and steel. All private food production was banned; livestock and farm implements were brought under collective ownership. The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... The Great Leap Forward (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social plan used from 1958 to 1960 which aimed to use Chinas vast population to rapidly transform mainland China from a primarily agrarian economy dominated by peasant farmers... Peoples communes (人民公社 Pinyin: renmin gongshe), in the Peoples Republic of China, were formerly the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas in the period from 1958 to 1982-85, when they were replaced by townships. ...


Under the Great Leap Forward, Mao and other party leaders ordered the implementation of a variety of unproven and unscientific new agricultural techniques by the new communes. Combined with the diversion of labour to steel production and infrastructure projects and the reduced personal incentives under a commune system this led to an approximately 15% drop in grain production in 1959 followed by further 10% reduction in 1960 and no recovery in 1961. In an effort to win favour with their superiors and avoid being purged, each layer in the party hierarchy exaggerated the amount of grain produced under them and based on the fabricated success, party cadres were ordered to requisition a disproportionately high amount of the true harvest for state use primarily in the cities and urban areas but also for export. The net result, which was compounded in some areas by drought and in others by floods, was that the rural peasants were not left enough to eat and many millions starved to death in what is thought to be the largest famine in human history. This famine was a direct cause of the death of tens of millions of Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962. Further, many children who became emaciated and malnourished during years of hardship and struggle for survival, died shortly after the Great Leap Forward came to an end in 1962 (Spence, 553).


The extent of Mao's knowledge as to the severity of the situation has been disputed. According to some, most notably Dr. Li Zhisui, Mao was not aware of anything more than a mild food and general supply shortage until late 1959.

"But I do not think that when he spoke on July 2, 1959, he knew how bad the disaster had become, and he believed the party was doing everything it could to manage the situation"

Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, in Mao: the Unknown Story, alleged that Mao knew of the vast suffering and that he was dismissive of it, blaming bad weather or other officials for the famine.

"Although slaughter was not his purpose with the Leap, he was more than ready for myriad deaths to result, and hinted to his top echelon that they should not be too shocked if they happened (438-439)."

Whatever the case, the Great Leap Forward led to millions of deaths in China. Mao lost esteem among many of the top party cadres and was eventually forced to abandon the policy in 1962, also losing some political power to moderate leaders, notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. However, Mao and national propaganda claimed that he was only partly to blame. As a result, he was able to remain Chairman of the Communist Party, with the Presidency transferred to Liu Shaoqi. This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a Chinese Communist leader. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


The Great Leap Forward was a disaster for China. Because of Mao, they went forward by one step, but went back three steps! Although the steel quotas were officially reached, almost all of it made in the countryside was useless lumps of iron, as it had been made from assorted scrap metal in home made furnaces with no reliable source of fuel such as coal. According to Zhang Rongmei, a geometry teacher in rural Shanghai during the Great Leap Forward:

We took all the furniture, pots, and pans we had in our house, and all our neighbors did likewise. We put all everything in a big fire and melted down all the metal.

Moreover, most of the dams, canals and other infrastructure projects, which millions of peasants and prisoners had been forced to toil on and in many cases die for, proved useless as they had been built without the input of trained engineers, whom Mao had rejected on ideological grounds.

Mao, shown here with Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai.
Mao, shown here with Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai.

In the Party Congress at Lushan in July/August 1959, several leaders expressed concern that the Great Leap Forward was not as successful as planned. The most direct of these was Minister of Defence and Korean War General Peng Dehuai. Mao, fearing loss of his position, orchestrated a purge of Peng and his supporters, stifling criticism of the Great Leap policies. White House photo by Oliver Atkins. ... White House photo by Oliver Atkins. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... Lushan is famous for its villas. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Peng Dehuai . Péng Déhuái (T. Chinese: 彭德懷, S. Chinese: 彭德怀, Wade-Giles: Peng Te-huai) (October 24, 1898 - November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader. ...


There is a great deal of controversy over the number of deaths by starvation during the Great Leap Forward. Until the mid 1980s, when official census figures were finally published by the Chinese Government, little was known about the scale of the disaster in the Chinese countryside, as the handful of Western observers allowed access during this time had been restricted to model villages where they were deceived into believing that Great Leap Forward had been a great success. There was also an assumption that the flow of individual reports of starvation that had been reaching the West, primarily through Hong Kong and Taiwan, must be localised or exaggerated as China was continuing to claim record harvests and was a net exporter of grain through the period. Censuses were carried out in China in 1953, 1964 and 1982. The first attempt to analyse this data in order to estimate the number of famine deaths was carried out by American demographer Dr Judith Banister and published in 1984. Given the lengthy gaps between the censuses and doubts over the reliability of the data, an accurate figure is difficult to ascertain. Nevertheless, Banister concluded that the official data implied that around 15 million excess deaths incurred in China during 1958-61 and that based on her modelling of Chinese demographics during the period and taking account of assumed underreporting during the famine years, the figure was around 30 million. The official statistic is 20 million deaths, as given by Hu Yaobang.[30] Various other sources have put the figure between 20 and 72 million.[2] Hu Yaobang (Chinese: 胡耀邦 Pinyin: Hú Yàobāng, Wade-Giles: Hu Yao-pang) (November 20, 1915 – April 15, 1989) was a leader of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


On the international front, the period was dominated by the further isolation of China, due to start of the Sino-Soviet split which resulted in Khrushchev withdrawing all Soviet technical experts and aid from the country. The split was triggered by border disputes, and arguments over the control and direction of world communism, and other disputes pertaining to foreign policy. Most of the problems regarding communist unity resulted from the death of Stalin and his replacement by Khrushchev. Stalin had established himself as the successor of "correct" Marxist thought well before Mao controlled the Communist Party of China, and therefore Mao never challenged the suitability of any Stalinist doctrine (at least while Stalin was alive). Upon the death of Stalin, Mao believed (perhaps because of seniority) that the leadership of the "correct" Marxist doctrine would fall to him. The resulting tension between Khrushchev (at the head of a politically/militarily superior government), and Mao (believing he had a superior understanding of Marxist ideology) eroded the previous patron-client relationship between the CPSU and CPC. In China, the formerly favourable Soviets were now denounced as "revisionists" and listed alongside "American imperialism" as movements to oppose. The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = &#1050...


Partly-surrounded by hostile American military bases (reaching from South Korea, Japan, Okinawa, and Taiwan), China was now confronted with a new Soviet threat from the north and west. Both the internal crisis and the external threat called for extraordinary statesmanship from Mao, but as China entered the new decade the statesmen of the People's Republic were in hostile confrontation with each other. This article is about the prefecture. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ...


At a large Communist Party conference in Beijing in January 1962, called the "Conference of the Seven Thousand," State President Liu Shaoqi denounced the Great Leap Forward as responsible for widespread famine.[31] The overwhelming majority of delegates expressed agreement, but Defense Minister Lin Biao staunchly defended Mao.[31] A brief period of liberalization followed while Mao and Lin plotted a comeback.[31] Liu and Deng Xiaoping rescued the economy by disbanding the people's communes, introducing elements of private control of peasant smallholdings and importing grain from Canada and Australia to mitigate the worst effects of famine. The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a Chinese Communist leader. ... An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


Cultural Revolution

Main article: Cultural Revolution

Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping's prominence gradually became a challenge to Mao's position of power. Liu and Deng, then the State President and General Secretary, respectively, had favoured the idea that Mao should be removed from actual power but maintain his ceremonial and symbolic role, and the party will uphold all of his positive contributions to the revolution. They attempted to marginalize Mao by taking control of economic policy and asserting themselves politically as well. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a Chinese Communist leader. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


Facing the prospect of losing his place on the political stage, Mao responded to Liu and Deng's movements by launching the Cultural Revolution in 1966. Under the pretext that certain liberal "bourgeois" elements of society, labeled as class enemies, continue to threaten the socialist framework under the existing dictatorship of the proletariat, the idea that a Cultural Revolution must continue after armed struggle allowed Mao to circumvent the Communist hierarchy by giving power directly to the Red Guards, groups of young people, often teenagers, who set up their own tribunals. Chaos reigned over the country, and millions were prosecuted, including a famous philosopher, Chen Yuen. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao closed the schools in China and the young intellectuals living in cities were ordered to the countryside. They were forced to manufacture weapons for the Red Army. The Revolution led to the destruction of much of China's cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese citizens, as well as creating general economic and social chaos in the country. Millions of lives were ruined during this period, as the Cultural Revolution pierced into every part of Chinese life, depicted by such Chinese films as To Live, The Blue Kite and Farewell My Concubine. It is estimated that hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, perished in the violence of the Cultural Revolution.[2] When Mao was informed of such losses, particularly that people had been driven to suicide, he blithely commented: "People who try to commit suicide - don't attempt to save them! . . . China is such a populous nation, it is not as if we cannot do without a few people."[32] The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... Red Guards. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Not to be confused with the Japanese film Ikiru, which also translates as To Live. To Live (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a Chinese film directed by Zhang Yimou in 1994, starring Ge You and Gong Li and produced by the Shanghai Film Studio and ERA International. ... The Blue Kite (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a film directed by Tian Zhuangzhuang in 1993. ... Farewell My Concubine is a 1993 Chinese film directed by Chen Kaige which depicts the effects of various Chinese political turmoils during the 20th century on a Peking opera troupe. ...

Mao greets United States President Richard Nixon (right) during his visit to China in 1972
Mao greets United States President Richard Nixon (right) during his visit to China in 1972

It was during this period that Mao chose Lin Biao, who seemed to echo all of Mao's ideas, to become his successor. Mao and Lin Biao formed an alliance leading up to the Cultural Revolution in order for the purges to succeed. Mao needed Lin's clout for his plan to work. In return, Lin was made Mao's successor. By 1971, however, because of Lin's grip over the military and Mao's own paranoia, a divide between the two men became clear, and it was unclear whether Lin was planning a military coup or an assassination attempt. Lin Biao died trying to flee China, probably anticipating his arrest, in a suspicious plane crash over Mongolia. It was declared that Lin was planning to depose Mao, and he was posthumously expelled from the CPC. At this time, Mao lost trust in many of the top CPC figures. The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa described his conversation with Nicolae Ceauşescu who told him about a plot to kill Mao Zedong with the help of Lin Biao organized by KGB.[33] File links The following pages link to this file: Cold War (1962-1991) Sino-Soviet split Categories: U.S. history images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Cold War (1962-1991) Sino-Soviet split Categories: U.S. history images ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Richard Nixon met with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ... Ion Mihai Pacepa Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928) is the highest intelligence official ever to have defected from the Soviet bloc to the West. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989. ... An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ...


In 1969, Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to be over, although the official history of the People's Republic of China marks the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976 with Mao's death. In the last years of his life, Mao was faced with declining health due to either Parkinson's disease or, according to Li Zhisui, motor neurone disease, as well as lung ailments due to smoking and heart trouble. Mao remained passive as various factions within the Communist Party mobilized for the power struggle anticipated after his death. The motor neurone diseases (MND) are a group of progressive neurological disorders that destroy motor neurones, the cells that control voluntary muscle activity such as speaking, walking, breathing, and swallowing. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ...


Death

Mao Zedong died at the age of 82, on September 9, 1976 at 10 minutes past midnight in Beijing. He died of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, commonly known in the U.S as Lou Gehrig's Disease and elsewhere as Motor Neurone Disease. Mao had been in poor health for several years and had declined visibly for some months prior to his death. His body lay in state at the Great Hall of the People. A memorial service was held in Tiananmen Square on September 18, 1976. There was a three minute silence observed during this service. His body was later placed into the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, although he wished to be cremated and had been one of the first high-ranking officials to sign the "Proposal that all Central Leaders be Cremated after Death" in November 1956. [34] is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, sometimes called Lou Gehrigs Disease, Maladie de Charcot or motor neurone disease) is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons, the nerve cells in the central nervous system that control voluntary muscle movement. ... {{Unreferenced|date=March 20 double cheese double lettuce double meat // Great Hall of the People was built in September 1959, which was one of the Ten Great Constructions completed for the 10th Anniversary of the Peoples Republic. ... Tiananmen Square as seen from the Tianan Gate Tiananmen Square (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is the large plaza near the center of Beijing, China, named after the Tiananmen (literally, Gate of Heavenly Peace) which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mao Zedongs Mausoleum The Chairman Mao Memorial Hall (Simplified Chinese: 毛主席纪念堂; pinyin: Máo Zhŭxí Jìniàntáng), commonly known as the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong is the last resting place of Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the...


As anticipated after Mao’s death, there was a power struggle for control of China. On one side was the left wing led by the Gang of Four, who wanted to continue the policy of revolutionary mass mobilization. On the other side was the right wing opposing these policies. Among the latter group, the restorationists, led by Chairman Hua Guofeng, advocated a return to central planning along the Soviet model, whereas the reformers, led by Deng Xiaoping, wanted to overhaul the Chinese economy based on market-oriented policies and to de-emphasize the role of Maoist ideology in determining economic and political policy. Eventually, the reformers won control of the government. Deng Xiaoping, with clear seniority over Hua Guofeng, defeated Hua in a bloodless power struggle shortly afterwards. The Gang of Four on trial The Gang of Four (Chinese: 四人帮; pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were blamed for the... Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


Cult of Mao

Mao's figure is largely symbolic both in China and in the global communist movement as a whole. During the Cultural Revolution, Mao's already glorified image manifested into a personality cult that stretched into every part of Chinese life. Mao presented himself as an enemy of landowners, businessmen, and Western and American imperialism, as well as an ally of impoverished peasants, farmers and workers. Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ...


At the 1958 Party congress in Chengdu, Mao expressed support for the idea of personality cults if they venerated figures who were genuinely worthy of adulation:

There are two kinds of personality cults. One is a healthy personality cult, that is, to worship men like Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin. Because they hold the truth in their hands. The other is a false personality cult, i.e. not analysed and blind worship.

[35]


In 1962, Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement (SEM) in an attempt to educate the peasants to resist the temptations of feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside (due to Liu's economic reforms). Large quantities of politicised art were produced and circulated — with Mao at the centre. Numerous posters and musical compositions referred to Mao as "A red sun in the centre of our hearts" (我们心中的红太阳) and a "Savior of the people" (人民的大救星). Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


The Cult of Mao proved vital in starting the Cultural Revolution. China's youth had mostly been brought up during the Communist era, and they had been told to love Mao. Thus they were his greatest supporters. Their feelings for him were so strong that many followed his urge to challenge all established authority.


In October 1966, Mao's Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, which was known as the Little Red Book was published. Party members were encouraged to carry a copy with them and possession was almost mandatory as a criterion for membership. Over the years, Mao's image became displayed almost everywhere, present in homes, offices and shops. His quotations were typographically emphasised by putting them in boldface or red type in even the most obscure writings. Music from the period emphasized Mao's stature, as did children's rhymes. The phrase Long Live Chairman Mao for ten thousand years was commonly heard during the era, which was traditionally a phrase reserved for the reigning Emperor. Cover of Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung with Chinese words Supreme Directives Quotations on a wall Chinese poster saying: Chairman Mao is the Red sun of our hearts. ... Bold and Boldface redirect here. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Romaji: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Han Tu: The use of the phrase ten thousand years in various East Asian languages originated in ancient China as an expression used to wish long life to the Emperor, and is typically translated as long live... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ...


After the Cultural Revolution, there are some people who still worship Mao in family altars or even temples for Mao.[36]


Legacy

Mao's legacy has produced a large amount of controversy. Many historians and academics are critical of Mao, especially his many campaigns to suppress political enemies and gain international renown, some comparing him to Hitler and Stalin.[37] Hitler redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


Supporters of Mao credit him with advancing the social and economic development of Chinese society. They point out that before 1949, for instance, the illiteracy rate in Mainland China was 80 percent, and life expectancy was a meager 35 years. At his death, illiteracy had declined to less than seven percent, and average life expectancy had increased to more than 70 years (alternative statistics also quote improvements, though not nearly as dramatic). In addition to these increases, the total population of China increased 57% to 700 million, from the constant 400 million mark during the span between the Opium War and the Chinese Civil War. Supporters also state that, under Mao's government, China ended its "Century of Humiliation" from Western imperialism and regained its status as a major world power. They also state their belief that Mao also industrialized China to a considerable extent and ensured China's sovereignty during his rule. Many, including some of Mao's supporters, view the Kuomintang, which Mao drove off the mainland, as having been corrupt. There were two Opium Wars between Britain and China. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in...


They also argue that the Maoist era improved women's rights by abolishing prostitution, a phenomenon that was to return after Deng Xiaoping and post-Maoist CPC leaders increased liberalization of the economy. Indeed, Mao once famously remarked that "Women hold up half the heavens". A popular slogan during the Cultural Revolution was, "Break the chains, unleash the fury of women as a mighty force for revolution!"


Skeptics observe that similar gains in literacy and life expectancy occurred after 1949 on the small neighboring island of Taiwan, which was ruled by Mao's opponents, namely Chiang Kai-Shek and the Kuomintang, even though they themselves perpetrated substantial repression in their own right. The government that continued to rule Taiwan was composed of the same people ruling the Mainland for over 20 years when life expectancy was so low, yet life expectancy there also increased. A counterpoint, however, is that the United States helped Taiwan with aid, along with Japan and other countries, until the early 1960s when Taiwan asked that the aid cease. The mainland was under economic sanctions from the same countries for many years. The mainland also broke with the USSR after disputes, which had been aiding it.


Another comparison has been between India and China. Noam Chomsky commented on a study by the Indian economist Amartya Sen. Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew: אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

He observes that India and China had "similarities that were quite striking" when development planning began 50 years ago, including death rates. "But there is little doubt that as far as morbidity, mortality and longevity are concerned, China has a large and decisive lead over India" (in education and other social indicators as well). In both cases, the outcomes have to do with the "ideological predispositions" of the political systems: for China, relatively equitable distribution of medical resources, including rural health services and public distribution of food, all lacking in India. [38]

The United States placed a trade embargo on China as a result of its involvement in the Korean War, lasting until Richard Nixon decided that developing relations with China would be useful in also dealing with the Soviet Union. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...


Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one, especially in manners of guerrilla warfare, at which Mao is popularly regarded as a genius for. As an example, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) followed Mao's examples of guerrilla warfare. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

One of the last publicly displayed portraits of Mao Zedong at the Tiananmen gate.

The ideology of Maoism has influenced many communists around the world, including Third World revolutionary movements such as Cambodia's Khmer Rouge,[39] The Communist Party of Peru, and the revolutionary movement in Nepal. The Revolutionary Communist Party, USA also claims Marxism-Leninism-Maoism as its ideology, as do other Communist Parties around the world which are part of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement. China itself has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao's death, and most people outside of China who describe themselves as Maoist regard the Deng Xiaoping reforms to be a betrayal of Maoism, in line with Mao's view of "Capitalist roaders" within the Communist Party. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 820 KB) Summary Portrait of Chairman Mao Zedong at the Tiananmen Gate. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 820 KB) Summary Portrait of Chairman Mao Zedong at the Tiananmen Gate. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Flag of Democratic Kampuchea Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia -- which it renamed to Democratic Kampuchea -- from 1975 to 1979. ... Shining Path poster supporting an electoral boycott The Communist Party of Peru (Spanish: El Partido Comunista del Perú), more commonly known as the Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso), is a Maoist guerrilla organization in Peru. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Revolutionary Internationalist Movement is an international Communist organization which upholds Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. ... The essentially Maoist concept of capitalist roader (走资派)denotes persons or groups on the political left who demonstrate a marked tendency to bow to pressure from bourgeois forces and subsequently attempt to pull the Revolution in a capitalist direction, and eventually restore the political and economic rule of capitalism--hence the...


As the Chinese government instituted free market economic reforms starting in the late 1970s and as later Chinese leaders took power, less recognition was given to the status of Mao. This accompanied a decline in state recognition of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years when the state organized numerous events and seminars commemorating Mao's 100th birthday. Nevertheless, the Chinese government has never officially repudiated the tactics of Mao.


In the mid-1990s, Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi currency from the People’s Republic of China. This was officially instituted as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely recognized in contrast to the generic figures that appear in older currency.[citation needed] On March 13, 2006, a story in the People's Daily reported that a proposal had been made to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping.[40] ISO 4217 Code CNY User(s) Mainland of the Peoples Republic of China Inflation 1. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Peoples Daily (Chinese: 人民日报 Pinyin ) is the official newspaper of the Communist Party of China, published worldwide with a circulation of 3 to 4 million. ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the father of modern China. Sun played an instrumental role in the eventual overthrow of the Qing Dynasty in 1911. ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904 – February 19, 1997) was a prominent Chinese politician and reformer, and the late leader of the Communist Party of China (CCP). ...


In 2006, the Chinese government issued a new set of high school history textbooks which omit Mao, with the exception of a single mention in a section on etiquette. Chinese students now only learn about Mao in junior high school.[41]


Mao lived in the government complex in Zhongnanhai, Beijing. An aerial view of Zhongnanhai The Zhongnanhai (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngnánhăi) is a complex of buildings in Beijing, China which serves as the central headquarters for the Communist Party of China and the government of the Peoples Republic of China. ... “Peking” redirects here. ...


Genealogy

Mao Zedong had several wives which contributed to a large family. These were:

  1. Luo Yixiu (罗一秀, 1889-1910) of Shaoshan: married 1907 to 1910
  2. Yang Kaihui (杨开慧, 1901-1930) of Changsha: married 1921 to 1927, executed by the KMT in 1930
  3. He Zizhen (贺子珍, 1910-1984) of Jiangxi: married May 1928 to 1939
  4. Jiang Qing: (江青, 1914-1991), married 1939 to Mao's death
From left to right: Mao Zetan, Mao Zemin, Wen Qimei and Mao Zedong at Changsha, 1919. Note how Mao wears the robe of a scholar, thus displaying his advanced education, while his brothers wear the clothes of peasants.

His ancestors were: Luo Yixiu (Simplified Chinese: 罗一秀) (1889-1910) was the first wife of Mao Zedong from 1907 until her death in 1910. ... Shaoshan (韶山, pinyin Sháo Shān) is a city of Xiangtan, Hunan Province, known as the birthplace of Mao Zedong, the founder of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yang Yáng Kāihuì (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; courtesy name: Yúnjǐn 云锦; 1901 – November 14, 1930) was the second wife of Mao Zedong from 1920 to 1927. ... Changsha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital city of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in... Hè ZǐzhÄ“n (贺子珍) (September 1909 - April 19, 1984) was the third wife of Mao Zedong from May 1928 to 1939. ... Madame Mao This is a Chinese name; the family name is Jiang Jiang Qing (Chinese: ), real name Lǐ ShÅ«méng, known under various other names, including the stage name Lan Ping (Chinese: 蓝苹), and commonly referred to as Madame Mao, (March 1914 – May 14, 1991), was the fourth wife of... Mao Zedongs family, 1919. ... Mao Zedongs family, 1919. ... Máo Zétán (毛泽覃, also named Máo Zélín 毛泽淋, courtesy name first YÇ’ngjú 咏菊, then Rùnjú 润菊) (September 25, 1905 - April 25, 1935) was the younger one of Mao Zedongs two brothers. ... Mao Zemin (毛泽民, courtesy name YÇ’nglián 咏莲) (April 03, 1896 - September 27, 1943) was the elder of Mao Zedongs two younger brothers. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Changsha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital city of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of the Yangtze River. ...

  • Wen Qimei (文七妹, 1867-1919), mother. She was illiterate and a devout Buddhist.
  • Mao Yichang (毛贻昌, 1870-1920), father, courtesy name Mao Shunsheng (毛顺生) or also known as Mao Jen-sheng
  • Mao Enpu (毛恩普), paternal grandfather

He had several siblings: Cha can also refer to a Latin American dance, also called the Cha-cha-cha. ...

Mao Zedong's parents altogether had six sons and two daughters. Two of the sons and both daughters died young, leaving the three brothers Mao Zedong, Mao Zemin, and Mao Zetan. Like all three of Mao Zedong's wives, Mao Zemin and Mao Zetan were communists. Like Yang Kaihui, both Zemin and Zetan were killed in warfare during Mao Zedong's lifetime.

Note that the character ze (泽) appears in all of the siblings' given names. This is a common Chinese naming convention. Mao Zemin (毛泽民, courtesy name YÇ’nglián 咏莲) (April 03, 1896 - September 27, 1943) was the elder of Mao Zedongs two younger brothers. ... Máo Zétán (毛泽覃, also named Máo Zélín 毛泽淋, courtesy name first YÇ’ngjú 咏菊, then Rùnjú 润菊) (September 25, 1905 - April 25, 1935) was the younger one of Mao Zedongs two brothers. ... Mao Zehong was Mao Zedongs younger sister, who died young, during Maos lifetime. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung1-kuo2 Kuo2-min2-tang3) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China, now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in...


From the next generation, Zemin's son, Mao Yuanxin, was raised by Mao Zedong's family. He became Mao Zedong's liaison with the Politburo in 1975. Sources like Li Zhisui (The Private Life of Chairman Mao) say that he played a role in the final power-struggles.[42] Mao Yuanxin, a nephew of Mao Zedong who was important in Maos last years. ... Dr. Li Zhisui (b. ... The Private Life of Chairman Mao is an extensive biography of Mao Zedong, published in 1994 by his personal physician Dr. Li Zhisui after fleeing to the USA following Mao Zedongs death. ...


Mao Zedong had several children:

  • Mao Anying (毛岸英): son to Yang, married to Liu Siqi (刘思齐), who was born Liu Songlin (刘松林), killed in action during the Korean War
  • Mao Anqing (1923-2007): son to Yang, married to Shao Hua (邵华), son Mao Xinyu (毛新宇), grandson Mao Dongdong (last surviving known male line of Mao).
  • Li Min (李敏): daughter to He, married to Kong Linghua (孔令华), son Kong Ji'ning (孔继宁), daughter Kong Dongmei (孔冬梅)
  • Li Ne (Chinese:李讷; Pinyin: Lĭ Nè): daughter to Jiang (whose birth given name was Li), married to Wang Jingqing (王景清), son Wang Xiaozhi (王效芝)

Sources suggest that Mao did have other children during his revolutionary days; in most of these cases the children were left with peasant families because it was difficult to take care of the children while focusing on revolution. Two English researchers who retraced the entire Long March route in 2002-2003 [43] located a woman who they believe might well be a missing child abandoned by Mao to peasants in 1935.[citation needed] Ed Jocelyn and Andrew McEwen hope a member of the Mao family will respond to requests for a DNA test.[citation needed] Chairman Mao with his eldest son Mao Anying in 1946. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Li Min (Chinese: ), original name Mao Jiaojiao (Chinese: ), (born in 1936 in Shaanxi with family roots in Xiangtan, Hunan) was the daughter of Mao Zedong, former chairman of the Chinese Communist Party and the Peoples Republic of China and his second (or third) wife, He Zizhen. ...


Writings

Mao was a prolific writer of political and philosophical literature.[44] Mao is the attributed author of Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, known in the West as the "Little Red Book" and in Cultural-revolution China as the "Red Treasure Book" (紅宝书): this is a collection of short extracts from his speeches and articles, edited by Lin Biao and ordered topically. Mao wrote several other philosophical treatises, both before and after he assumed power. These include: Cover of Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung with Chinese words Supreme Directives Quotations on a wall Chinese poster saying: Chairman Mao is the Red sun of our hearts. ... An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ...

  • On Practice (《实践论》); 1937
  • On Contradiction (《矛盾论》); 1937
  • On Protracted War (《论持久战》); 1938
  • In Memory of Norman Bethune (《纪念白求恩》); 1939
  • On New Democracy (《新民主主义论》); 1940
  • Talks at the Yan'an Forum on Literature and Art (《在延安文艺座谈会上的讲话》); 1942
  • Serve the People (《为人民服务》); 1944
  • On the Correct Handling of the Contradictions Among the People (《正确处理人民内部矛盾问题》); 1957
  • The Foolish Old Man Who Removed the Mountains (《愚公移山》); 1957
Mao's calligraphy: The People's Republic of China: all nationalities unite.

Mao was also a skilled calligrapher with a highly personal style. In China, Mao was considered a master calligrapher during his lifetime.[45] His calligraphy can be seen today throughout mainland China.[46] Mao Zedongs On Contradiction is considered his most important philosophical essay. ... On Protracted War is a work comprising a series of speeches by Mao Zedong given from May 26 to June 3, 1938, at the Yenan Association for the Study of the War of Resistance Against Japan. ... Dr. Norman Bethune 1922 Henry Norman Bethune, MD (March 3, 1890 – November 12, 1939) was a Canadian physician, medical innovator, and humanitarian. ... For different uses of the term, including political parties with the name New Democracy, see New Democracy (disambiguation). ... Serve the People or Service for the People is a political slogan which first appeared on Mao-era China. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Calligraphy (from Greek καλλι calli beauty + γραφος graphos writing) is the art of decorative writing. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ...


Literary Figure

Politics aside, Mao is considered one of modern China's most influential literary figures, and was an avid poet, mainly in the classical ci and shi forms. His poems are all in the traditional Chinese verse style. Mao was also an ardent calligrapher, giving rise to a new form of Chinese calligraphy called "Mao-style" or Maoti, which had gained increasing popularity since his death. There currently exists various competitions specializing in Mao-style calligraphy.[47] Ci poetry (詞, interchangeable with 辭 pinyin cí) is a kind of lyric Chinese poetry. ... Shi (詩) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ... Calligraphy is an art dating back to the earliest day of history, and widely practiced throughout China to this day. ...


As did most Chinese intellectuals of his generation, Mao received rigorous education in Chinese classical literature. His style was deeply influenced by the great Tang Dynasty poets Li Bai and Li He. He is considered to be a romantic poet, in contrast to the realist poets represented by Du Fu. For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Li Po redirects here. ... Li He (李賀 790-816), with the courtesy name of Changji (長吉), is a short-lived Chinese poet of the late Tang Dynasty, famous for his unconventional and imaginative style. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Literary realism most often refers to the trend, in early 19th century French literature, towards depictions of contemporary life and society as it is, in the spirit of general Realism, instead of a romanticized or similarly stylized presentation. ... Du Fu (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Fu, 712 – 770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ...


Many of Mao's poems are still popular in China and a few are taught as a mandatory part of the elementary school curriculum. Some of his most well-known poems are: Changsha (1925), The Double Ninth (1929.10), Loushan Pass (1935), The Long March (1935), Snow (1936.02), The PLA Captures Nanjing (1949.04), Reply to Li Shuyi (1957.05.11), and Ode to the Plum Blossom (1961.12).
Chang Sha 1925 is a poem wrote by Mao Zedong in his youth, its considered by many Chinese to be of high literature quality and one of the best of Maos poetry. ...


Figure in Popular Culture

The face of Mao Zedong, arguably still one of the most recognizable in the modern world, continues to appear on t-shirts and other merchandise. The Beatles song Revolution has a reference to Mao with the lines, "but if you go carrying pictures of chairman Mao/You ain't going to make it with anyone anyhow". Mao is also featured in the Van Halen song All Apolitical Blues. In a Simpsons episode when the family goes to China, Homer visits Mao's mausoleum and talks to Mao's embalmed body. The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Revolution is a song by The Beatles, written primarily by John Lennon and attributed to Lennon-McCartney. ... This article is about the band Van Halen. ... The Simpsons. ...


See also

This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... Mao Zedongs Mausoleum The Chairman Mao Memorial Hall (Simplified Chinese: 毛主席纪念堂; pinyin: Máo Zhŭxí Jìniàntáng), commonly known as the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong is the last resting place of Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 1943 and the... Mao Zedong in 1931. ... Promotional flier for the Nixon in China opera. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...

References

  1. ^ Mao Zedong (HTML) (English). The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  2. ^ a b c Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Twentieth Century Hemoclysm. Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
  3. ^ Burying Mao: Chinese Politics in the Age of Deng Xiaoping by Richard Baum
  4. ^ Kahn, Joseph (2006-09-01). Where’s Mao? Chinese Revise History Books. The New York Times.
  5. ^ Short, Philip (2001). Mao: A Life. Owl Books, 630. ISBN 0805066381. “Mao had an extraordinary mix of talents: he was visionary, statesman, political and military strategist of genius, philosopher and poet.” 
  6. ^ Feigon, Lee (2002). Mao: A Reinterpretation. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 17. ISBN 1566635225. 
  7. ^ a b 毛泽东生平大事(1893-1976) (Major event chronology of Mao Zedong (1893-1976), People's Daily.
  8. ^ a b 'Report on an investigation of the peasant movement in Hunan' Mao Zedong 1927
  9. ^ a b Chunhou, Zhang. C. Mao Zedong As Poet and Revolutionary Leader: Social and Historical Perspectives. ISBN 0739104063. 
  10. ^ Chris Trueman. Mao Zedong (HTML) (English). History Learning Site. Retrieved on 2007-07-31. “He first encountered Marxism while he worked as a library assistant at Peking University. In 1921, he co-founded the Chinese Communist Party.”
  11. ^ 'Analysis of the classes in Chinese society' Mao Zedong 1927.
  12. ^ Lynch, Michael J (2004). Mao. ISBN 0415215773. 
  13. ^ Mao: The Unknown Story by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, pp 99 & 100
  14. ^ Chine: L'archipel oublie by Jean-Luc Domenach, pg 47
  15. ^ Fairbank, John K; Albert Feuerwerker. The Cambridge History of China (vol. 13, pt. 2). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521243386. 
  16. ^ Ying-kwong Wou, Odoric (1994). Mobilizing the Masses: Building Revolution in Henan. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804721424. 
  17. ^ Mao: The Unknown Story by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, p. 233, 243
  18. ^ a b "Willy Lam: China's Own Historical Revisionism", History News Network, 11 August 2005. Retrieved 15 May 2006.
  19. ^ China Misperceived: American Illusions and Chinese Reality by Steven W. Mosher, pp 72, 73
  20. ^ Deaths in China Due to Communism by Stephen Rosskamm Shalom, pg 24
  21. ^ Mao: The Unknown Story by Jung Chang and Jon Halliday, pg 337: "Mao claimed that the total number executed was 700,000, but this did not include those beaten or tortured to death in the post-1949 land reform, which would at the very least be as many again. Then there were suicides, which, based on several local inquiries, were very probably about equal to the number of those killed." Also cited in Mao Zedong, by Jonathan Spence, as cited here.
  22. ^ Twitchett, Denis; John K. Fairbank. The Cambridge history of China. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052124336X. Retrieved on 2007-03-25. 
  23. ^ The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stephane Courtois, et al; China: A Long March into Night by Jean-Louis Margolin, pg 479
  24. ^ Estimates, sources and calculations from R.J. Rummel’s China’s Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900 (See lines 1 through 90)
  25. ^ Short, Philip (2001). Mao: A Life. Owl Books, 436. ISBN 0805066381. “At least a million-and-a-half more disappeared into the newly established 'reform through labour' camps, purpose-built to accommodate them.” 
  26. ^ Commentary transferred to Huang Jing regarding the supplementary plan to suppress counterrevolutionaries in Tianjin
  27. ^ Mao's "Killing Quotas" by Li Changyu. Human Rights in China (HRIC). September 26, 2005, at Shandong University
  28. ^ Terrible Honeymoon: Struggling with the Problem of Terror in Early 1950s China by Jeremy Brown
  29. ^ Chang, Jung; Halliday, Jon. 2005. Mao: The Unknown Story. New York: Knopf. 410.
  30. ^ Short, Philip (2001). Mao: A Life. Owl Books, 761. ISBN 0805066381. 
  31. ^ a b c Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday, Mao: The Unknown Story (2006), pp. 568, 579.
  32. ^ MacFarquhar, Roderick and Schoenhals, Michael. Mao's Last Revolution. Harvard University Press, 2006. p. 110 ISBN 0674023323
  33. ^ The Kremlin’s Killing Ways - by Ion Mihai Pacepa, National Review Online, November 28, 2006.
  34. ^ "China After Mao's Death: Nation of Rumor and Uncertainty", New York Times, October 6, 1976. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. “Hong Kong, October 5, 1976. With no word on the fate of the body of Mao Tsetung, almost a month after his death, rumors are beginning to percolate in China, much as they did following the death of Prime Minister Chou En-lai...” 
  35. ^ Cult of Mao. library.thinkquest.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. “This remark [at the 1958 Chengdu Party Congress] of Mao seems to have elements of truth but it is false. He confuses the worship of truth with a personality cult, despite there being an essential difference between them. But this remark played a role in helping to promote the personality cult that gradually arose in the CCP.”
  36. ^ Lu, Xing. Rhetoric of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, Contributor Thomas W. Benson, University of South Carolina Press, 147. ISBN 1570035431. “Some continue to worship Mao at their family altars, praying to him for peace and safety ... thousands of people visit the temple each day burning incense and kowtowing to images of Mao” 
  37. ^ Mao (Routledge Historical Biographies) by Michael Lynch, p. 230: "The People’s Republic of China under Mao exhibited the oppressive tendencies that were discernible in all the major absolutist regimes of the twentieth century. There are obvious parallels between Mao’s China, Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia. Each of these regimes witnessed deliberately ordered mass ‘cleansing’ and extermination."
  38. ^ Counting the Bodies - Noam Chomsky (HTML) (English). Spectrezine (Spectre Magazine online). Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  39. ^ Jackson, Karl D. Cambodia, 1975-1978: Rendezvous with Death. Princeton University Press, 221. ISBN 069102541X. 
  40. ^ Portraits of Sun Yat-sen, Deng Xiaoping proposed adding to RMB notes (HTML) (English). People's Daily Online (2006-03-13). Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  41. ^ Kahn, Joseph. "Where’s Mao? Chinese Revise History Books", New York Times, 2006-09-02. Retrieved on 2007-02-28. 
  42. ^ Biographical Sketches in The Private Life of Chairman Mao
  43. ^ Stepping into history (HTML) (English). China Daily (2003-11-23). Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  44. ^ http://www.iisg.nl/~landsberger/mzdt.html
  45. ^ http://www.asiawind.com/art/callig/modern.htm#Contemporary%20Chinese%20Calligraphy
  46. ^ Yen, Yuehping (2005). Calligraphy and Power in Contemporary Chinese Society. Routledge, 2. 
  47. ^ 首届毛体书法邀请赛精品纷呈 (HTML) (Chinese). People.com (2006-09-11).

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... History News Network is a project of the Center for History and New Media at George Mason University. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jonathan D. Spence (Chinese name: Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , August 11, 1936– ) is a British-born historian and public intellectual specializing in Chinese history. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Roderick Lemonde MacFarquhar (born December 2, 1930) is a Harvard University professor and China specialist, British politician, newspaper and television journalist and academic orientalist. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Private Life of Chairman Mao is an extensive biography of Mao Zedong, published in 1994 by his personal physician Dr. Li Zhisui after fleeing to the USA following Mao Zedongs death. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Becker, Jasper. Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine. 1998.
  • Chang, Jung and Jon Halliday. Mao: The Unknown Story, Knopf (October 18, 2005), hardcover, 814 pages, ISBN 0-679-42271-4
  • Li Zhisui. The Private Life of Chairman Mao, 1996.
  • MacFarquhar, Roderick and Schoenhals, Michael. Mao's Last Revolution. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 0674023323
  • Schram, Stuart R. Mao Tse-Tung. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1967.
  • Schwartz, Benjamin Isadore. Chinese Communism and the Rise of Mao. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1951.
  • Spence, Jonathan D. Mao Zedong. New York: Viking, 1999.
  • Short, Philip (2001). Mao: A Life. Owl Books, 761. ISBN 0805066381. 
  • Terrill, Ross (1980). Mao: A Biography. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2921-2. 

Jung Chang (Traditional Chinese: 張戎, Simplified Chinese: 张戎, Wade-Giles: Chang Jung, Pinyin: Zhāng Róng; born March 25, 1952) is a Chinese-born British writer, best known for her family autobiography Wild Swans, selling over 10 million copies worldwide, but banned in mainland China. ... Dr. Li Zhisui (b. ... The Private Life of Chairman Mao is an extensive biography of Mao Zedong, published in 1994 by his personal physician Dr. Li Zhisui after fleeing to the USA following Mao Zedongs death. ... Roderick Lemonde MacFarquhar (born December 2, 1930) is a Harvard University professor and China specialist, British politician, newspaper and television journalist and academic orientalist. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Jonathan D. Spence (Chinese name: Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , August 11, 1936– ) is a British-born historian and public intellectual specializing in Chinese history. ...

External links

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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Spiegel (German and Dutch for mirror) can refer to: Bugsy Spiegel, gangster, Father of Las Vegas Spiegel, Inc. ... William H. Hinton (February 2, 1919 – May 15, 2004) was an American Marxist best known for Fanshen, a chronicle of how land reform was implemented in a single northern Chinese village. ... Samir Amin (b. ... Will Hutton is a British writer, weekly columnist (and formerly editor-in-chief) for The Observer in London and currently Chief Executive of The Work Foundation (formerly the Industrial Society). ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

Audio and video

  • (Chinese) Jung Chang's BBC Interview part 1 (RealPlayer)
  • (Chinese) Jung Chang's BBC Interview part 2 (RealPlayer)
Political offices
Preceded by
Zhang Wentian
(as Secretary General)
Chairman of the Communist Party of China
1943 – 1976
Succeeded by
Hua Guofeng
Preceded by
Office created
Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the CCP
1949 – 1976
Succeeded by
Hua Guofeng
Government offices
Preceded by
Office created
Chairman of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China
1949 – 1954
Succeeded by
himself
(as Chairman of the People's Republic of China)
Preceded by
himself
(as Chairman of the Central People's Government)
Chairman of the People's Republic of China
1954 – 1959
Succeeded by
Liu Shaoqi

Zhang Wentian 张闻天 (1900–July 1, 1976), also known as Luo Fu, was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1935 to March 20, 1943. ... The Chairman of the Communist Party of China ( Chinese: 中国共产党主席 pinyin: Zhōngguo´ Go`ngchÇŽndÇŽng ZhÇ”xi´), was the most powerful position in the Communist Party of China until the death of Mao. ... Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Central Military Commission (Chinese: 中央军事委员会 pinyin: Zhōngyāng JÅ«nshì WÄ›iyuánhuì ) refers to one of two bodies within the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hua Guofeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hua Kuo-feng) (born February 16, 1921) was Mao Zedongs designated successor as the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a Chinese Communist leader. ... The President of the Peoples Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国主席; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ZhÇ”xí, or abbreviated Guójiā ZhÇ”xí 国家主席) is the head of state of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a Chinese Communist leader. ... Lǐ Xiānniàn (1902–June 21, 1992) was President of the Peoples Republic of China between 1983 and 1988 and then president of the Chinese Peoples Political Consultative Conference until his death. ... Yáng ShàngkÅ«n (May 25, 1907–September 14, 1998) was President of the Peoples Republic of China from 1988 to 1993, and was permanent Vice-chair of the Central Military Commission. ... Jiāng Zémín (Traditional Chinese: 江澤民, Simplified Chinese: 江泽民, Hanyu Pinyin: Jiāng Zémín, Wade-Giles: Chiang Tse-min, Cantonese (Jyutping): gong1 zaak6 man4) (born August 17, 1926) was the core of the third generation of Communist Party of China leaders, serving as General Secretary of the Communist... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Hu Hu Jintao (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; born December 21, 1942) is currently the Paramount Leader of the Peoples Republic of China, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China since 2002, President of the... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... The Iran crisis an international crisis concerning Iran in 1946. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... During World War II, Czechoslovakia disappeared from the map of Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements in the country. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo (1908–1960) Congo Crisis First Republic... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisors Cuban exiles trained by United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead[1] to 5,000... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... The overthrow of Sukarno and the violence that followed it was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Phoenix rising from its flames and the silhouette of the soldier bearing a rifle with fixed bayonet was the emblem of the Junta. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Combatants USSR DRA Mujahideen of Afghanistan supported by: USA Saudi Arabia Pakistan Iran China and others. ... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants United States Antigua and Barbuda Barbados Dominica Jamaica Saint Lucia Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Grenada Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2] Grenada: 45 military and... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // Browder, Golos and Peters By the mid to late 1920s, there were three elements of Soviet power operating in the United States, despite the absence of formal diplomatic relations, the Comintern, military intelligence or GRU, and the forerunner of the KGB, the GPU. The Comintern was the dominant arm, though... “CIA” redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logotype of the DDRs Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... Although the Cold War can be considered to have begun in 1947, the timeline also lists important dates in the origins of the Cold War. ...


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Mao Zedong (0 words)
Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-Tung), the son of a peasant farmer, was born in Chaochan, China, in 1893.
Mao told them the revolution was in danger and that they must do all they could to stop the emergence of a privileged class in China.
Mao remained in control of the Cultural Revolution and with the support of the army was able to oust the revisionists.
Mao Zedong - MSN Encarta (1605 words)
Mao Zedong (1893-1976), foremost Chinese Communist leader of the 20th century and the principal founder of the People’s Republic of China.
Mao and the CCP inherited a poverty-stricken country that was scarred by war and in political disarray.
Mao’s relationship with intellectuals was an uneasy one, and he was critical of the gap between the lives of the urban educated elite and the rural masses.
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