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Encyclopedia > Manuel Noriega
Date of birth
February 11, 1934 or 1938
Place of birth
Panama City, Panama
Occupation
Career soldier
Education
Military School of Chorrillos
Lima, Peru
School of the Americas
Fort Gulick, former Panama Canal Zone
Fort Bragg, North Carolina
Remarks

Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (born February 11, 1934[1]) was a Panamanian general and the de facto military dictator of Panama from 1983[2] to 1989, despite never being the official President of Panama. He was initially a strong ally of the United States and worked with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from the late 1950s to the 1980s, and was on the CIA payroll for much of this time, however the relationship had not become contractual until 1967.[3] By the late 1980s, relations had turned extremely tense between Noriega and the United States government, due to allegations that he was spying for Cuba rather than against, and in 1989 the general was overthrown and captured in the United States invasion of Panama. He was detained as a prisoner of war, and taken to the United States, and convicted under federal charges of cocaine trafficking, racketeering and money laundering. Noriega is a surname, and may refer to: Manuel Noriega, the general and former military leader of Panama Carlos I. Noriega, Peruvian-American NASA astronaut retired U.S. Marine Corps lieutenant colonel Manuel Noriega Ruiz, Mexican stage-screen actor, director, and screenwriter (also known as Manolo Noriega) Adela Noriega, Mexican... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital city of Panama. ... A Norwegian soldier (a Corporal, armed with an MP_5) A soldier is a person who has enlisted with, or has been conscripted into, the armed forces of a sovereign country and has undergone training and received equipment to defend that country or its interests. ... Chorrillos, which gets its name from the constant trickle of water, is a district of Lima, Peru. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... The Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHISC), formerly School of the Americas (SOA), is a US Army facility at Fort Benning in Columbus, Georgia, USA. It is a training facility operated in the Spanish language especially for Latin American military personnel. ... Fort Gulick was a U.S. army base in the former Panama Canal Zone located on the Atlantic side of the Panama Canal near Fort Sherman. ... The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ... Fort Bragg is a census-designated place and United States Army base, or post, in Cumberland County, North Carolina, near Fayetteville. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Coup redirects here. ... Dr. Arnulfo Arias Madrid (August 15, 1901 – August 10, 1988 in Miami, Florida) was president of Panama on three occasions: 1940–41, 1949–51, and for two weeks in October 1968. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Panama United States Commanders Manuel Noriega Maxwell R. Thurman Strength 16,000+ 27,684+ Casualties 100-1,000 killed 24 Killed 325 Wounded 300-3,000 civilians killed Rangers from Charlie Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Miami redirects here. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... This page lists presidents of Panama since 1903. ... CIA redirects here. ... Combatants Panama United States Commanders Manuel Noriega Maxwell R. Thurman Strength 16,000+ 27,684+ Casualties 100-1,000 killed 24 Killed 325 Wounded 300-3,000 civilians killed Rangers from Charlie Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


In December 2004, he was briefly hospitalized after suffering a minor stroke. Voice of America[4] reports Frank Rubino, Noriega's attorney, said Noriega was due to be released from prison on September 9, 2007.[5] On August 24, 2007, a federal judge in Miami, Florida refused to block a French request to extradite Noriega from the United States to France. On August 28, 2007 Noriega's extradition to France was approved. He is facing an additional 10 years in prison if convicted of money laundering in connection to his previous drug-trafficking conviction. Noriega has also received a long jail term in absentia for murder and human rights abuses in Panama. is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For in absentia medical care, see Health care delivery. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in Panama City, Panama, Noriega was a career soldier, receiving much of his education at the Military School of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. He also received intelligence and counterintelligence training at Fort Gulick in 1967, and also a course in Psyops at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. He was commissioned in the National Guard in 1967 and promoted to lieutenant in 1968. It has been alleged that he was part of the military coup that removed Arnulfo Arias from power, although in Noriega's account of the 1968 coup, neither he nor his mentor Omar Torrijos were involved. In the power struggle that followed, including a failed coup attempt in 1969, Noriega supported Torrijos. He received a promotion to lieutenant colonel and was appointed chief of military intelligence by Torrijos. In this post, he conducted a ruthless campaign against peasant guerrillas in western Panama, and there are allegations that he orchestrated the "disappearances" of political opponents. However, Noriega also claims that, following Torrijos' instructions, he negotiated an amnesty for about 400 defeated guerrilla fighters, enabling them to return from exile in Honduras and Costa Rica. According to statements made by former CIA Director Admiral Stansfield Turner in 1988, Noriega became a CIA "asset" in the early 1970s. This article is about the capital city of Panama. ... Chorrillos, which gets its name from the constant trickle of water, is a district of Lima, Peru. ... For other uses, see Lima (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... Counterintelligence or counter-espionage is the act of seeking and indentifying espionage activities. ... Fort Gulick was a U.S. army base in the former Panama Canal Zone located on the Atlantic side of the Panama Canal near Fort Sherman. ... Psychological Operations or PSYOP or PSYOPS are planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to specific audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. ... Fort Bragg is a census-designated place and United States Army base, or post, in Cumberland County, North Carolina, near Fayetteville. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... The Panamanian Government has converted the former Panama Defense Forces (PDF) into a civilian public force, subordinate to civilian officials and composed of four independent units: the Panamanian National Police, the National Maritime Service (Coast Guard), the National Air Service, and the Institutional Protective Service (VIP Security). ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Dr. Arnulfo Arias Madrid (August 15, 1901 – August 10, 1988 in Miami, Florida) was president of Panama on three occasions: 1940–41, 1949–51, and for two weeks in October 1968. ... Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. ... In the U.S. Army, Air Force and Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a commissioned officer superior to a major and inferior to a colonel. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Stansfield Turner (born 1 December 1923) was a U.S. admiral and Director of Central Intelligence. ...


Omar Torrijos died in a plane explosion in 1981. Colonel Roberto Díaz Herrera, a former associate of Noriega, claimed that the actual cause for the accident was a bomb and that Noriega was behind the incident. Roberto Díaz (born on July 9, 1986) was a Panamanian colonel under General Manuel Noriega and was most famous for his public denunciation of the Panamanian dictator in 1987. ...


Torrijos was succeeded by Colonel Florencio Flores Aguilar, one year later he was succeeded by Rubén Darío Paredes, while Noriega became Chief of Staff. Paredes resigned to run for the presidency, ceding his post as commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces (as the Guard had been renamed) to Noriega. The two men had a deal in which Paredes would run as the Democratic Revolutionary Party's candidate for president. However, Noriega reneged on the deal. Colonel Florencio Flores Aguilar was a Panamanian army officer and the military ruler of Panama from 1981 to 1982. ... Rubén Darío Paredes was a Panamanian army officer and the military ruler of Panama from 1982 to 1983. ... The Democratic Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Democrático, or PRD) is a Panamanian political party. ...


Noriega enhanced his position as de facto ruler in August 1983 by promoting himself to General. Noriega, being paid by the CIA, extended liberties to the U.S. Despite the canal treaties, he allowed the U.S. to set up listening posts in Panama. He aided the American backed revolutionaries in El Salvador and Nicaragua by acting as a conduit for U.S. money, and according to some accounts, weapons. However, Noriega insists that his policy during this period was essentially neutral, allowing partisans on both sides of the various conflicts free movement in Panama, as long as they did not attempt to use Panama as a base of military operations. He rebuffed requests by Salvadoran rightist Roberto D'Aubuisson to restrict the movements of Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (leftist Salvadoran insurgent) leaders in Panama, and likewise rebuffed demands by American Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North that he provide military assistance to the Nicaraguan Contras. Noriega insists that his refusal to meet North's demands was the actual basis for the U.S. campaign to oust him. This and the fact that Noriga was seen as a double agent, living up to his State Department nickname of "rent-a-colonel" by not only giving information to the U.S., and U.S. allies Taiwan and Israel, but also to communist Cuba. He also sold weapons to the leftist Sandanista government in Nicaragua in the late 70s.[6] This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Roberto DAubuisson Major Roberto DAubuisson Arrieta (August 23, 1944 – February 20, 1992), a Salvadoran political figure known as Chele (white man) was a Salvadoran politician and military leader who founded the Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA), which he led from 1978 to 1985. ... The Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (in Spanish: Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional, FMLN) is a political party in El Salvador that was formerly a revolutionary guerrilla organization. ... Oliver Laurence North (born October 7, 1943 in San Antonio, Texas) is most well known for his involvement in the Iran-Contra Affair. ... The Contras (from the Spanish term La Contra, short for movement of the contrarrevolucionarios) were the armed opponents of Nicaraguas Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle (which ended the Somoza dynasty), and continuing throughout the following decade. ... A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ...


The 1989 election

The elections of May 1989 were surrounded by controversy. A PRD-led coalition nominated Carlos Duque, publisher of the country's oldest newspaper, La Estrella de Panamá. Most of the other political parties banded behind a unified ticket of Guillermo Endara, a member of Arias' Authentic Panameñista Party, along with vice presidential candidates Ricardo Arias Calderón (no relation to Arnulfo Arias) and Guillermo "Billy" Ford. [7] Guillermo David Endara Galimany (born 12 May 1936 in Panama City) is a Panamanian politician. ... The Panameñista Party (Spanish: Partido Panameñista) is a Panamanian political party. ...


According to Koster, the opposition alliance knew that Noriega had every intention of rigging the count, but had no way of proving it. They found a way through a loophole in Panamanian election law. The alliance, with the support of the Roman Catholic Church, set up a count based directly on results at the country's 4,000 election precincts before the results were sent to district centers. Noriega's lackeys swapped fake tally sheets for the real ones and took those to the district centers — but by the time the intended rigging took place, the opposition's more accurate count was already out. It showed Endara winning in a landslide even more massive than 1984, beating Duque by a 3-to-1 margin. Noriega had every intention of declaring Duque the winner regardless of the actual results. However, Duque knew he had been badly defeated and refused to go along. [7] Catholic Church redirects here. ...


Rather than display the results, Noriega voided the election, claiming "foreign interference" made it impossible to assure the results were valid — a claim that few believed. Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, there as an observer, denounced Noriega, saying the election had been "stolen". Bishop Marcos McGrath did as well. [7] For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


The next day, Endara, Arias Calderón and Ford rolled through the old part of the capital in a triumphant motorcade, only to be intercepted by a detachment of Noriega's Dignity Battalions. Arias Calderón was protected by a couple of troops, but Endara and Ford were badly beaten. Images of Ford running to safety with his shirt covered in blood were broadcast around the world. This image brought worldwide attention to Noriega's regime. When the 1984-89 presidential term expired, Noriega named a longtime associate, Francisco Rodríguez, as acting president. The United States, however, recognized Endara as the new president.[7] The Dignity Battalions were paramilitary combatants used under the Noriega Regime in Panama in the 1980s to suppress dissent and terrorize the opposition. ... Provisional President of Panama from September 1st until December 20th of 1989 ...


Capture, trial, and imprisonment

The U.S. imposed harsh economic sanctions, and in the months that followed; a tense standoff went on between the U.S. military forces (stationed in the canal area) and Noriega's troops. The U.S. forces conducted regular maneuvers and operations, which some feel were a violation of the Panama Canal Treaty. On the other hand, Noriega's forces engaged in routine harassment of U.S. troops and civilians. On December 15, 1989, the PRD-dominated legislature declared "a state of war" with the United States. Noriega subsequently claimed that his statement referred to U.S. actions against Panama, which he considered to be acts of war, and did not represent a declaration of hostilities by Noriega. The legislature also declared Noriega "chief executive officer" of the government, formalizing a state of affairs that had existed for six years.[7] Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... Map of Panama, with Panama canal The Torrijos-Carter Treaties (sometimes referred to in the singular as the Torrijos-Carter Treaty), are a pair of treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D. C. on September 7, 1977, abrogating the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty signed in 1903. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


The matter came to a head in December 1989: a U.S. Marine, returning from a restaurant in Panama City, was stopped and harassed to the point where he panicked and attempted to flee, and he was shot and killed.[8] United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ...


In response, U.S. President George H.W. Bush launched an invasion of Panama. Losses on the U.S. side were 23 troops, plus three civilian casualties. The U.S. claimed Panamanian losses were "several hundred" though exact statistics remain disputed, and some Latin American and other international sources have estimated the civilian death toll may have been as high as 3,000 to 5,000.[9] The U.N. put the death toll at 500.[10] The conflict also caused some considerable domestic problems, with 20,000 to 30,000 having been rendered homeless. Probably the majority of those resulted from a fire that devastated much of a poor area of Panama City that surrounded the Comandancia, a fortified headquarters that was shelled. Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... Combatants Panama United States Commanders Manuel Noriega Maxwell R. Thurman Strength 16,000+ 27,684+ Casualties 100-1,000 killed 24 Killed 325 Wounded 300-3,000 civilians killed Rangers from Charlie Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama...


Capture

Noriega fled during the attack and a manhunt ensued. He finally turned up in the Apostolic Nunciature, the Holy See's embassy in Panama, where he had taken refuge. U.S. troops set up a perimeter outside this building, as any direct action on the embassy itself would have violated the customs of international law (and perhaps treaties to which the U.S. was a party at the time as well). The troops guarding it used psychological warfare, attempting to force him out by playing hard rock music and the Howard Stern show, outside the residence.[11] Reportedly the song "Panama" by Van Halen was played repeatedly. An Apostolic Nunciature is a top level diplomatic mission of the Holy See, equivalent to an embassy or to a High Commission between members of the Commonwealth. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Hard Rock redirects here. ... The Howard Stern Show is Howard Sterns radio show heard four days (Monday–Thursday) a week on Howard 100 (West Coast feed on channel Howard 101), a Sirius Satellite Radio station. ... This article is about the band Van Halen. ...


The Vatican complained to President Bush because of this and U.S. troops stopped the noise. After a demonstration a few days later by thousands of Panamanians demanding he stand trial for human rights violations, Noriega surrendered on January 3, 1990. is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Trial

Mugshot of Noriega
Mugshot of Noriega

Noriega was flown to the U.S. and tried on eight counts of drug trafficking, racketeering, and money laundering in April 1992. His trial was held in Miami, Florida. Image File history File links Manuel_Noriega_mug_shot. ... Image File history File links Manuel_Noriega_mug_shot. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial transactions in order to conceal the identity, source and destination of the money in question. ...


The prosecution presented a case that has been criticized by numerous observers. The prosecution's case was completely reworked several times because problems developed with the witnesses, whose stories contradicted one another. The U.S. attorney negotiated deals with 26 different drug felons, including Carlos Lehder, who were given leniency, cash payments, and allowed to keep their drug earnings in return for testimony against Noriega. Several of these witnesses had been arrested by Noriega for drug trafficking in Panama. Some witnesses later recanted their testimony, and agents of the CIA, Drug Enforcement Administration, Defense Intelligence Agency, and the Israeli Mossad, who were knowledgeable about Central American drug trafficking, have publicly charged that accusations were embellished. Noriega was found guilty and sentenced on September 16, 1992, to 40 years in prison for drug and racketeering violations. His sentence was reduced to 30 years in 1999. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


Under Article 85 of the Third Geneva Convention[12], Noriega is still considered a prisoner of war, despite his conviction for acts committed prior to his capture by the "Detaining Power" (i.e. the United States). This status has meant that he has his own prison cell furnished with electronics, which some have described as the "Presidential suite".[13] The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Release

The Federal Bureau of Prisons website as of 16 September 2007 does not give a projected release date for inmate Noriega (ID # 38699-079).[5] However, he may be handed over to another country for trial or imprisonment instead of being released into the public realm.


In 1999, the Panamanian government sought the extradition of Noriega to face murder charges in Panama because he had been found guilty in absentia in 1995. He was condemned to spend 20 years in prison. Apparently, he may be able to serve his sentence under house arrest due to his age. Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ... For in absentia medical care, see Health care delivery. ...


France has also requested the extradition of Noriega after he was convicted of money laundering in 1999.[14] On August 24, 2007, a Judge in Miami ruled Manuel Noriega could be extradited to France to serve a 10 year sentence for money laundering.[1] Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ... Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial transactions in order to conceal the identity, source and destination of the money in question. ...


Conversion to Christianity

On May 15 and 16, 1990, Clift Brannon, a former attorney turned preacher, and a Spanish interpreter, Rudy Hernandez, were allowed to visit Noriega for a total of 6 hours in the Metropolitan Correctional Center of Dade County, Florida. Following their visit, Noriega wrote Brannon as follows:

On completing the spiritual sessions that you as a messenger of the Word of God brought to my heart, even to my area of confinement as Prisoner of War of the United States, I feel the necessity of adding something more to what I was able to say to you as we parted. The evening sessions of May 15 and 16 with you and Rudy Hernandez along with the Christian explanation and guidance were for me the first day of a dream, a revelation. I can tell you with great strength and inspiration that receiving our Lord Jesus Christ as Savior guided by you, was an emotional event. The hours flew by without my being aware. I could have desired that they continue forever, but there was no time nor space. Thank you for your time. Thank you for your human warmth, for your constant and permanent spiritual strength brought to bear on my mind and soul.

With great affection.

Manuel A. Noriega

[15]

References

  1. ^ a b Judge: Noriega can be extradited to France CNN, 2007-08-24, 'According to court documents, Noriega is 69, but other sources give his age as 73'
  2. ^ Panama Noriega's Money Machine MICHAEL S. SERRILL, Reported by Jonathan Beaty and Ricardo Chavira/Washington, '50th birthday last week' written February 1989
  3. ^ The CIA, Contras, Gangs, and Crack William Blum, fpif.org, November 1996
  4. ^ Panama's Noriega to be Released from US Prison in September VOA 2007-01-24
  5. ^ a b Federal Bureau of Prisons bop.gov, 'age ... 71'
  6. ^ Central america inside out, Tom Banks, (The Resource Center) p.470 ISBN 0-8021-3260-X
  7. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  8. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0IAV/is_1_90/ai_70777165
  9. ^ http://www.famoustexans.com/georgebush.htm
  10. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/just_cause.htm
  11. ^ http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/jfq_pubs/1220.pdf
  12. ^ Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War Office of the High Comissioner for Human Rights
  13. ^ States line up to jail NoriegaJacobson, Phillip The First Post September 2007
  14. ^ States line up to jail Noriega Philip Jacobson, firstpost.co.uk, '70-year-old', 2006-02-15
  15. ^ http://www.arm.org/noriega.htm

Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA) is the official international radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

Sarah York, when she was ten years old, became the pen pal of Manuel Noriega, then the de facto ruler of Panama, after her father suggested on a whim that she should write to him because she liked the generals hat. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

Further reading

  1. William Blum "The CIA, Contras, Gangs, and Crack" at Foreign Policy in Focus
  2. CNN. Newsmaker Profiles: Manuel Noriega. United States of America: Cable News Network. 1988, 1992. (archive.org version retrieved on 2006-06-27)
  3. Cole, Ronald. Grenada, Panama, and Haiti. United States of America: Joint History Office – Defense Technical Information Center, US Department of Defense. 1998, 1999.
  4. Noriega, Manuel and Eisner, Peter. America's Prisoner — The Memoirs of Manuel Noriega. Random House, 1997.
  5. Koster, R.M. and Sánchez, Guillermo. In the Time of the Tyrants: Panama, 1968-1990. W W Norton & Co Inc, 1990.
  6. Ross, Rick. "Hustlin'." Port of Miami. The Island Def Jam Music Group, 2006
Preceded by
Rubén Darío Paredes
Military leader of Panama
1983–1989
Succeeded by
none

  Results from FactBites:
 
Manuel Noriega - Encyclopedia.com (0 words)
Commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces from 1983, Noriega consolidated the strong-armed rule inherited from Gen. Omar Torrijos Herrera, and became the de facto leader of Panama.
Noriega case hinges on judge in Miami: The fate of convicted Panamanian former strongman Manuel Antonio Noriega -- including his status as a prisoner of war -- is in the hands of a federal judge.
Noriega set to be released: This year, Panama's ex-leader Manuel Noriega may leave a South Dade prison where he's been since 1990.
Manuel Noriega - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2478 words)
Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (born February 11, 1938) was a Panamanian general and the de facto military leader of Panama from 1983 to 1989.
Noriega claims that the Civic Crusade was the handiwork of U.S. Embassy chargé d'affaires John Maisto, who arranged for Civic Crusade leaders to travel to the Philippines to learn the tactics of the U.S.-supported movement to overthrow Ferdinand Marcos.
Noriega supporters mocked the demonstrations of the Civic Crusade as "the protest of the Mercedes Benz", deriding the wealthy ladies for banging on teflon-coated pots and pans (unlike the cruder and louder pots and pans traditionally banged by the poor in South American protests), or sending their maids to protest for them.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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