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Encyclopedia > Manzanar
Manzanar National Historic Site
Location Inyo County, California, USA
Nearest city Independence, California
Coordinates 36°44′0″N 118°9′40″W / 36.73333, -118.16111
Area 814 acres (329.4 ha)
Established March 3, 1992
Visitors 81,344[1][2] (in 2007)
Governing body National Park Service
A hot windstorm brings dust from the surrounding desert July 3, 1942
A hot windstorm brings dust from the surrounding desert July 3, 1942

Manzanar is most widely known as the site of one of ten camps where over 110,000 Japanese Americans were imprisoned during World War II. Located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada in California's Owens Valley between the towns of Lone Pine to the south and Independence to the north, it is approximately 230 miles (370.1 km) northeast of Los Angeles. Manzanar (which means “apple orchard” in Spanish) was identified by the United States National Park Service as the best-preserved of the former camp sites, and was designated the Manzanar National Historic Site.[3] Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links US_Locator_Blank. ... Inyo County is a county located in east-central California, on the east side of the Sierra Nevada south of Yosemite National Park. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 779 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1400 × 1077 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Scene of barrack homes at this War Relocation Authority Center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 779 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1400 × 1077 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Scene of barrack homes at this War Relocation Authority Center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Owens Valley is the arid ranching valley of the Owens River in southeastern California in the United States. ... The main street in Lone Pine retains a frontier look Lone Pine is a census-designated place (CDP) in Inyo County, California, United States. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...


Long before the first prisoners arrived in March 1942, Manzanar was home to Native Americans, who mostly lived in villages near several creeks in the area. Ranchers and miners formally established the town of Manzanar in 1910,[4] but abandoned the town by 1929 after the City of Los Angeles purchased the water rights to virtually the entire area.[3] As different as these groups might seem, they are tied together by the common thread of forced relocation. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ...


Since the last prisoners left in 1945, former prisoners and others have worked to protect Manzanar and to establish it as a National Historic Site that preserves and interprets the site for current and future generations. The primary focus is the Japanese American Internment era,[5] as specified in the legislation that created the Manzanar National Historic Site. The site also interprets the town of Manzanar, the ranch days, the settlement by the Owens Valley Paiute, and the role that water played in shaping the history of the Owens Valley.[5][6] National Historic Site is a designation for a protected area of historic significance. ... Residents of Japanese ancestry waiting in line for the bus that will transport them to an internment camp. ... “Piute” redirects here. ...

Contents

Terminology

See also: Japanese American internment: Terminology debate

Since the end of World War II, there has been debate over the terminology used to refer to Manzanar and the other camps in which Americans of Japanese ancestry and their immigrant parents were imprisoned by the United States Government during the war.[7][8][9] Manzanar has been referred to as a "War Relocation Center," "relocation camp," "relocation center," "internment camp," and "concentration camp," and the controversy over which term is the most accurate and appropriate continues to the present day.[10][11][12] Residents of Japanese ancestry waiting in line for the bus that will transport them to an internment camp. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1998, use of "concentration camp" gained greater credibility prior to the opening of an exhibit about the American camps at Ellis Island. Initially, the American Jewish Committee (AJC) and the National Park Service, which manages Ellis Island, objected to the use of the term in the exhibit.[13] However, during a subsequent meeting held at the offices of the AJC in New York City, leaders representing Japanese Americans and Jewish Americans reached an understanding about the use of the term.[14] After the meeting, the Japanese American National Museum and the AJC issued a joint statement (which was included in the exhibit) that read in part: Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor, was at one time the main entry facility for immigrants entering the United States from January 1, 1892 until November 12, 1954. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Japanese American National Museum, located in the Little Tokyo area near downtown Los Angeles, California, is devoted to preserving the history and culture of Japanese-Americans. ...

"A concentration camp is a place where people are imprisoned not because of any crimes they have committed, but simply because of who they are. Although many groups have been singled out for such persecution throughout history, the term 'concentration camp' was first used at the turn of the century in the Spanish American and Boer Wars. During World War II, America's concentration camps were clearly distinguishable from Nazi Germany's. Nazi camps were places of torture, barbarous medical experiments and summary executions; some were extermination centers with gas chambers. Six million Jews were slaughtered in the Holocaust. Many others, including Gypsies, Poles, homosexuals and political dissidents were also victims of the Nazi concentration camps. In recent years, concentration camps have existed in the former Soviet Union, Cambodia and Bosnia. Despite differences, all had one thing in common: the people in power removed a minority group from the general population and the rest of society let it happen."[15][16] Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Manuel Macías y Casado Ramón Blanco y Erenas Casualties and losses 385 KIA USA 5,000... Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War There were two Boer wars, one in 1880-81 and the second from October 11, 1899-1902 both between the British and the settlers of Dutch origin (called Boere, Afrikaners or Voortrekkers) in South Africa that put an end to the two independent... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...

The New York Times published an unsigned editorial supporting the use of "concentration camp" in the exhibit.[17] An article quoted Jonathan Mark, a columnist for The Jewish Week, who wrote, "Can no one else speak of slavery, gas, trains, camps? It's Jewish malpractice to monopolize pain and minimize victims."[18] AJC Executive Director David A. Harris stated during the controversy, "...We have not claimed Jewish exclusivity for the term 'concentration camps.'"[19] The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The Jewish Week is an independent community weekly newspaper serving the Jewish community of the metropolitan New York City area. ... David A. Harris is the executive director of the AJC. The New York Times called the AJC the Dean of American Jewish Organizations. ...


Before World War II

Owens Valley Paiute woman weaving a basket

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 250 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (250 × 400 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Owens Valley Paiute woman weaving a basket This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 250 × 400 pixelsFull resolution (250 × 400 pixel, file size: 52 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Owens Valley Paiute woman weaving a basket This image is in the public domain in the United States. ...

Owens Valley Paiute

Manzanar was first inhabited by Native Americans nearly 10,000 years ago, and approximately 1,500 years ago the area was settled by the Owens Valley Paiute,[3] who range across the Owens Valley from Long Valley on the north to Owens Lake on the south, and from the crest of the Sierra Nevada on the west to the Inyo Mountains on the east.[20] Other Native American nations in the region included the Miwok, Western Mono, and Tubatulabal to the west, the Shoshone to the south and east, and the Mono Lake Paiute to the north.[20] The Owens Valley Paiute hunted, fished, collected pine nuts, raised crops utilizing irrigation in the Manzanar area,[3][21] and traded brown ware pottery for salt from the Saline Valley. They also traded other wares and goods across the Sierra Nevada during the summer and fall.[22] Long Valley Caldera is a depression in eastern California that is adjacent to Mammoth Mountain. ... The Inyo Mountains The Inyo Mountains are a short mountain range east of the Sierra Nevada mountains in eastern California in the United States. ... Miwok (also spelled Miwuk, Mi-Wuk, or Me-Wuk) can refer to any one of four linguistically-related groups of Native Americans, who lived in what is now Northern California, who spoke one of the Miwokan languages in the Utian family. ... The Mono are a Native American people who traditionally lived in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains (generally south of Bridgeport, California) and adjacent areas of the Great Basin. ... Tubatulabal (also Tübatulabal) is an endangered Uto-Aztecan language spoken by some elders in southern California. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... Mono Lake is an alkaline and hypersaline lake in California, United States that is a critical nesting habitat for several bird species and is one of the most productive ecosystems in North America[citation needed]. // Satellite photo of Mono Lake Mono Craters to the right of the image are rhyolitic...


The Owens Valley had received scant attention from the white man before the early 1860s, it being little more than a crossroads on the routes through the area. When gold and silver were then discovered in the Sierra Nevada and the Inyo Mountains, the resulting sudden influx of miners, farmers, cattlemen and their hungry herds brought conflict with the Owens Valley Paiute, whose crops were being destroyed.[23] The Owens Valley Indian War of 1861–1863 ensued, at the end of which the Owens Valley Paiute, along with other native peoples in the region, were forced at gunpoint by the United States Army to walk almost 200 miles (320 km) to Fort Tejon[21] in one of the many “Trails of Tears” inflicted upon Native Americans in United States history.[24][25] The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Fort Tejon was established by the United States Army in 1854 and was active for ten years. ... For the Norwegian musical group, see Trail of Tears (band); for the 2006 documentary, see The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Legacy. ...


Approximately one-third of the Native Americans in the Owens Valley were forcibly relocated to Fort Tejon, but after 1863, many returned to their permanent villages that had been established along creeks flowing down from the Sierra Nevada mountains.[24] In the Manzanar area, the Owens Valley Paiute had established villages along Bairs, Georges, Shepherds, and Symmes creeks.[24] Evidence of Paiute settlement in the area is still present.

Manzanar Community Hall, ca. 1912. In back is Hatfield's (later Bandhauer's) General Store, which housed the post office
Manzanar Community Hall, ca. 1912. In back is Hatfield's (later Bandhauer's) General Store, which housed the post office

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 500 × 389 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 389 pixel, file size: 28 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Manzanar Community Hall, ca. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 500 × 389 pixelsFull resolution (500 × 389 pixel, file size: 28 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Manzanar Community Hall, ca. ...

Ranchers

When white settlers first arrived in the Owens Valley in the mid–19th century they found a number of large Paiute villages in the Manzanar area.[26] John Shepherd, one of the first settlers, homesteaded 160 acres (65 ha) of land three miles (4.8 km) north of Georges Creek in 1864. With the help of Owens Valley Paiute field workers and laborers,[27] his ranch eventually expanded to 2,000 acres (810 ha).[28]


In 1905, George Chaffey, an agricultural developer from Southern California, purchased Shepherd's ranch and subdivided it, along with other adjacent ranches, and founded the town of Manzanar in 1910.[4][29] Chaffey's Owens Valley Improvement Company built an irrigation system and planted thousands of fruit trees,[4] and by 1920, the town had more than twenty-five homes, a two-room school, a town hall, and a general store.[29] Also at that time, nearly 5,000 acres (2,020 ha) of apple, pear, and peach trees were being grown, along with grapes, prunes, potatoes, corn, alfalfa and large vegetable and flower gardens.[4][30] George Chaffey (born in Brockville, Ontario in 1848, died 1932) was a Canadian engineer who with his brother William developed large parts of Southern California, including what became the cities of Etiwanda, Ontario, and Upland, and undertook similar developments in Australia which became the city of Mildura, Victoria and the... This article is about the region of Southern California. ...


"Manzanar was a very happy place and a pleasant place to live during those years, with its peach, pear, and apple orchards, alfalfa fields, tree-lined country lanes, meadows and corn fields," said Martha Mills, who lived at Manzanar from 1916 to 1920.[31]


Some of the early orchards, along with some remnants of the town and ranches, are still present at Manzanar today.[29]

Unlined section of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, just south of Manzanar near US Highway 395.
Unlined section of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, just south of Manzanar near US Highway 395.

Quenching Los Angeles’s thirst

As early as March 1905, the City of Los Angeles began secretly acquiring water rights in the Owens Valley,[32][33] and it completed construction of its 233-mile (375 km) Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913,[3] transporting diverted Owens River water to Los Angeles instead of allowing it to drain into Owens Lake.[34][35] But it did not take long for Los Angeles water officials to realize that Owens River water was not enough to quench the thirst of a rapidly growing metropolis, and in 1920, they began to purchase more of the water rights on the Owens Valley floor. As the decade went on, the City of Los Angeles bought out one Owens Valley farmer after another, and even extended its reach northward into Mono County, including Long Valley.[36] By 1933, the City owned 85% of all town property and 95% of all ranch and farm land in the Owens Valley, including Manzanar.[29] Water Rights refers to a legal system for allocating water from a water source to water users. ... There are two Los Angeles Aqueducts--the original Los Angeles Aqueduct was designed by William Mulholland (an Irish immigrant who became a self-taught engineer and head of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power) and completed in 1913 to deliver water from the Owens River to the city... Owens Valley The Owens River is a river in eastern California in the United States, approximately 120 mi (193 km) long. ... Mono County is a county located in the east central portion of the U.S. state of California, to east of the Sierra Nevada between Yosemite National Park and Nevada. ...


Although there were those who sold their land (for prices that made them financially independent), a significant number chose to stay. But in dry years, Los Angeles pumped ground water and drained all surface water, diverting all of it into its aqueduct and leaving Owens Valley ranchers without water.[37]

"There was so much water during those early years, that when a horse pulled a buggy, the water frequently came up to the horse's knees," said Lucille DeBoer, who lived on a ranch at Manzanar. "When this happened, the children took off their shoes and socks to walk home. In the early 1900s the City of Los Angeles started to purchase ranches in the Owens Valley for the sole purpose of supplying water to the people in Los Angeles. People started to sell their land to the City; the City put in wells to drain the water out of the ground; the trees began to die; and the land finally turned to vacant dirt. This ended the Land of the Big Red Apples."[30]

Even though they chose not to sell, without water for irrigation the holdout ranchers were forced out of their ranches and communities; that included the town of Manzanar, which was abandoned by 1929.[3] Manzanar remained uninhabited until the United States Army leased 6,200 acres (25.1 km²) from the City of Los Angeles for the Manzanar War Relocation Center.[3] The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...


Wartime: 1942–45

Barracks under construction at Poston. Barrack construction and materials were the same at all ten camps, including Manzanar. Poston, Arizona May 5, 1942
Barracks under construction at Poston. Barrack construction and materials were the same at all ten camps, including Manzanar. Poston, Arizona May 5, 1942

After the December 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States Government swiftly moved to begin solving the “Japanese Problem” on the West Coast of the United States,[38] and in the evening hours of that same day the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) arrested selected “enemy” aliens, including 2,192 who were of Japanese descent.[39] On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which authorized the Secretary of War to designate military commanders to prescribe military areas and to exclude “any or all persons” from such areas. The order also authorized the construction of what would later be called “relocation centers” by the War Relocation Authority (WRA) to house those who were to be excluded.[40] This order resulted in the forced relocation of over 120,000 Japanese Americans, two-thirds of whom were native-born American citizens. The rest had been prevented from becoming citizens by federal law.[41][42] Over 110,000 were imprisoned in the ten concentration camps.[39] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 738 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1137 pixel, file size: 165 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Poston, Ariz. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 738 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1137 pixel, file size: 165 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Poston, Ariz. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the actual attack. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... FDR redirects here. ... Sign posted notifying people of Japanese descent to report to for relocation. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... The War Relocation Authority (WRA) was U.S. civilian agency responsible for the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. The WRA was created by President Roosevelt on March 18, 1942 with Executive Order 9102 and officially ceased to exist June 30, 1946. ... The United States flag The Seal of the United States The Immigration and Naturalization Act sets forth the legal requirements for acquiring and losing citizenship of the United States. ...


Manzanar was the first of the ten concentration camps to be established.[43] Initially, it was a temporary “reception center”, known as the Owens Valley Reception Center from March 21, 1942, to May 31, 1942.[43] At that time, it was operated by the US Army's Wartime Civilian Control Administration (WCCA).[44] is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Owens Valley Reception Center was transferred to the WRA on June 1, 1942, and officially became the "Manzanar War Relocation Center." The first Japanese American prisoners to arrive at Manzanar were volunteers who helped build the camp. By mid–April up to 1,000 Japanese Americans were arriving daily, and by July the population of the camp neared 10,000.[45] Over 90% of the prisoners were from the Los Angeles area, with the rest coming from Stockton, California, and Bainbridge Island, Washington.[45] Manzanar held 10,046 prisoners at its peak, and a total of 11,070 people were imprisoned there.[3] is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Stocktons Great, Take A Look! Location in San Joaquin County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County San Joaquin Incorporated 1850 Government  - Mayor Edward J. Chavez  - City Manager J. Gordon Palmer, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Bainbridge Island is an island in Puget Sound, and is an incorporated city located in Kitsap County, Washington. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ...

Far end of a barrack row looking west to the desert beyond with the mountains in the background. Evacuees at Manzanar are encountering the terrific desert heat July 2, 1942
Far end of a barrack row looking west to the desert beyond with the mountains in the background. Evacuees at Manzanar are encountering the terrific desert heat July 2, 1942

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1009 pixel, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Manzanar, Calif. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 1009 pixel, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Manzanar, Calif. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Climate

The weather at Manzanar had a tremendous impact on the prisoners, few of whom were accustomed to the extremes of the area's climate. The Owens Valley lies at an elevation of about 4,000 feet (1,220 m).[46] Summers on the desert floor of the Owens Valley are generally hot, with temperatures exceeding 100 °F (38 °C) not uncommon.[46] Winters bring occasional snowfall and daytime temperatures that often drop into the 40 °F (4 °C) range.[46] At night, temperatures are generally 30–40 °F (16 to 22 °C) lower than the daytime highs, and high winds are common day or night.[44][46] The area's mean annual precipitation is barely five inches (12.7 cm). The ever-present dust was a continual problem due to the frequent high winds, so much so that prisoners usually woke up in the morning covered from head to toe with a fine layer of dust, and barracks constantly had to be swept.[47]


"In the summer, the heat was unbearable," said former Manzanar prisoner Ralph Lazo (see Notable Manzanar prisoners section, below). "In the winter, the sparsely rationed oil didn't adequately heat the tar paper covered pine barracks with the knotholes in the floor. The wind would blow so hard, it would toss rocks around."[48]

Typical interior scene in a Manzanar barrack apartment. Note the cloth partition separating one apartment from another, lending a small amount of privacy June 30, 1942
Typical interior scene in a Manzanar barrack apartment. Note the cloth partition separating one apartment from another, lending a small amount of privacy June 30, 1942

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 579 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1352 × 1400 pixel, file size: 165 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: A typical interior scene in one of the barrack apartments at this center. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 579 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1352 × 1400 pixel, file size: 165 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: A typical interior scene in one of the barrack apartments at this center. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Camp layout and facilities

The camp site was situated on 6,200 acres (2,510 ha) at Manzanar, leased from the City of Los Angeles,[3] with the developed portion covering approximately 540 acres (220 ha).[49] The residential area was about one square mile (2.6 km²), and consisted of 36 blocks of hastily constructed,[50] 20-foot (6.1 m) by 100-foot (30.5 m) tarpaper barracks, with each prisoner family living in a single 20-foot (6.1 m) by 25-foot (7.6 m) “apartment” in the barracks. These apartments consisted of partitions with no ceilings, eliminating any chance of privacy.[51][52] To be sure, privacy was a major problem for the prisoners, especially since the camp had communal men's and women's latrines.[51][52]


“…One of the hardest things to endure was the communal latrines, with no partitions; and showers with no stalls,” said former Manzanar prisoner Rosie Kakuuchi.[50]


Each residential block also had a communal mess hall, a laundry room, a recreation hall, an ironing room, and a heating oil storage tank, although Block 33 lacked a recreation hall.[52] In addition to the residential blocks, Manzanar had 34 additional blocks that had staff housing, camp administration offices, two warehouses, a garage, a camp hospital, and 24 firebreaks.[49] The camp also had sentry posts at the main entrance, school facilities, a high school auditorium, staff housing, chicken and hog farms, churches, a cemetery, a post office, a cooperative store, other shops, a camp newspaper, and other necessary amenities that one would expect to find in most American cities.[51] Manzanar also had a camouflage net factory, an experimental plantation for producing natural rubber from the Guayule plant, and an orphanage called Children's Village, which housed 101 Japanese American orphans.[51][53] The camp perimeter had eight watchtowers manned by armed Military Police, and it was enclosed by five-strand barbed wire.[49][51] Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of a number of plants but can also be produced synthetically. ... Binomial name Parthenium argentatum L. Guayule (Parthenium argentatum), pronounced wa-YOO-lee, is a shrub in the genus Parthenium of the family Asteraceae, native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... The Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command providing security coverage at the Padang in Singapore during the National Day Parade in 2000. ...

Female prisoners practicing calisthenics
Female prisoners practicing calisthenics

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 558 pixel Image in higher resolution (2122 × 1481 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Item Title Calesthenics [sic] / photograph by Ansel Adams. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 558 pixel Image in higher resolution (2122 × 1481 pixel, file size: 394 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Item Title Calesthenics [sic] / photograph by Ansel Adams. ...

Life behind the barbed wire

See also: Japanese American internment: Conditions in the camps

After being uprooted from their homes and communities, the prisoners found themselves having to endure primitive, sub-standard conditions,[50] lack of privacy, and having to wait in one line after another for meals, at latrines, and at the laundry room.[54] Each camp was intended to be self-sufficient, and Manzanar was no exception. Cooperatives operated various services, such as the camp newspaper,[55][56][57] beauty and barber shops, shoe repair, and more.[54] In addition, prisoners raised chickens, hogs, and vegetables, and cultivated the existing orchards for fruit.[54] Prisoners even made their own soy sauce and tofu.[54] Residents of Japanese ancestry waiting in line for the bus that will transport them to an internment camp. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... For other uses, see Tofu (disambiguation). ...

Waiting for lunch outside a mess hall at noon July 7, 1942
Waiting for lunch outside a mess hall at noon July 7, 1942

Food at Manzanar was based on military requirements. Meals usually consisted of hot rice and vegetables, since meat was scarce due to rationing.[54] In early 1944, a chicken ranch began operation, and in late April of the same year, a hog farm was opened. Both operations provided a welcome supplement to the prisoners' diet.[58] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 996 pixel, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Part of a line waiting for lunch outside the mess hall at noon. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 569 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 996 pixel, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title: Part of a line waiting for lunch outside the mess hall at noon. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gas ration stamps being printed as a result of the 1973 oil crisis Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services: it restricts how much people are allowed to buy or consume. ...


Most prisoners were employed at Manzanar to keep the camp running. Unskilled workers earned US$8 per month, semi-skilled workers earned $12 per month, skilled workers made $16 per month, and professionals earned $19 per month. In addition, all prisoners received $3.60 per month as a clothing allowance.[54] USD redirects here. ...

A baseball game at Manzanar, 1943.
A baseball game at Manzanar, 1943.

The prisoners also made Manzanar more liveable through recreation, and participated in sports, including baseball and football, and martial arts.[47] They also personalized and beautified their barren surroundings by building elaborate gardens, which often included pools, waterfalls, and rock ornaments. There was even a nine-hole golf course.[54][59] Remnants of some of the gardens, pools, and rock ornaments are still present at Manzanar. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x730, 134 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Manzanar Japanese American internment ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x730, 134 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Manzanar Japanese American internment ... This article is about the sport. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... This view from the Symbolic Mountain Lookout in Cowra, NSW shows many of the typical elements of a Japanese garden Stone lantern amid plants. ...


Resistance

Although most prisoners quietly accepted their fate during World War II, there was some resistance in the camps. Poston, Heart Mountain, Topaz, and Tule Lake each had civil disturbances about wage differences, black marketing of sugar, intergenerational friction, rumors of “informers” reporting to the camp administration or the FBI, and other issues.[47] However, the most serious incident occurred at Manzanar on December 5–6, 1942, and became known as the Manzanar Riot.[60] painting of the Poston War Relocation Center painted by Japanese American, Tom Tanaka while interned The Poston Relocation Center, located in Yuma County (now in La Paz County) of Arizona, was the largest of the internment camps operated by the War Relocation Authority during World War II. Actually composed of... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Topaz Relocation Center was an internment camp which housed Nikkei -- Americans of Japanese descent and immigrants who had come to the United States from Japan. ... Tule Lake War Relocation Center was an internment camp in northern California near Tule Lake used in the Japanese-American internment during World War II. It was one of the largest and most notorious of the camps, and did not close until after the war, in 1946. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ...


After several months of tension between prisoners who supported the Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) and a group of Kibei (Japanese Americans educated in Japan), rumors spread that sugar and meat shortages were the result of black marketing by camp administrators.[47] To make matters worse, prisoner and JACL leader Fred Tayama was beaten by six masked men. Harry Ueno, the leader of the Kitchen Workers Union, was suspected of involvement and was arrested and removed from Manzanar.[60] Soon after, 3,000 to 4,000 prisoners gathered and marched to the administration area, protesting Ueno's arrest. After Ueno's supporters negotiated with the camp administration, he was returned to the Manzanar jail,[60] but a crowd of several hundred returned to protest. When the crowd surged forward, military police threw tear gas to disperse them. As people ran to avoid the tear gas, some in the crowd pushed a driverless truck toward the jail. At that moment, the military police fired into the crowd, killing a 17–year–old boy instantly. A 21–year–old man who was shot in the abdomen died days later. Nine other prisoners were wounded, and a military police corporal was wounded by a ricocheting bullet.[47][61] Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ...

Monument at Manzanar cemetery, 2002
Monument at Manzanar cemetery, 2002

Download high resolution version (1028x882, 130 KB)Photo taken by Daniel Mayer on 2002-03-24. ... Download high resolution version (1028x882, 130 KB)Photo taken by Daniel Mayer on 2002-03-24. ...

Closure

On November 21, 1945, the WRA closed Manzanar, the sixth camp to be closed. Although the prisoners had been brought to the Owens Valley by the United States Government, they had to leave the camp on their own,[60][62] with the WRA giving $25, one-way train or bus fare, and meals to those who had less than $600.[62] While many left the camp voluntarily, a significant number refused to leave because they had no place to go after having lost everything when they were forcibly uprooted and removed from their homes. As such, they had to be forcibly removed once again, this time from Manzanar. Indeed, those who refused to leave were generally removed from their barracks, sometimes by force, even if they had no place to go.[62] is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The War Relocation Authority (WRA) was U.S. civilian agency responsible for the relocation and internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. The WRA was created by President Roosevelt on March 18, 1942 with Executive Order 9102 and officially ceased to exist June 30, 1946. ...


One hundred and forty-six prisoners died at Manzanar.[63] Fifteen prisoners were buried there, but only five graves remain, as most were later reburied elsewhere by their families.[64]


The Manzanar cemetery site is marked by a monument that was built by prisoner stonemason Ryozo Kado in 1943.[65] An inscription in Japanese on the front of the monument reads, 慰靈塔 (Soul Consoling Tower).[63] The inscription on the back reads "Erected by the Manzanar Japanese" on the left, and "August 1943" on the right.[63] Today, the monument is often draped in strings of origami, and sometimes offerings of personal items are left by survivors and other visitors. The National Park Service periodically collects and catalogues these items. This article is about paper folding. ...


After the camp was closed, the site eventually returned to its original state, and within a couple of years all the structures had been removed, with the exception of the two sentry posts at the entrance, the cemetery monument, and the former Manzanar High School auditorium, which was purchased by the County of Inyo. The County leased the auditorium to the Independence Veterans of Foreign Wars, who used it as a meeting facility and community theater until 1951. After that, the building was used as a maintenance facility by the Inyo County Road Department.[60][66] Inyo County is a county located in east-central California, on the east side of the Sierra Nevada south of Yosemite National Park. ... The Veterans of Foreign Wars, or VFW, is an American organization whose members are current or former members of the U.S. armed forces. ...


As of 2007, the site also retains numerous building foundations, portions of the water and sewer systems, the outline of the road grid, remains of the landscaping constructed by prisoners, and much more.[66] And despite four years of use by the prisoners, the site also retains evidence of the ranches and of the town of Manzanar, as well as artifacts from the days of the Owens Valley Paiute settlement.[67][68]

Manzanar Committee Chair Sue Kunitomi Embrey welcoming crowd at 33rd annual Manzanar Pilgrimage, April 27, 2002
Manzanar Committee Chair Sue Kunitomi Embrey welcoming crowd at 33rd annual Manzanar Pilgrimage, April 27, 2002

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 192 × 128 pixelsFull resolution (192 × 128 pixel, file size: 6 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Manzanar Committee Chair Sue Kunitomi Embrey welcoming the crowd at the 33rd annual Manzanar Pilgrimage, 04/27/2002. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 192 × 128 pixelsFull resolution (192 × 128 pixel, file size: 6 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Manzanar Committee Chair Sue Kunitomi Embrey welcoming the crowd at the 33rd annual Manzanar Pilgrimage, 04/27/2002. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

Notable prisoners

Sue Kunitomi Embrey, born on January 6, 1923, was an editor of the Manzanar Free Press, the camp newspaper, and wove camouflage nets to support the war effort. She left Manzanar in late 1943 for Madison, Wisconsin and one year later moved to Chicago, Illinois. She returned to California in 1948 and went on to become a schoolteacher and a labor and community activist.[69] In 1969, Embrey was one of approximately 150 people who attended the first organized Manzanar Pilgrimage (see Manzanar Pilgrimage section, below) and was one of the founders of the annual event. She also went on to become the primary force behind the preservation of the site and its gaining National Historic Site status.[69][70] is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Madison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ...


"Embrey took her pain and anger from the unjust internment and turned it into a life dedicated to making certain that would never happen again," said Rose Ochi, legal counsel for the Manzanar Committee, after Embrey passed away on May 15, 2006. "She was just tireless and as a teacher she was making certain that our history books did talk about the tragic episode."[70] is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


"The reason [that the Manzanar National Historic Site has] been accepted by Japanese Americans, local Owens Valley residents and general visitors is in large part because of [Embrey's] knowledge and her personal experience," said Alisa Lynch, Chief of Interpretation, Manzanar National Historic Site. "She had the insight to help us be able to be truthful, to be accurate. She was a historian and an internee, she could wear many different hats."[70]


Aiko Yoshinaga-Herzig, born in 1925 in Los Angeles, was 17 years old when she was imprisoned at Manzanar. Later, she was incarcerated at Jerome and Rohwer, Arkansas.[71] Yoshinaga-Herzig later moved to New York where she became a community activist in the 1960s and was a member of Asian Americans for Action (AAA), the first Asian American political organization on the East Coast, which included Asian American activists Bill and Yuri Kochiyama.[71] Although she was not trained to be an archival researcher, Yoshinaga-Herzig decided to find out what historical documents about herself and her family might exist at the National Archives.[71] Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas The Jerome War Relocation Center was a Japanese American internment camp located in southeastern Arkansas near the tiny town of Jerome. ... The Rohwer War Relocation Center was a World War II Japanese American internment camp located in rural southeastern Arkansas, in Desha County. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the state. ... Yuri Kochiyama (born May 19, 1922) is a US Japanese-American civil rights activist. ... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ...


Yoshinaga-Herzig and her husband, John "Jack" Herzig, pored over mountains of documents from the War Relocation Authority, a task that "was roughly equivalent to indexing all the information in a library, working from a card catalog that only gave a subject description by shelf, without giving individual book titles or authors."[71] Their efforts resulted in the discovery of evidence that the US Government perjured itself before the United States Supreme Court in the 1944 cases Korematsu v. United States, Hirabayashi v. United States, and Yasui v. United States by presenting falsified evidence to the Court, by destroying evidence, and by withholding other vital information.[72] This evidence provided the legal basis Japanese Americans needed to seek redress and reparations for their wartime imprisonment. The Herzigs' research was also valuable in their work with the National Coalition for Japanese American Redress (NCJAR), which filed a class-action lawsuit against the US Government on behalf of the prisoners. The US Supreme Court ruled against the plaintiff.[71] The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding The exclusion order leading to Japanese American Internment was constitutional. ... Holding --- Court membership Case opinions Laws applied --- Hirabayashi v. ... In law, a class action is an equitable procedural device used in litigation for determining the rights of and remedies, if any, for large numbers of people whose cases involve common questions of law and fact. ...


William Minoru Hohri, born in San Francisco, California, in 1927,[73] was imprisoned at Manzanar when he was 15 years old. His family entered Manzanar on April 3, 1942, and remained behind the barbed wire until August 25, 1945.[74] Hohri became a civil rights and anti-war activist after World War II. In the late 1970s he became the chair of NCJAR, which brought a class-action lawsuit against the US Government on March 16, 1983, asserting that it had unjustly imprisoned Japanese Americans during World War II.[75] The lawsuit stated twenty-two causes of action, including fifteen alleged violations of constitutional rights, and sought $27 billion in damages.[76] Despite the fact the US Supreme Court eventually ruled against the class action plaintiffs, the lawsuit helped bring the case for redress and reparations to public awareness. It showed the Congress and the Executive Branch that the US Government would have far greater exposure in the still-pending lawsuit than by legislation under consideration in Congress for reparations. The proposed bill called for $20,000 reparations payments to each former prisoner or their immediate relatives, along with money for a civil liberties education fund (see Civil Liberties Act of 1988).[77][78] San Francisco redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... A constitutional right is a right granted by a governments constitution (on the national or sub-national level), and cannot be legally denied by that government. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 granted reparations to Japanese Americans who had been interned by the United States government during World War II. Each internee was granted $20,000 in compensation. ...

"...(The class action lawsuit) remained active until after Congress had passed the redress legislation. While it remained alive, it played a significant part in publicizing the issues. The NCJAR lawsuit demanded $220,000 for each individual whose liberties had been denied. This was more than twenty times greater than the $20,000 per surviving incarcerated person that the redress bills proposed, allowing proponents to portray the legislative solution as a moderate alternative."[71]

Ralph Lazo in a group photo at Manzanar
Ralph Lazo in a group photo at Manzanar

Ralph Lazo, born in 1924 in Los Angeles, was of Mexican American and Irish descent, but when at age 16 he learned that his Japanese American friends and neighbors were being forcibly relocated and imprisoned at Manzanar, he was outraged.[48] Lazo was so incensed that he joined friends on a train that took hundreds to Manzanar in May 1942.[79][80] Manzanar officials never asked him about his ancestry. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 200 × 165 pixelsFull resolution (200 × 165 pixel, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ralph Lazo in a group photo at Manzanar. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 200 × 165 pixelsFull resolution (200 × 165 pixel, file size: 15 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ralph Lazo in a group photo at Manzanar. ... The ethnonym Mexican-American describes United States citizens of Mexican ancestry (14 million in 2003) and Mexican citizens who reside in the US (10 million in 2003). ...


"Internment was immoral," Lazo told the Los Angeles Times. "It was wrong, and I couldn't accept it."[48] "These people hadn't done anything that I hadn't done except to go to Japanese language school."[81] This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ...


In 1944, Lazo was elected president of his class at Manzanar High School.[48] He remained at Manzanar until August of that year, when he was inducted into the US Army.[48] He served as a Staff Sergeant in the South Pacific until 1946, helping liberate the Philippines. Lazo was awarded the Bronze Star for heroism in combat.[48][79] After the war, he was a strong supporter of redress and reparations for Japanese Americans imprisoned during the war.[81] The film, Stand Up for Justice: The Ralph Lazo Story, from Visual Communications, documents his life story, particularly his stand against the internment.[82] The Pacific Ocean theater was one of four major theaters of the Pacific War, between 1941 and 1945. ... The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration and is the fourth highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service. ... Visual Communications (Southern California Asian American Studies Central Inc. ...

Photographer Toyo Miyatake
Photographer Toyo Miyatake

Toyo Miyatake, who was born in Kagawa, Shikoku, Japan, in 1896, immigrated to the United States in 1909. He settled in the Little Tokyo section of Los Angeles, and was imprisoned at Manzanar along with his family. A photographer, Miyatake smuggled a lens and film holder into Manzanar and later had a craftsman construct a wooden box with a door that hid the lens. He took many now-famous photos of life and the conditions at Manzanar. His contraband camera was eventually discovered by the camp administration and confiscated. However, camp director Ralph Merritt later allowed Miyatake to photograph freely within the camp, even though he was not allowed to actually press the shutter button, requiring a guard or camp official to perform this simple task. Merritt finally saw no point to this technicality, and allowed Miyatake to take photos himself.[83] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1694 × 2182 pixel, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title Toyo Miyatake, (Photographer) / photograph by Ansel Adams. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1694 × 2182 pixel, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Title Toyo Miyatake, (Photographer) / photograph by Ansel Adams. ... Toyo Miyatake (1896 - 1979) was a Japanese-American photographer, best known for his photographs documenting the Japanese internment at Manzanar during WWII. // Miyatake was born in Kagawa, Shikoku in Japan in 1896. ... Kagawa Prefecture ) is located on Shikoku island, Japan. ... This article is about the island. ... Japantown is a common name for Japanese-American or Japanese-Canadian communities in big cities. ...

PFC Sadao S. Munemori
PFC Sadao S. Munemori

Sadao Munemori volunteered for service with the US Army directly from Manzanar, and served in Europe with the 100th Battalion/442nd Regimental Combat Team. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his courage when he single-handedly knocked out two machine guns and dove on a grenade, smothering its blast—sacrificing his own life to save two comrades near Seravezza, Italy, on April 5, 1945.[84] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1500 pixel, file size: 336 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) PFC Sadao Munemori, MoH recipient from[1] This image is a work of a U.S. Army soldier or employee, taken or made during the course... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1500 pixel, file size: 336 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) PFC Sadao Munemori, MoH recipient from[1] This image is a work of a U.S. Army soldier or employee, taken or made during the course... Sadao S. Munemori (born Los Angeles, California, died April 5, 1945) was a posthumous recipient of the Medal of Honor, after he sacrificed his life to save those of his colleagues, at Seravezza, Italy, April 5, 1945, during the closing stages of World War II. A Private First Class, U... The European Theater of Operations, or ETO, was the term used by the United States in World War II to refer to most United States military activity in Europe north of the Mediterranean coast. ... The 442nd Regimental Combat Team, hiking up a muddy French road in the Chambois Sector, France, in late 1944. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... Seravezza is a small town belonging to the Province of Lucca, in Tuscany, Italy. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Harry Ueno, born in Hawaii in 1907, was a Kibei (Japanese American educated in Japan) who was imprisoned at Manzanar with his wife and children.[85] After volunteering for mess hall work, Ueno discovered that Manzanar camp staff were stealing rationed sugar and meat and selling them on the black market.[85][86] Ueno exposed the thefts, and worked to organize prisoners to deal with them.[87] This led to his arrest, which resulted in Ueno becoming the focal point of the Manzanar Riot.[85][88] Ueno was one of the prisoners featured in Emiko Omori's Emmy Award-winning film Rabbit in the Moon.[89] An Emmy Award. ...


"Ueno made us aware there was opposition in the camps," said Omori. "He made us feel that people did fight back and made us realize that one person can make a difference."[85]

Karl Yoneda July 3, 1942
Karl Yoneda July 3, 1942

Karl Yoneda was born in Glendale, California, on July 15, 1906, but his family moved to Japan in 1913.[90][91] He became an activist early in his life.[90] With Japan on a path towards war, Yoneda returned to the United States rather than be drafted into the Japanese Army.[90] He arrived in San Francisco on December 14, 1926. He was taken to the Immigration Detention House on Angel Island, where he was detained for two months, despite having his California birth certificate.[91] Yoneda later moved to Los Angeles, where he found work organizing with the Trade Union Educational League, and later the Japanese Workers' Association.[90] Yoneda arrived at Manzanar on March 22, 1942, one of the first Japanese Americans to arrive as a volunteer to build the camp.[92] Yoneda later distinguished himself in service to the US, volunteering to serve in the Military Intelligence Service.[93] After the war, Yoneda continued to support progressive causes and civil and human rights issues.[90] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 411 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1400 pixel, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) itle: Manzanar, Calif. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 411 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1400 pixel, file size: 101 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) itle: Manzanar, Calif. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Glendale within Los Angeles County and the State of California. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aerial view of Angel Island. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Preservation and remembrance

Manzanar Pilgrimage

In 1969, about 150 people departed Los Angeles by car and bus, headed for Manzanar.[94] It was the "first" annual Manzanar Pilgrimage. But as it turned out, two ministers, Reverends Sentoku Maeda and Soichi Wakahiro, had been making annual pilgrimages to Manzanar since the camp closed in 1945.[94]

Approximately 1,100 people attended the 38th Annual Manzanar Pilgrimage, April 28, 2007.
Approximately 1,100 people attended the 38th Annual Manzanar Pilgrimage, April 28, 2007.

The non-profit Manzanar Committee, formerly led by Sue Kunitomi Embrey, has sponsored the Pilgrimage since 1969. The event is held annually on the last Saturday of April[94] with hundreds of visitors of all ages and backgrounds, including some former prisoners, gathering at the Manzanar cemetery to remember the internment and to learn about it in the hope that what is generally accepted to be a tragic chapter in American history is neither forgotten nor repeated. The program traditionally consists of speakers, cultural performances, an interfaith service, and Ondo dancing. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 957 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Approximately 1,100 people from all ages and all walks of life attended the 38th Annual Manzanar Pilgrimage, April 28, 2007. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 957 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Approximately 1,100 people from all ages and all walks of life attended the 38th Annual Manzanar Pilgrimage, April 28, 2007. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ... Ondo is a type of Japanese Folk Music often heard during Obon festivals. ...


In 1997, the Manzanar At Dusk program became a part of the Pilgrimage.[95] The program attracts local area residents, as well as descendents of Manzanar's ranch days and the town of Manzanar. Through small-group discussions, the event gives participants the opportunity to hear directly about the experiences of former prisoners firsthand, to share their experiences and feelings about what they learned, and talk about the relevance of what happened at Manzanar to their own lives.

Manzanar At Dusk: In a small group session, former Manzanar prisoner Wilbur Sato (far right) relates his experiences behind the barbed wire. April 28, 2007.
Manzanar At Dusk: In a small group session, former Manzanar prisoner Wilbur Sato (far right) relates his experiences behind the barbed wire. April 28, 2007.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1,005 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Manzanar At Dusk: In a small group session, former Manzanar internee Wilbur Sato (far right) relates his experiences behind the barbed wire to a... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 1,005 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Manzanar At Dusk: In a small group session, former Manzanar internee Wilbur Sato (far right) relates his experiences behind the barbed wire to a... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

California Historical Landmark

The Manzanar Committee's efforts resulted in the State of California naming Manzanar as California Historical Landmark # 850 in 1972, with an historical marker being placed at the sentry post on April 14, 1973.[67][96] State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... California Historical Landmarks (CHLs) are buildings, structures, sites, or places in the state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical significance by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below: approved for designation by the County Board of Supervisors or the City/Town Council in whose... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


National Historic Landmark and National Historic Site

The Manzanar Committee also spearheaded efforts for Manzanar to be listed in the National Register of Historic Places, and in February 1985, Manzanar was designated a National Historic Landmark.[67] Embrey and the Committee also led the effort to have Manzanar designated a National Historic Site, and on March 3, 1992, President George H. W. Bush signed House Resolution 543 into law (Pub.L. 102-248; 106 Stat. 40). This act of Congress established the Manzanar National Historic Site "to provide for the protection and interpretation of the historical, cultural, and natural resources associated with the relocation of Japanese Americans during World War II."[6][97] Five years later, the National Park Service acquired 814 acres (329.4 ha) of land at Manzanar from the City of Los Angeles.[97] A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... National Historic Site is a designation for a protected area of historic significance. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large, is the official source for the laws and resolutions passed by Congress. ... An Act of Vaginapenis is a bill or resolution adopted by both houses of the United States Congress to which one of the following events has happened: Acceptance by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception (excluding Sundays) while the Congress is...

Replica of an historic watch tower at the Manzanar National Historic Site, built in 2005. Eight watchtowers, equipped with searchlights and machine guns pointed inward at the prisoners, were positioned around the perimeter of the camp. April 27, 2007.
Replica of an historic watch tower at the Manzanar National Historic Site, built in 2005. Eight watchtowers, equipped with searchlights and machine guns pointed inward at the prisoners, were positioned around the perimeter of the camp. April 27, 2007.

The site features an Interpretive Center housed in the historically restored Manzanar High School Auditorium, which has a permanent exhibit that tells the stories of the prisoners at Manzanar, the Owens Valley Paiute, the ranchers, the town of Manzanar, and water in the Owens Valley.[98] is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

“...Stories like this need to be told, and too many of us have passed away without telling our stories," Embrey said during her remarks at the Grand Opening ceremonies for the Manzanar National Historic Site Interpretive Center on April 24, 2004. "The Interpretive Center is important because it needs to show to the world that America is strong as it makes amends for the wrongs it has committed, and that we will always remember Manzanar because of that."[70] is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The site, which has seen 522,749 people visit between 2000 and 2007,[1] features restored sentry posts at the camp entrance, a replica of a camp watchtower, a self-guided tour road, and informational markers.[99] Staff offer guided tours and other educational programs,[100] including a Junior Ranger educational program for children between four and fifteen years of age.[101] The National Park Service is working to restore an historic mess hall; build a replica of a portion of a residential block, including barracks; and plant historically appropriate vegetation.[102] They are also taking oral histories of former prisoners and others from all periods of Manzanar's history.


Other works

A made-for-television movie, Farewell to Manzanar, aired on March 11, 1976 on NBC. It was based on the 1973 novel of the same name, written by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston, who was imprisoned at Manzanar as a child, and her husband James D. Houston.[103] The book and the movie tell the story of the Wakatsuki family and their experiences behind the barbed wire through young Jeanne's eyes.[104][105] Cover of the 1983 edition Farewell to Manzanar is a memoir published in 1972 by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Houston. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the television network. ... Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston is a Japanese American writer. ...


Come See The Paradise, was a feature film about how forced relocation and imprisonment at Manzanar affected a Japanese American family from Los Angeles and a Caucasian union organizer. The film, released in 1990, starred Dennis Quaid and Tamlyn Tomita, and was written and directed by Alan Parker.[106] Come See the Paradise is a 1990 movie directed by Alan Parker and starring Dennis Quaid and Tamlyn Tomita. ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... Dennis William Quaid (born April 9, 1954) is an American actor. ... Tamlyn Tomita (Born January 27, 1966, Okinawa) is a Japanese-born American actress who has appeared in many Hollywood films and television series. ...


The 1994 award-winning novel Snow Falling on Cedars by David Guterson contains many scenes and details relating to Japanese Americans from the Puget Sound, Washington, area and their internment experiences at Manzanar,[107] as does the 2000 film based on the book.[108] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Puget Sound For the university in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Snow Falling on Cedars was a film, based on David Gutersons novel of the same title, Snow Falling on Cedars (novel). ...


Fort Minor's song Kenji, from the album The Rising Tied (2005), tells the true story of Mike Shinoda's family and their experiences before, during, and after World War II, including their imprisonment at Manzanar.[109] Fort Minor is a hip hop ensemble and side project created by Mike Shinoda, of Linkin Park. ... Kenji is a song off the album The Rising Tied by Fort Minor. ... The Rising Tied (Limited Edition) Limited Edition With Bonus DVD The Rising Tied is the debut album of hip hop ensemble Fort Minor, the side project by Linkin Park rapper Mike Shinoda. ... Michael Kenji Shinoda (born February 11, 1977)[1][2] is an American musician, record producer, and artist from Agoura Hills, California. ...


The Asian American jazz fusion band Hiroshima has a song entitled "Manzanar" on its album The Bridge (2003). It is an instrumental song inspired by Manzanar and the Japanese American Internment.[110] Also, its song "Living In America", on its album entitled East (1990), contains the phrase "I still remember Manzanar" in its lyrics. Hiroshima is an American jazz fusion band formed in 1974 by Sansei Japanese American Dan Kuramoto (wind instruments and band leader), June Kuramoto (koto), Johnny Mori (percussion and taiko), & Danny Yamamoto (keyboards and drums). ...


Channel 3's song titled "Manzanar" is about the internment.[111] Channel 3 was a band started in 1980, in Cerritos, California. ...


A 2007 episode of the CBS television crime drama Cold Case titled "Family 8108" dealt with the 1945 murder of a Japanese American man in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania after he and his family were released from Manzanar. The episode originally aired on December 9, 2007.[112] This article is about the broadcast network. ... For other uses, see Cold case (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


Folk/country musician Tom Russell wrote "Manzanar", a song about the Japanese American internment that was released on his album, Box of Visions (1993).[113] Laurie Lewis covered the song on her album Seeing Things (1998), adding the Japanese string instrument, the koto, to her performance.[114] Thomas George Tom Russell (born 5 March 1950[1] in Los Angeles) is an American singer-songwriter. ... Laurie Lewis (born September 28, 1950 in Long Beach, California), is an American bluegrass musician. ... Japanese 13-stringed koto The koto (琴 or 箏) is a traditional Japanese stringed musical instrument derived from Chinese Guqins. ...


See also

California Portal
History Portal
United States Portal

Image File history File links WPCF.svg‎ (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) was an American photographer, best known for his black-and-white photographs of the American West. ... Camp life at Manzanar: Female interns practicing calisthenics, 1943. ... The California Water Wars was a struggle between Los Angeles, California and people living elsewhere (including the Owens Valley) over water rights. ... Dorothea Lange (May 25, 1895 – October 11, 1965) was an influential American documentary photographer and photojournalist, best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). ... Residents of Japanese ancestry waiting in line for the bus that will transport them to an internment camp. ... The Gila River War Relocation Center was an internment camp built by the War Relocation Authority (WRA) for internment of Japanese Americans during the Second World War. ... Japanese evacuees stand or sit with their suitcases and belongings in front of an Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway passenger car on August 30, 1942. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas The Jerome War Relocation Center was a Japanese American internment camp located in southeastern Arkansas near the tiny town of Jerome. ... As the 385th unit of the National Park System, Minidoka Internment National Monument was newly authorized on January 17, 2001, and does not have any visitor facilities or services available. ... painting of the Poston War Relocation Center painted by Japanese American, Tom Tanaka while interned The Poston Relocation Center, located in Yuma County (now in La Paz County) of Arizona, was the largest of the internment camps operated by the War Relocation Authority during World War II. Actually composed of... The Rohwer War Relocation Center was a World War II Japanese American internment camp located in rural southeastern Arkansas, in Desha County. ... The Topaz Relocation Center was an internment camp which housed Nikkei -- Americans of Japanese descent and immigrants who had come to the United States from Japan. ... Tule Lake War Relocation Center was an internment camp in northern California near Tule Lake used in the Japanese-American internment during World War II. It was one of the largest and most notorious of the camps, and did not close until after the war, in 1946. ...

References

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Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Additional reading

Owens Valley resources

  • Burton, Jeff (1998). The Archeology of Somewhere: Archeological Testing Along U.S. Highway 395, Manzanar National Historic Site. Western Archeological Center, National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Publications in Anthropology 72 (Covers archeological finds at Manzanar from the pre-World War II, wartime and post-war periods). 
  • Chalfant, William A. (1980). Story Of Inyo. Chalfant Press. ISBN 0-912494-34-4. 
  • Ewan, Rebecca Fish (2000). A Land Between: Owens Valley, California. The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801864-61-5. 
  • Hoffman, Abraham (1992). Vision or Villainy: Origins of the Owens Valley-Los Angeles Water Controversy. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-890965-09-9. 
  • Kahri, William L. (1983). Water and Power: The Conflict Over Los Angeles Water Supply in the Owens Valley. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520050-68-1. 
  • Nadeau, Remi A. (1997). The Water Seekers. Crest Publishers. ISBN 0-962710-45-8. 
  • Steward, Julian (1933). "Ethnography of the Owens Valley Paiute". University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 33 (3): 233–250. 
  • Steward, Julian (1934, 2007). Myths of the Owens Valley Paiute. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-432565-38-9. 
  • Wehrey, Jane (2006). Voices From This Long Brown Land: Oral Recollections of Owens Valley Lives and Manzanar Pasts. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312295-41-3. 

Wartime-related resources

  • Armor, John and Wright, Peter. (1989). Manzanar; Photographs by Ansel Adams. Vintage Books. 
  • Adams Ansel, Benti, Wynne (ed.), Embrey, Sue Kunitomi (contributor), Michael, William H. (contributor). (2001). Born Free And Equal: The Story of Loyal Japanese Americans. Spotted Dog Press. ISBN 1-893343-05-7. 
  • Bunting, Eve, Soentpiet, Chris K. (1998). So Far from the Sea. Clarion Books. ISBN 0-395720-95-8. 
  • Cooper, Michael. (2002). Remembering Manzanar: Life In A Japanese Relocation Camp. Clarion Books. ISBN 0-618067-78-7. 
  • Embrey, Sue Kunitomi. (1972). The Lost Years: 1942–1946. Moonlight Publications. ISBN 0-930046-07-2. 
  • Garrett, Jessie A., Larson, Ronald C. (ed). (1977). Camp and Community: Manzanar and the Owens Valley. Japanese American Oral History Program: California State University, Fullerton. ISBN 0-930046-00-5. 
  • Inada, Lawson Fusao (ed.) (2000). Only What We Could Carry: The Japanese American Internment Experience. Heyday Books and the California Historical Society. ISBN 1-890771-30-9. 
  • Peterson, Robert (November/December, 1999). "Scouting in World War II Detention Camps". Scouting Magazine: The Way It Was. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2007-09-28. 
  • Shiozaki, Cory (2007). From Barbed Wire to Barbed Hooks: Fishing Stories From Manzanar. Cory Shiozaki. Retrieved on 2007-09-05.
  • Weglyn, Michi (1976, 1996). Years Of Infamy: The Untold Story Of America's Concentration Camps. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97484-2. 

Camp life at Manzanar: Female interns practicing calisthenics, 1943. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Post-War-related resources

  • Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. (1997). Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. Civil Liberties Public Education Fund and University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97558-X. 
  • Daniels, Roger, Kitano, Harry H.L., Taylor, Sandra C. (1986). Japanese Americans From Relocation To Redress. University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-258-X. 
  • Irons, Peter. (1983). Justice At War. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503273-X. 
  • Japanese American Historical Society of Southern California. (1998). Nanka Nikkei Voices: Resettlement Years, 1945–1955. Japanese American Historical Society of Southern California. 
  • Maki, Mitchell T., Kitano, Harry H.L., Berthold, S. Megan. (1999). Achieving The Impossible Dream: How Japanese Americans Obtained Redress. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-02458-3. 
  • Silber, Rebecca R. "Lexicon of Genocide (Letter to the Editor)", New York Times, 1998-03-15. Retrieved on 2008-01-01. 
  • Takei, Barbara, Tachibana, Julie (2001). Tule Lake Revisited. T & T Press. ISBN 0-971167-60-5. 

Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Manzanar Committee
  • Manzanar Committee-official blog
  • Manzanar National Historic Site, National Park Service
  • "Manzanar: A Photo Essay," by Mario G. Reyes, Rafu Shimpo
  • Mono Basin Paiutes: Mono Lake And Owens Valley Native Americans
  • Prehistory of Owens Valley
  • Smithsonian Institution: A More Perfect Union
A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... The History of the National Register of Historic Places began in 1966 when the United States government passed the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), which created the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). ... Clockwise from bottom left: a site, a building, a structure and an object. ... Helvenston House, part of the Ocala Historic District, in Ocala, Florida. ... Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical intergrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. ... Image File history File links US-NationalParkService-ShadedLogo. ... This is a list of entries on the National Register of Historic Places. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Residents of Japanese ancestry waiting in line for the bus that will transport them to an internment camp. ... The Gila River War Relocation Center was an internment camp built by the War Relocation Authority (WRA) for internment of Japanese Americans during the Second World War. ... Japanese evacuees stand or sit with their suitcases and belongings in front of an Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway passenger car on August 30, 1942. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas The Jerome War Relocation Center was a Japanese American internment camp located in southeastern Arkansas near the tiny town of Jerome. ... Minidoka Internment National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located 17 miles (27 km) northeast of Twin Falls, Idaho and just north of Eden, Idaho in an area known as Hunt. ... painting of the Poston War Relocation Center painted by Japanese American, Tom Tanaka while interned The Poston Relocation Center, located in Yuma County (now in La Paz County) of Arizona, was the largest of the internment camps operated by the War Relocation Authority during World War II. Actually composed of... The Rohwer War Relocation Center was a World War II Japanese American internment camp located in rural southeastern Arkansas, in Desha County. ... The Topaz Relocation Center was an internment camp which housed Nikkei -- Americans of Japanese descent and immigrants who had come to the United States from Japan. ... Tule Lake War Relocation Center was an internment camp in northern California near Tule Lake used in the Japanese-American internment during World War II. It was one of the largest and most notorious of the camps, and did not close until after the war, in 1946. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Manzanar - definition of Manzanar in Encyclopedia (495 words)
Almost all the buildings were sold in the 1940s, and the United States National Park Service is now working to build replicas of barracks and a latrine so that a demonstration block can be built.
There is an inscription in Japanese on the shrine that reads, 慰靈塔 ("Monument to console the souls of the dead.") The inscription on the back reads "August 1943" and "erected by the Manzanar Japanese." The obelisk shrine currently is draped in strings of origami and has offerings of personal items left by survivors and visitors.
The novel Farewell to Manzanar was written by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston in 1972, recounting her personal experiences in the camp as a seven year-old internee.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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