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Encyclopedia > Manuel I Komnenos
Manuel I Komnenos
November 28, 1118September 24, 1180
Image:manuelcomnenus.jpg
Manuscript miniature of Manuel I (part of double portrait with Maria of Antioch, Vatican Library, Rome)
Nickname Megas, "The Great"
Place of birth Constantinople
Place of death Constantinople
Allegiance Roman Byzantine Empire
Years of service 1143–1180
Rank Emperor
Commands The Komnenian army
Battles/wars Battle of Myriokephalon

Battle of Sirmium Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Painting of Manuel I Comnenus File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Vatican Library (Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... The Komnenian army was the force established by Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos during the late eleventh/early twelfth century, and perfected by his successors John II Komnenos and Manuel I Komnenos during the twelfth century. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rüm Commanders Manuel I Comnenus Baldwin of Antioch † John Cantacuzenus Andronicus Vatatzes † Kilij Arslan II Strength About 25,000 (possibly 50,000?) 70,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Myriokephalon, also known as the Myriocephalum, or Miryakefalon Savaşı in Turkish, was a battle... Combatants Byzantines, supported by Cuman, Italian, Serbian and Wallachian[1] units. ...

For the eldest son of Andronikos I Komnenos and father of Alexios I of Trebizond, see Manuel Komnenos (born 1145).

Manuel I Komnenos, or Comnenus (Greek: Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos, November 28, 1118September 24, 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. Eager to restore his empire to its past glories as the superpower of the Mediterranean world, Manuel pursued an energetic and ambitious foreign policy. In the process he made alliances with the Pope and the resurgent west, invaded Italy, successfully handled the passage of the dangerous Second Crusade through his empire, and established a Byzantine protectorate over the Crusader kingdoms of Outremer. Facing Muslim advances in the Holy Land, he made common cause with the Kingdom of Jerusalem and participated in a combined invasion of Fatimid Egypt. Manuel reshaped the political maps of the Balkans and the east Mediterranean, placing the kingdoms of Hungary and Outremer under Byzantine hegemony and campaigning aggressively against his neighbours both in the west and in the east. However, towards the end of his reign Manuel's achievements in the east were compromised by a serious defeat at Myriokephalon, which in large part resulted from his arrogance in attacking a well-defended Seljuk position. Billon trachy (a cup-shaped coin) of Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185) Andronikos I Komnenos or Andronicus I Comnenus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Α’ Κομνηνός, Andronikos I KomnÄ“nos) (c. ... Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios I Megas KomnÄ“nos), (c. ... Manuel Komnenos (born 1145) was the eldest son of Andronikos Komnenos (who was Byzantine Emperor 1183-1185) by his first wife, whose name is not recorded. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... The Crusader states, c. ... Outremer, French for overseas, was the general name given the Crusader states established after the First Crusade; County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hegemony (pronounced or ) (Greek: ) is the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rüm Commanders Manuel I Comnenus Baldwin of Antioch † John Cantacuzenus Andronicus Vatatzes † Kilij Arslan II Strength About 25,000 (possibly 50,000?) 70,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Myriokephalon, also known as the Myriocephalum, or Miryakefalon Savaşı in Turkish, was a battle... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of...


Called Megas (Greek: o Μέγας translated as "the Great") by the Greeks, Manuel is known to have inspired intense loyalty in those who served him. He also appears as the hero of a history written by his secretary, John Kinnamos, in which every virtue is attributed to him. Manuel, who was influenced by his contact with western Crusaders, enjoyed the reputation of "the most blessed emperor of Constantinople" in parts of the Latin world as well.[1] Modern historians, however, have been less enthusiastic about him. Some of them assert that the great power he wielded was not his own personal achievement, but that of the dynasty he represented; they also argue Byzantine imperial power declined so rapidly after Manuel's death that it is only natural to look for the causes of this decline in his reign.[2] the Greats The following people normally have the words the Great appended to their names. ... John Cinnamus (12th century) was a Byzantine historian. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos The Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Κομνηνοί) family was an important dynasty in the history of the Byzantine Empire. ...

Contents

Accession to the throne

Death of John II Komnenos, and crowning of Manuel I Komnenos (from the Manuscript of William of Tyre's Historia and Old French Continuation, painted in Acre, Israel, 13th century, Bibliothèque nationale de France).
Death of John II Komnenos, and crowning of Manuel I Komnenos (from the Manuscript of William of Tyre's Historia and Old French Continuation, painted in Acre, Israel, 13th century, Bibliothèque nationale de France).

Manuel Komnenos was the fourth son of John II Komnenos and Piroska of Hungary, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed his father.[3] His maternal grandfather was St. Ladislaus. Having distinguished himself in his father's war against the Seljuk Turks, in 1143 Manuel was chosen as his successor by John, in preference to his elder surviving brother Isaac. After John died on 8 April 1143, his son, Manuel, was acclaimed emperor by the armies.[4] Yet his succession was by no means assured: At his father's deathbed in the wilds of Cilicia far from Constantinople, he recognised that it was vital he should return to the capital as soon as possible. He still had to take care of his father's funeral, and tradition demanded he organise the foundation of a monastery on the spot where his father died. Swiftly, he dispatched his secretary John Axouch ahead of him, with orders to arrest his most dangerous potential rival, his brother Isaac, who was living in the Great Palace with instant access to the imperial treasure and regalia. Axouch arrived in the capital even before news of the emperor's death had reached it. He quickly secured the loyalty of the city, and when Manuel entered the capital in August 1143, he was crowned by the new Patriarch, Michael Kourkouas. A few days later, with nothing more to fear as his position as emperor was now secure, Manuel ordered the release of Isaac.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... William of Tyre (c. ... “Akko” redirects here. ... The new buildings of the library. ... “John Komnenus” redirects here. ... Piroska of Hungary (1088 - 13 August 1134) was a daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary and Adelaide of Swabia. ... For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation). ... Isaac Komnenos or Comnenus (Greek: Ισαάκιος Κομνηνός, Isaakios Komnēnos), (c. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Manuel I Comnenus becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... One of floor mosaics excavated at the Great Palace and dated to the reign of Justinian I. It is presumed to represent a conquered Gothic king. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ...


The empire that Manuel inherited from his father had undergone great changes since its foundation by Constantine, eight centuries before. The most obvious change had occurred in the seventh century: the soldiers of Islam had taken Egypt, Palestine and much of Syria away from the empire irrevocably. They had then swept on westwards into what in the time of Constantine had been the western provinces of the Roman Empire, in North Africa and Spain. In the centuries since, the emperors had ruled over a realm that largely consisted of Asia Minor in the east, and the Balkans in the west. Since the time of his predecessor Justinian I (527–565), the emperors had also ruled over parts of Italy, Africa and Spain. Yet the empire that Manuel inherited was a polity facing formidable challenges. At the end of the 11th century, the Normans of Sicily had removed Italy from the control of the Byzantine Emperor. The Seljuk Turks had done the same with central Anatolia. And in the Levant, a new force had appeared – the Crusader states – who presented the Byzantine Empire with new challenges. Now, more than at any time during the preceding centuries, the task facing the emperor was daunting indeed.[6] For other uses, see Constantine I (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Second Crusade and Raynald of Chatillon

For more details on this topic, see Second Crusade.

The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ...

Prince of Antioch

The County of Edessa in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135.
The County of Edessa in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135.

The first test of Manuel's reign came in 1144, when he was faced with a demand by Raymond, Prince of Antioch for the cession of Cilician territories. However, later that year the crusader County of Edessa was engulfed by the tide of a resurgent Islamic jihad under Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi. Raymond realised that immediate help from the west was out of the question. With his eastern flank now dangerously exposed to this new threat, there seemed little option but for him to prepare for a humiliating visit to Constantinople. Swallowing his pride, he made the journey north to ask for the protection of the Emperor. After submitting to Manuel, he was promised the support that he had requested, and his allegiance to Byzantium was secured.[7] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... Raymond of Poitiers (c. ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki; in Turkish İmadeddin Zengi, in Arabic: عماد الدین زنكي) (c. ...


Arrival of the Crusaders

Manuel was prevented from following up his early successes in the east, for events to the west meant that his presence was urgently required in the Balkans. In 1147 he granted a passage through his dominions to two armies of the Second Crusade under Conrad III of Germany and Louis VII of France. At this time, there were still members of the Byzantine court who remembered the passage of the First Crusade, which was a defining event in the collective memory of the age and one which had fascinated Manuel's aunt, Anna Komnene.[8] King Conrad III (Cunradus rex) in a 13th-century miniature. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of destroying the peaceful Islamic civilizations and confirming the barbaric nature of European society. ... Anna Komnene or Comnena (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna Komnēnē), (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ...

Arrival of the Second Crusade before Constantinople as portrayed in Jean Fouquet's painting from around 1455–1460, Arrivée des croisés à Constantinople.
Arrival of the Second Crusade before Constantinople as portrayed in Jean Fouquet's painting from around 1455–1460, Arrivée des croisés à Constantinople.

Many Byzantines feared the Crusade, a view endorsed by the numerous acts of vandalism and theft practiced by the unruly armies as they marched through Byzantine territory. Byzantine troops followed the Crusaders, attempting to police their behaviour, and further troops were assembled in Constantinople, ready to defend the capital against any acts of aggression. This cautious approach was well advised, but still the numerous incidents of covert and open hostility between the Franks and the Greeks on their line of march, for which it seems both sides were to blame, nearly precipitated a conflict between Manuel and his guests. Manuel took the precaution – which his grandfather had not taken – of making repairs to the city walls, and pressed the two kings for guarantees concerning the security of his territories. Conrad's army was the first to enter the Byzantine territory in the summer of 1147, and it figures more prominently in the Byzantine sources, which imply that it was the most troublesome of the two.a[›] Image File history File links Arrivée_des_croisés_à_Constantinople. ... Image File history File links Arrivée_des_croisés_à_Constantinople. ... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ...


After 1147, however, the relations between the two leaders became friendlier. By 1148 Manuel had seen the wisdom of securing an alliance with Conrad, whose sister-in-law Bertha of Sulzbach he had earlier married; he actually persuaded the German king to renew their alliance against Roger II of Sicily.[9] Unfortunately for the Byzantine emperor, Conrad died in 1152, and despite repeated attempts, Manuel could not reach an agreement with his successor, Frederick I Barbarossa.b[›] Bertha of Sulzbach (died 1159) was the first wife and Empress of Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus. ... Roger II, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ...


Cyprus invaded

Letter by Manuel I Komnenos to Pope Eugene III on the issue of the crusades (Constantinople, 1146, Vatican Secret Archives): with this document, the Emperor answers to a previous papal letter, where the Pope asks Louis VII of France to free the Holy Land and reconquer Edessa. Manuel answers that he is willing to receive the French army and to support it, but he complains about receiving the letter from an envoy of the King of France and not from an ambassador sent by the Pope.
Letter by Manuel I Komnenos to Pope Eugene III on the issue of the crusades (Constantinople, 1146, Vatican Secret Archives): with this document, the Emperor answers to a previous papal letter, where the Pope asks Louis VII of France to free the Holy Land and reconquer Edessa. Manuel answers that he is willing to receive the French army and to support it, but he complains about receiving the letter from an envoy of the King of France and not from an ambassador sent by the Pope.[10]

Yet Manuel's attention was to be drawn to Antioch again in 1156, when Raynald of Chatillon, the new Prince of Antioch, claimed that the Byzantine emperor had reneged on his promise to pay him a sum of money, and vowed to attack the Byzantine province of Cyprus.[11] He arrested the governor of the island and nephew of the emperor, John Komnenos, and the general Michael Branas.[12] The Latin historian William of Tyre deplored this act of war against fellow Christians, and described the atrocities committed by Raynald's men in considerable detail.[13] Having ransacked the island and plundered all its wealth, Raynald's army mutilated the survivors before forcing them to buy back their flocks at exorbitant prices with what little they had left. Thus enriched with enough booty to make Antioch wealthy for years, the invaders boarded their ships and set sail for home.[14] Raynald also sent some of the mutilated hostages to Constantinople as a vivid demonstration of his disobedience and his contempt for the Byzantine emperor.[12] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 388 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (520 × 803 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) LETTER BY THE EMPEROR MANUEL I CONMENUS TO POPE EUGENE II ON THE ISSUE OF THE CRUSADES [Constantinople], 1146 August Source:http://asv. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 388 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (520 × 803 pixel, file size: 206 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) LETTER BY THE EMPEROR MANUEL I CONMENUS TO POPE EUGENE II ON THE ISSUE OF THE CRUSADES [Constantinople], 1146 August Source:http://asv. ... The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... The Vatican Secret Archives (Latin: Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum), is the central repository for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land (Biblical). ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Åžanlı Urfa. ... Kings ruled in France from the Middle Ages to 1848. ... Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynaud, Renaud, Reynald, Reynold, Renald or Reginald of Chastillon) (c. ... William of Tyre (c. ...


Manuel responded to this outrage in a characteristically energetic way. In the winter of 1158–59, he marched to Cilicia at the head of a huge army; the speed of his advance was such that he managed to surprise the Armenian Thoros of Cilicia, who had participated in the attack on Cyprus.[15] All the towns and cities of Cilicia fell to Manuel immediately, and Thoros himself was forced to flee into the mountains at the last moment: he is said to have survived by sheltering alone under rocks on a hillside, where an old shepherd would bring him food to keep him alive. Thoros II of Armenia (died 1169) was prince of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1140 to 1169. ...


Manuel in Antioch

Meanwhile, news of the advance of the Byzantine army soon reached Antioch. Realising that he had no hope of defeating Manuel, Raynald also knew that he could not expect any help from king Baldwin III of Jerusalem. Baldwin did not approve of Raynald's attack on Cyprus, and in any case had already made an agreement with Manuel. Thus isolated and abandoned by his allies, Raynald decided that abject submission was his only hope. He appeared before the Emperor, dressed in a sack and with a rope tied around his neck, and begged for forgiveness. Manuel at first ignored the prostrate Raynald, chatting with his courtiers; William of Tyre commented that this ignominious scene continued for so long that all present were "disgusted" by it.[16] Eventually, Manuel forgave Raynald on condition that he became a vassal of the Empire, effectively surrendering the independence of Antioch to Byzantium.[3] The Komnenian army was the force established by Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos during the late eleventh/early twelfth century, and perfected by his successors John II Komnenos and Manuel I Komnenos during the twelfth century. ... Baldwin III (1130-1162) was king of Jerusalem from 1143-1162. ...

Antioch under Byzantine protection (during 1159–1180)
Antioch under Byzantine protection (during 1159–1180)

Peace having been restored, a grand ceremonial procession was staged on April 12, 1159 for the triumphant entry of the Byzantine army into the city, with Manuel riding through the streets on horseback while the Prince of Antioch and the King of Jerusalem followed on foot. Manuel dispensed justice to the citizens, and presided over games and tournaments for the crowd. In May at the head of a united Christian army he started on the road to Edessa, but he abandoned the campaign, when he secured the release by Nur ad-Din, the ruler of Syria, of many Christian prisoners captured in various battles since the second Crusade.[17] Despite the glorious end of the expedition, it is argued by modern scholars that Manuel finally achieved much less than he hoped in terms of imperial restoration.c[›] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (808x534, 166 KB)I made this file on Microsoft Paint File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (808x534, 166 KB)I made this file on Microsoft Paint File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ...


Satisfied with his efforts thus far, Manuel headed back to Constantinople. On their way back, his troops were surprised in line of march by the Turks. Despite this, they won a complete victory, routing the enemy army from the field and inflicting heavy losses. In the following year he drove the Seljuk Turks out of Isauria.[18] Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering much of what is now Antalya province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. ...


Italian campaign

Roger II of Sicily

Southern Italy in 1112, at the time of Roger II's coming of age, showing the major states and cities. The border of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1154, at the time of Roger's death, is shown by a thicker black line encircling most of southern Italy.
Southern Italy in 1112, at the time of Roger II's coming of age, showing the major states and cities. The border of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1154, at the time of Roger's death, is shown by a thicker black line encircling most of southern Italy.

In 1147 Manuel was faced with war by Roger II of Sicily, whose fleet had captured the Byzantine island of Corfu and plundered the Greek towns. However, despite being distracted by a Cuman attack in the Balkans, in 1148 Manuel enlisted the alliance of Conrad, and the help of the Venetians, who quickly defeated Roger with their powerful fleet. In 1149, Manuel with 500 galleys, 1,000 transports, and 20-30,000 men recovered Corfu and prepared to take the offensive against the Normans. [19] He had already agreed with Conrad on a joint invasion and partition of southern Italy and Sicily. The renewal of the German alliance remained the principal orientation of Manuel's foreign policy for the rest of his reign, despite the gradual divergence of interests between the two empires after Conrad's death.[9] Image File history File links Southern_Italy_1112. ... Image File history File links Southern_Italy_1112. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ... Roger II, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...


The death of Roger in February 1154, who was succeeded by William I, combined with the widespread rebellions against the rule of the new King in Sicily and Apulia, the presence of Apulian refugees at the Byzantian court, and Frederick Barbarossa's (Conrad's successor) failure to deal with the Normans encouraged Manuel to take advantage of the multiple instabilities that existed in the Italian peninsula.[20] He sent Michael Palaiologos and John Doukas, both of whom held the high imperial rank of sebastos, with Byzantine troops, 10 Byzantine ships, and large quantities of gold to invade Apulia (1155).[21] The two generals were instructed to enlist the support of Frederick Barbarossa, since he was hostile to the Normans of Sicily and was south of the Alps at the time, but he declined because his demoralised army longed to get back north of the Alps as soon as possible.b[›] Nevertheless, with the help of disaffected local barons including Count Robert of Loritello, Manuel's expedition achieved astonishingly rapid progress as the whole of southern Italy rose up in rebellion against the Sicilian Crown, and the untried William I.[9] There followed a string of spectacular successes as numerous strongholds yielded either to force or the lure of gold.[17] William I (d. ... The following is a list of monarchs of the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily: // Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071–1130 Roger I 1071–1101 Simon 1101–1105 Roger II 1105–1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130–1198 Roger II 1130–1154 William I 1154–1166 William II 1166–1189 Tancred... This article is about the Italian region. ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Michael Palaeologus (d. ... John Doukas or Ducas (Greek: Ιωάννης Δούκας, IōannÄ“s Doukas), (c. ... The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy. ... This article is about the Italian region. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert II of Bassunvilla (also Basunvilla and Bassonville) (died in 1182) was the count of Conversano (from 1138) and Loritello (from 1154). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Papal-Byzantine alliance

The city of Bari, which had been the capital of the Byzantine Catapanate of Southern Italy for centuries before the arrival of the Normans, opened its gates to the Emperor's army, and the overjoyed citizens tore down the Norman citadel. Encouraged by the success, Manuel dreamed of restoration of the Roman Empire at cost of union between Orthodox and Catholic Church, a prospect which would frequently be offered to the Pope during negotiations and plans for alliance.[22] For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... In 890 the Byzantines defeated the Saracens in southern Italy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ...


If there was ever a chance of reuniting the eastern and western churches, and reconciling the Pope permanently, this was probably the most favourable moment. The Papacy was never on good terms with the Normans, except when under duress by the threat of direct military action. Having the "civilised" Eastern Roman Empire on its southern border was infinitely preferable to the Papacy than having to constantly deal with the troublesome Normans of Sicily. It was in Pope Hadrian IV's interests to reach a deal if at all possible, since doing so would greatly increase his own influence over the entire Orthodox Christian population. Manuel offered a large sum of money to the Pope for the provision of troops, with the request that the Pope grant the Byzantine emperor lordship of three maritime cities in return for assistance in expelling William from Sicily. Manuel also promised to pay 5,000 pounds of gold to the Pope and the Curia.[23] Negotiations were hurriedly carried out, and an alliance was formed between Manuel and Hadrian.[20] The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Pope Adrian IV (c. ... The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Roman Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ...

"Alexios Komnenos and Doukas ... had become captive to the Sicilians' lord [and] again ruined matters. For as they had already pledged to the Sicilians many things not then desired by the emperor, they robbed the Romans of very great and noble achievements. [They] ... very likely deprived the Roman of the cities too soon."
John Cinnamus[24]

It was at this point, just as the war seemed decided in Manuel's favour, that things started to go wrong for him. The Byzantine commander Michael Palaiologos had alienated Byzantium's allies by his attitude, and this had stalled the campaign as Count Robert III of Loritello refused to speak to him. Although the two were reconciled, the campaign had lost some of its momentum: Michael was soon recalled to Constantinople, and his loss was a major blow to the campaign. The turning point was the Battle for Brindisi, where the Sicilians launched a major counter attack by both land and sea. At the approach of the enemy, the mercenaries that had been hired with Manuel's gold demanded huge rises in their pay. When this was refused, they deserted. Even the local barons started to melt away, and soon John Doukas was left hopelessly outnumbered. The arrival of Alexios Komnenos Bryennios with some ships did not retrieve the Byzantine situation in any respect.d[›] The naval battle was decided in the Sicilians' favour, while John Doukas and Alexios Bryennios (along with 4 Byzantine ships) were captured.[25] Manuel then sent Alexios Axouch to Ancona to raise another army, but, by this time, William had already retaken all of the Byzantine conquests in Apulia. The defeat at Brindisi put an end to the restored Byzantine reign in Italy; in 1158 the Byzantine army left Italy, and never saw it again.[26] Both Nicetas Choniates and Kinnamos, the major Byzantine historians of this period, agree, however, that the peace terms Axouch secured from William allowed Manuel to extricate himself from the war with dignity, despite a devastating raid by the Sicilian fleet on the Aegean coast of Greece in 1158.[27] Robert II of Bassunvilla (also Basunvilla and Bassonville) (died in 1182) was the count of Conversano (from 1138) and Loritello (from 1154). ... Brindisi is an ancient city in the Italian region of Puglia, the capital of the province of Brindisi. ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... Nicetas Choniates (c. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Failure of the Church union

Pope Hadrian IV, who negotiated with Manuel against the Norman King William I of Sicily
Pope Hadrian IV, who negotiated with Manuel against the Norman King William I of Sicily

During the Italian campaign, and, afterwards, during the struggle of the Papal Curia with Frederick, Manuel tried to seduce the Popes by hints of a possible union between the Eastern and Western Churches. Although in 1155 Pope Hadrian had expressed his eagerness to prompt the reunion of the Catholic and Orthodox Churches,e[›] hopes for a lasting Papal-Byzantine alliance came up against insuperable problems. Pope Hadrian IV and his successors demanded recognition of their religious authority over all Christians everywhere, and wished themselves to reach superiority over the Byzantine Emperor; they were not at all willing to fall into a state of dependence from one emperor to the other.[22] Manuel, on the other side, wanted an official recognition of his secular authority on both East and West.[21] Such conditions would not be accepted by either side. Even if a pro-western Emperor such as Manuel agreed to it, the Greek citizens of the Empire would have rejected outright any union of this sort, as they did almost three hundred years later when the Orthodox and Catholic churches were briefly united under the Pope. In spite of his friendliness towards the Roman Church and his cordial relations with all the Popes, Manuel was never honoured with the title of Augustus by the Popes. And although he sent twice (in 1167 and 1169) an embassy to Pope Alexander III offering to reunite the Greek and Latin churches, the latter refused, under pretext of the troubles that would follow that union.[28] Ultimately, a deal proved elusive, and the two churches have remained divided. Image File history File links Pope_Hadrian_IV.jpg‎ [edit] Summary H.H. Pope Adrian IV [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope Adrian IV Manuel I Komnenos Dominium mundi ... Image File history File links Pope_Hadrian_IV.jpg‎ [edit] Summary H.H. Pope Adrian IV [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Pope Adrian IV Manuel I Komnenos Dominium mundi ... William I (d. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Alexander III, né Orlando Bandinelli (c. ...


The final results of the Italian campaign were limited in terms of the advantages gained by the Empire. The city of Ancona became a Byzantine base in Italy, accepting the Emperor as sovereign. The Normans of Sicily had been damaged, and now came to terms with the Empire, ensuring peace for the rest of Manuel's reign. The Empire's ability to get involved in Italian affairs had been demonstrated. However, given the enormous quantities of gold which had been lavished on the project, it also demonstrated the limits of what money and diplomacy alone could achieve. The expense of Manuel's involvement in Italy must have cost the Treasury a great deal (probably more than 30,000 pounds of gold), and yet it produced only limited solid gains.[29]


Byzantine policy in Italy after 1158

Frederick Barbarossa submits to the authority of Pope Alexander III after his defeat at the Battle of Legnano (fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena, by Spinello Aretino).

After 1158 and under the new conditions, the aims of the Byzantine policy changed. Now Manuel decided to oppose the tendency of the Hohenstaufen dynasty to annex Italy, which Frederick believed should acknowledge his power. When the war between Frederick and the north Italian cities started, Manuel actively supported the Lombard League with money subsidies. The walls of Milan, demolished by the Germans, were restored by the aid of the Byzantine Emperor.[30] Frederick's defeat at the Battle of Legnano, on May 29, 1176 seemed rather to improve Manuel's position in Italy. According to Kinnamos, Cremona, Pavia, and a number of other "Ligurian" cities went over to Manuel;[31] his relations were also particularly favourable in regard to Genoa, Pisa, but not in regard to Venice. In March 1171 Manuel had suddenly broken with Venice, ordering all the Venetians on imperial territory (10,000 Venetians in Constantinople alone) to be arrested and their property confiscated.[32] Venice, incensed, sent a fleet of 120 ships[33] against Byzantium, which, owing to an epidemic and being pursued by 150 Byzantine ships, was forced to return without great success. In all probability, friendly relations between Byzantium and Venice were not restored in Manuel's lifetime.[22] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1196x581, 310 KB) Summary Frederick Barbarossa submits to the authority of Pope Alexander III (fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena, by Spinello Aretino). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1196x581, 310 KB) Summary Frederick Barbarossa submits to the authority of Pope Alexander III (fresco in the Palazzo Pubblico in Siena, by Spinello Aretino). ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... Spinello Aretino (c. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... The Lombard League was an alliance formed around 1167, which at its apex included most of the cities of northern Italy (although its membership changed in time), including, among others, Milan, Piacenza, Cremona, Mantua, Bergamo, Brescia, Bologna, Padua, Treviso, Vicenza, Verona, Lodi, and Parma, and even some lords, such as... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire and Ghibellines Lombard League(Guelphs) Commanders Frederick I Barbarossa Alberto da Giussano Strength 2500 (all cavalry) 2500 (2000 cavalry, 500 foot) The Carroccio of Legnano on the way to the battlefield. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... Cremona is a city in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left shore of the Po river in the middle of the Pianura padana (Po valley). ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ...


Balkan frontier

On his northern frontier Manuel expended considerable effort to preserve the conquests made by Basil II over one hundred years earlier and maintained, sometimes tenuously, ever since. Due to distraction from his neighbours on the Balkan frontier, Manuel was kept from his main objective, the subjugation of the Normans of Sicily. Relations had been good with the Serbs and Hungarians since 1129, so the Serb rebellion came as a shock. The Serbs of Rascia, being so induced by Roger II of Sicily, invaded Byzantine territory in 1149.[3] Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Raška (Raschka, Rascia, Rassa) was the central and most successful medieval Serbian state (or župa, area ruled by a župan) that unified neighboring Serbian tribes into the main medieval Serbian state in Balkans. ...

A Hyperpyron, a form of Byzantine coinage, issued by Manuel. One side of the coin (left image) depicts Christ. The other side depicts Manuel (right image).
A Hyperpyron, a form of Byzantine coinage, issued by Manuel. One side of the coin (left image) depicts Christ. The other side depicts Manuel (right image).

Manuel forced the rebellious Serbs, and their leader, Uroš II, to vassalage (1150–1152).[34] He then made repeated attacks upon the Hungarians with a view to annexing their territory along the Sava. In the wars of 1151–1153 and 1163–1168 Manuel led his troops into Hungary and a spectacular raid deep into enemy territory yielded substantial war booty. In 1165, Manuel forced the Hungarian government to cede him the region of Syrmia on the Danube. In 1167, a decisive victory at the Battle of Sirmium enabled him to conclude a peace by which Dalmatia and other frontier territories were ceded to him. By 1168 nearly the whole of the eastern Adriatic coast lay in Manuel's hands.[35] Image File history File links Manuel I Comnenus AV Hyperpyron. ... Image File history File links Manuel I Comnenus AV Hyperpyron. ... Anastasius 40 nummi (M) and 5 nummi (E) Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of mainly two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of clearly valued bronze coins. ... Sava also Save (German Save, Hungarian Száva) is a river in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... Map of the Syrmia region Syrmia (Serbian: Srem (Cyrillic: Срем), Croatian: Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Combatants Byzantines, supported by Cuman, Italian, Serbian and Wallachian[1] units. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


Efforts were also made for diplomatic annex. The Hungarian heir Béla, younger brother of the Hungarian king Stephen III, was sent to Constantinople to be educated in the court of Manuel, who intended the youth to marry his daughter, Maria, and to make him his heir, thus securing the union of Hungary with the Empire. In the court Béla assumed the name Alexius and received the title of Despot which had previously been applied only to the Emperor himself. However, two unforeseen dynastic events drastically altered the situation. In 1169, Manuel's young wife gave birth to a son, thus depriving Béla of his status as heir of the Byzantine throne (although Manuel would not renounce the Croatian lands he had taken from Hungary). Then, in 1172, Stephen died childless, and Béla went home to take his throne. Before leaving Constantinople, he swore a solemn oath to Manuel that he would always "keep in mind the interests of the emperor and of the Romans". Béla III kept his word: as long as Manuel lived, he made no attempt to retrieve his Croatian inheritance, which he only afterwards reincorporated into Hungary.[35] Bela III of Hungary (Hungarian , Slovak: Belo III), born in 1148, was King of Hungary circa 1172_1196. ... Stephen III or better István III (Hungarian: ), (1147–March 4, 1172), king of Hungary from 1162 to 1172. ... Maria Komnene or Comnena (Greek: Μαρία Κομνηνή, Maria KomnÄ“nÄ“), (1152–1182) was the eldest daughter of the Emperor Manuel I Komnenos by his first wife, Bertha of Sulzbach. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Relations with Russia

Manuel Komnenos attempted to draw the Russian principalities into his net of diplomacy directed against Hungary, and to a lesser extent Norman Sicily. This polarised the Russian princes into pro- and anti-Byzantine camps. In the late 1140s three princes were competing for primacy in Russia: prince Iziaslav II of Kiev was related to Géza II of Hungary and was hostile to Byzantium; Prince Yuri Dolgoruki of Suzdal was Manuel's ally (symmachos), and Vladimirko of Galicia is described as Manuel's vassal (hypospondos). Galicia was situated on the northern and northeastern borders of Hungary and, therefore, was of great strategic importance in the Byzantine-Hungarian conflicts. Following the deaths of both Iziaslav and Vladimirko, the situation became reversed, when Yuri of Suzdal, Manuel's ally, took over Kiev and Yaroslav, the new ruler of Galicia, adopted a pro-Hungarian stance. Iziaslav II Mstislavich (Изяслав II Мстиславич in Russian) (c. ... Géza II (Hungarian: , Slovak: Gejza, Serbian: Гејза) was king of Hungary from 1141 until his death in 1161. ... Monument to Yuriy Dolgorukiy in Moscow. ... This article is about the Russian town. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


In 1164-5 Manuel's cousin Andronikos, the future emperor, escaped from captivity in Byzantium, and fled to the court of Yaroslav in Galicia. This situation, holding out the alarming prospect of Andronikos making a bid for Manuel's throne sponsored by both Galicia and Hungary, spurred the Byzantines into an unprecedented flurry of diplomacy. Manuel pardoned Andronikos and persuaded him to return to Constantinople (1165). A mission to Kiev, then ruled by Prince Rostislav, resulted in a favourable treaty and a pledge to supply the Empire with auxiliary troops; Yaroslav of Galicia was also persuaded to renounce his Hungarian connections and return fully into the imperial fold. As late as the year 1200 the princes of Galicia were providing invaluable services against the Empire's, at this time Cuman, enemies.[36] Billon trachy (a cup-shaped coin) of Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185) Andronikos I Komnenos or Andronicus I Comnenus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Α’ Κομνηνός, Andronikos I Komnēnos) (c. ... Rostislav Mstislavich (Russian: ) (c. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ...


The restoration of relations with Galicia had an immediate benefit for Manuel when, in 1166, he dispatched two armies to attack the eastern provinces of Hungary in a vast pincer movement. One army crossed the Walachian Plain and entered Hungary through the Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathians), whilst the other army made a wide circuit to Galicia, and with Galician aid, crossed the Carpathian Mountains. Since the Hungarians had most of their forces concentrated on the Sirmium and Belgrade frontier they were caught off guard by the Byzantine invasion and the Hungarian province of Transylvania was thoroughly ravaged by the Byzantine armies.[37] The Romanian Plain, in the southern part of ArgeÅŸ County (Pitestilor-Plain) Steppe-Vegetation in the Burnazului-Plain Crop land in Titu-Plain The Walachian Plain (Romanian: Câmpia Română - Romanian Plain) is located in Romania, bordered by the Danube in the east, south and west and by the... Southern Carpathians (also called Transylvanian Alps; in Romanian: Carpaţii Meridionali) are located between the Prahova river in the east and the Timiş river and Cerna river in the west. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Ruins of Sirmium Julian solidus, ca. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ...


Invasion of Egypt

Alliance with the Kingdom of Jerusalem

The marriage of Amalric I of Jerusalem and Maria Comnena at Tyre in 1167 (from a manuscript of William of Tyre's Historia, painted in Paris c. 1295–1300, Bibliothèque Municipale, Épinal).
The marriage of Amalric I of Jerusalem and Maria Comnena at Tyre in 1167 (from a manuscript of William of Tyre's Historia, painted in Paris c. 1295–1300, Bibliothèque Municipale, Épinal).

Control of Egypt was a decades-old dream of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, and king Amalric I of Jerusalem needed all the military and financial support he could get for his policy of military intervention in Egypt.[38] Amalric also realised that if he were to pursue his ambitions in Egypt, he might have to leave Antioch to the hegemony of Manuel.[39] In 1165, he sent envoys to the Byzantine court to negotiate a marriage alliance (Manuel had already married Amalric's cousin Maria of Antioch in 1161).[40] After a long interval of two years, Amalric married Manuel's grand-niece Maria Komnene in 1167, and "swore all that his brother Baldwin had sworn before."f[›] A formal alliance was negotiated in 1168, whereby the two rulers arranged for a conquest and partition of Egypt, with Manuel taking the coastal area, and Amalric the interior. In the autumn of 1169 Manuel sent a joint expedition with Amalric to Egypt: a Byzantine army and a naval force of 12 large warships, 150 galleys, and 60 transports, under the command of the megas doux Andronikos Kontostephanos joined forces with Amalric at Ascalon.[40][41] William of Tyre, who negotiated the alliance, was impressed in particular by the large transport ships which were used to transport the cavalry forces of the army.[42] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... William of Tyre (c. ... Épinal is a commune of northeastern France, préfecture (capital) of the Vosges département. ... Amalric I (also Amaury or Aimery) (1136 – July 11, 1174) was King of Jerusalem 1162–1174, and Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. ... Maria of Antioch (1145-1182) was the daughter of Constance of Antioch and her first husband Raymond of Poitiers. ... Maria Komnene or Comnena (Greek: Μαρία Κομνηνή, Maria KomnÄ“nÄ“), (c. ... The Megas Doux (Gr. ... The name Ascalon can refer to a number of possible topics: a middle-eastern city, more usually called Ashkelon the lance (or in some versions of the story, sword) that St George used to slay the dragon, named after the city Ashkelon the British WW2 aeroplane used by Winston Churchill...


Although such a long range attack on a state far from the centre of the Empire may seem extraordinary (the last time the Empire had attempted anything on this scale was the failed invasion of Sicily over one hundred and twenty years earlier), it can be explained in terms of Manuel's foreign policy, which was to use the Latins to ensure the survival of the Empire. This focus on the bigger picture of the eastern Mediterranean and even further afield thus led Manuel to intervene in Egypt: it was believed that in the context of the wider struggle between the crusader states and the Islamic powers of the east, control of Egypt would be the deciding factor. It had been becoming clear that the ailing Fatimid Caliphate of Egypt held the key to the fate of the crusader states. If Egypt came out of its isolation, and joined forces with the Muslims under Nur ad-Din, the crusader cause was in trouble.[38] For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


A successful invasion of Egypt would have several further advantages for the Byzantine Empire. Egypt was a rich province, and in the days of the Roman Empire had supplied much of the grain for Constantinople before it was lost to the Arabs in the 7th century. The revenues that the Empire could have expected to gain from the conquest of Egypt would have been considerable, even if these would have to be shared with the Crusaders. Furthermore, Manuel may have wanted to encourage Amalric's plans, not only in order to deflect Latins' ambitions away from Antioch, but also in order to create new opportunities for joint military ventures that would keep the King of Jerusalem in his debt, and also allow the Empire to share in territorial gains.[38] Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


Failure of the expedition

Manuel and the envoys of Amalric – arrival of the crusaders in Pelusium (from the Manuscript of William of Tyre's Historia and Old French Continuation, painted in Acre, Israel, 13th century, Bibliothèque nationale de France).
Manuel and the envoys of Amalric – arrival of the crusaders in Pelusium (from the Manuscript of William of Tyre's Historia and Old French Continuation, painted in Acre, Israel, 13th century, Bibliothèque nationale de France).

The joined forces of Manuel and Amalric laid siege to Damietta on October 27, 1169, but the siege was unsuccessful due to the failure of the Crusaders and the Byzantines to co-operate fully.[43] According to Byzantine forces, Amalric, not wanting to share the profits of victory, dragged out the operation until the emperor's men ran short of provisions and were particularly affected by famine; Amalric then launched an assault, which he promptly aborted by negotiating a truce with the defenders. On the other hand, William of Tyre remarked that the Greeks were not entirely blameless.[44] Whatever the truth of the allegations of both sides, when the rains came, both the Latin army and the Byzantine fleet returned home, although many of the Byzantine ships were lost in a sudden storm.[45] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Pelusium is a city in the eastern extremes of Egypts Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of Port Said. ... William of Tyre (c. ... “Akko” redirects here. ... The new buildings of the library. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Nur ad-Din invades Egypt, and his nephew Saladin becomes the sultan over the territory conquered by Nur ad-Din. ...


Despite the bad feelings generated at Damietta, Amalric still refused to abandon his dream of conquering Egypt, and he continued to seek good relations with the Byzantines in the hopes of another joined attack, which never took place.[46] In 1171 Amalric came to Constantinople in person, after Egypt had fallen to Saladin. Manuel was thus able to organise a grand ceremonial reception which both honoured Amalric, and underlined his dependence: for the rest of Amalric's reign, Jerusalem was a Byzantine satellite, and Manuel was able to act as a protector of the Holy Places, exerting a growing influence in the Kingdom of Jerusalem.[47] Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: , Turkish: ) (c. ...


Kilij Arslan II and the Seljuk Turks

This image by Gustave Doré shows the Turkish ambush at the pass of Myriokephalon. This ambush destroyed Manuel's hope of capturing Konya
This image by Gustave Doré shows the Turkish ambush at the pass of Myriokephalon. This ambush destroyed Manuel's hope of capturing Konya
For more details on this topic, see Battle of Myriokephalon.

Between 1158–1161, a series of Byzantine campaigns against the Seljuk Turks resulted in a treaty favourable to the Empire. According to the agreement certain frontier regions, including the city of Sivas, should be handed over to Manuel in return for some quantity of cash.[48] However, when it became clear that the Seljuks had no intention of honouring their side of the bargain, Manuel decided that it was time to deal with the Turks once and for all.[49] Therefore, he assembled the full imperial army, and marched against the Seljuk capital, Iconium (Konya). Manuel's strategy was to prepare the advanced bases of Dorylaeum and Sublaeum, and then to use them as to strike as quickly as possible at Iconium.[50] In 1177, a fleet of 150 ships was also sent by Manuel I to invade Egypt, but returns home after appearing off Acre due to the Kingdom of Jerusalem's refusal to help.[51] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1015, 146 KB) Summary The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x1015, 146 KB) Summary The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rüm Commanders Manuel I Comnenus Baldwin of Antioch † John Cantacuzenus Andronicus Vatatzes † Kilij Arslan II Strength About 25,000 (possibly 50,000?) 70,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Myriokephalon, also known as the Myriocephalum, or Miryakefalon Savaşı in Turkish, was a battle... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Sivas is the provincial capital of Sivas Province in Turkey. ... Konya (also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically known as Iconium) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Dorylaeum was an ancient city in Anatolia. ...


Yet Manuel's army was large and unwieldy – according to a letter which Manuel sent to King Henry II of England, the advancing column was ten miles long.[50] Just outside the entrance to the pass at Myriokephalon, Manuel was met by Turkish ambassadors, who offered peace on generous terms. Most of Manuel's generals and experienced courtiers urged him to accept the offer. However, the younger and more aggressive members of the court urged Manuel to attack; he took their advice and continued his advance.[17] Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ...


Manuel made serious tactical errors, such as failing to properly scout out the route ahead.[52] These failings caused him to lead his forces straight into a classic ambush. On September 17, 1176 Manuel was decisively defeated by Kilij Arslan II at the Battle of Myriokephalon (in highlands near the Tzibritze pass), in which his army was ambushed while marching through the narrow mountain pass.[53] The Byzantines were too dispersed, and were surrounded.[52] The army's siege equipment was quickly destroyed, and Manuel was forced to withdraw – without siege engines, the conquest of Iconium was impossible. According to Byzantine sources, Manuel lost his nerve both during and after the battle, fluctuating between extremes of self-delusion and self-abasement;[54] according to William of Tyre, he was never the same again. is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 22 - Murder attempt by the Hashshashin on Saladin near Aleppo Raynald of Chatillon released from prison in Aleppo May 29 - Frederick Barbarossa is defeated in the Battle of Legnano by the Lombard League leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni) September 17 - Seljuk Turks defeat Manuel... Izz ad-Din Kılıj Arslan II (also Qïlïch Arslan; died in 1192) was a Seljuk sultan of Rüm. ...


The terms by which Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan II allowed Manuel and his army to leave were that he should remove his forts and armies on the frontier at Dorylaeum and Sublaeum. However since the Sultan had already failed to keep his side of the earlier treaty of 1162, Manuel had no intention of keeping to the terms of this new arrangement. Nevertheless, defeat at Myriokephalon was an embarrassment for both Manuel personally and also for his empire. The Komnenian emperors had worked hard since the Battle of Manzikert, 105 years earlier, to restore the reputation of the empire. Yet because of his over-confidence, Manuel had demonstrated to the whole world that Byzantium still could not defeat the Seljuks, despite the advances made during the past century. In western opinion, Myriokephalon cut Manuel down to a humbler size: not that of Emperor of the Romans but that of King of the Greeks.[53] Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces...


The defeat at Myriokephalon has often been depicted as a catastrophe in which the entire Byzantine army was destroyed. Manuel himself compared the defeat to Manzikert; it seemed to him that the Byzantine defeat at Myriokephalon complemented the destruction at Manzikert. In reality, although a defeat, it was not too costly, and did not significantly ruin the Byzantine army.[53] Most of the bearable casualties were on the right wing, commanded by Baldwin of Antioch, and also the baggage train, which bore the brunt of the Turkish ambush and was its main target.[55] Yet the losses were quickly made good, and in the following year Manuel's forces appear inflicting a defeat upon a force of "picked Turks".[50] John Vatatzes, who was sent by the Emperor to repel the Turkish invasion, not only brought troops from the capital but also was able to gather an army along the way; a sign that the Byzantine army remained strong and that the defensive program of western Asia Minor was still successful.[56] Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to...


However, the battle did have a serious effect upon Manuel's vitality; henceforth he declined in health and in 1180 succumbed to a slow fever. Furthermore, like Manzikert, the balance between the two powers began to gradually shift – Manuel never again attacked the Turks and, after his death, they began to move further and further west, deeper into Byzantine territory.


Doctrinal controversies (1156–1180)

A millennium-old Byzantine mosaic of John Chrysostom (Hagia Sophia) – The controversy of 1156–1157 was about the interpretation of John's liturgy for the Eucharist, "Thou art He who offers and is offered and receives."
A millennium-old Byzantine mosaic of John Chrysostom (Hagia Sophia) – The controversy of 1156–1157 was about the interpretation of John's liturgy for the Eucharist, "Thou art He who offers and is offered and receives."

During Manuel's reign three major theological controversies occurred. In 1156–1157 the question was raised, whether Christ had offered himself a sacrifice for the sins of the world to the Father and to the Holy Spirit only, or also to the Logos (i.e., to himself).[57] In the end a synod held at Constantinople in 1157 adopted a compromise formula, that the Word made flesh offered a double sacrifice to the Holy Trinity, despite the dissidence of Patriarch of Antioch-elect Soterichus Panteugenus.[3] ImageMetadata File history File links Johnchrysostom. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Johnchrysostom. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... In Christology, the conception that Jesus Christ is the Logos (a Greek word meaning word, wisdom, or reason) has been important in establishing the doctrine of Jesus divinity, as well as that of the Trinity, as set forth in the Chalcedonian Creed. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ...


Ten years later, a controversy arose as to whether the saying of Christ, "My Father is greater than I" referred to his divine nature, to his human, or the union of these two natures.[57] Demetrius of Lampe, a Byzantine diplomat recently returned from the West, ridiculed the way the verse was interpreted there, that Christ was inferior to his father in his humanity, but equal in his divinity. Manuel on the other hand, perhaps with an eye on the project for Church union, found that the formula made sense, and prevailed over a majority in a synod convened on March 2, 1166 to decide the issue, where he had the support of the patriarch Luke Chrysoberges.[3] Those who refused to submit to the synod's decisions had their property confiscated or were exiled.g[›] The political dimensions of this controversy are apparent from the fact that a leading dissenter from the Emperor's doctrine was his nephew Alexios Kontostephanos.[58] is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Marko III succeeds Yoannis V as patriarch of Alexandria. ...


A third controversy sprung up in 1180, when Manuel objected to the formula of solemn abjuration, which was exacted from Moslem converts. One of the more striking anathemas of this abjuration was that directed against the deity worshipped by Muhammad and his followers: Abjuration (from Latin abjurare, to forswear), a solemn repudiation or renunciation on oath. ... Anathema (in Greek Ανάθεμα) meaning originally something lifted up as an offering to the gods; later, with evolving meanings, it came to mean: to be formally set apart, banished, exiled, excommunicated or denounced, sometimes accursed. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...

And before all, I anathematize the God of Muhammad about whom he [Muhammad] says, "He is God alone, God made of solid, hammer-beaten metal; He begets not and is not begotten, nor is there like unto Him any one."[59]

The emperor ordered the deletion of this anathema from the Church's catechetical texts, a measure that provoked vehement opposition from both the Patriarch and bishops.[59]


Chivalric narrations

Manuscript miniature of Maria of Antioch (part of double portrait with Manuel I Komnenos, Vatican Library, Rome)

Manuel is representative of a new kind of Byzantine ruler who was influenced by his contact with western Crusaders. He arranged jousting matches, even participating in them, an unusual and discomforting sight for the Byzantines. Endowed with a fine physique, Manuel has been the subject of exaggeration in the Byzantine sources of his era, where he is presented as a man of great personal courage. According to the story of his exploits, which appear as a model or a copy of the romances of chivalry, such was his strength and exercise in arms, that Raymond of Antioch was incapable of wielding his lance and buckler. In a famous tournament, he is said to have entered the lists on a fiery courser, and to have overturned two of the stoutest Italian knights. In one day, he is said to have slain forty Turks with his own hand, and in a battle against the Hungarians he allegedly snatched a banner, and was the first, almost alone, who passed a bridge that separated from the enemy. On another occasion, he is said to have cut his way through a squadron of five hundred Turks, without receiving a wound; he had previously posted an ambuscade in a wood, and was accompanied only by his brother and Axouch.[60] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 207 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (216 × 626 pixel, file size: 44 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Manuscript miniature of Maria of Antioch (part of double portrait with Manuel I Komnenos), Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana (Vatican Library), Rome. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 207 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (216 × 626 pixel, file size: 44 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Manuscript miniature of Maria of Antioch (part of double portrait with Manuel I Komnenos), Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana (Vatican Library), Rome. ... The Vatican Library (Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana) is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... This article is about the 1982 arcade game. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... This depiction of a knight on horseback might show a courser A courser is a swift and strong horse, frequently used during the Middle Ages as a warhorse. ...


Family

Manuel had two wives. His first marriage, in 1146, was to Bertha of Sulzbach, a sister-in-law of Conrad III of Germany. She died in 1159. Children: Bertha of Sulzbach (died 1159) was the first wife and Empress of Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus. ...

  1. Maria Komnene (1152–1182), wife of Renier of Montferrat.
  2. Anna Komnene (1154–1158).[61]

Manuel's second marriage was to Maria of Antioch (who became a nun under the name Xene), a daughter of Raymond and Constance of Antioch, in 1161. By this marriage, Manuel had one son: Maria Komnene or Comnena (Greek: Μαρία Κομνηνή, Maria Komnēnē), (1152–1182) was the eldest daughter of the Emperor Manuel I Komnenos by his first wife, Bertha of Sulzbach. ... Renier of Montferrat (1162–1183) was the fifth son of William III of Montferrat. ... Maria of Antioch (1145-1182) was the daughter of Constance of Antioch and her first husband Raymond of Poitiers. ... Raymond of Poitiers (c. ... Constance of Antioch (1127-1163) was the ruler of the principality of Antioch (a crusader state) from 1130 to her death. ...

Manuel had several illegitimate children: By Theodora Batatzina: Alexios II Komnenos or Alexius II Comnenus (Greek: Αλέχιος Β’ Κομνηνός, Alexios II Komnēnos) (14 September 1169 – October 1183, Constantinople), Byzantine emperor (1180-1183), was the son of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos and Maria, daughter of Raymond, prince of Antioch. ...

  • Alexios Komnenos (born in the early 1160s), who was recognised as the emperor's son, and indeed received a title (sebastokrator). He was briefly married to Eirene Komnene, illegitimate daughter of Andronikos I Komnenos, in 1183–1184, and was then blinded by his father-in-law. He lived until at least 1191 and was known personally to Choniates.[63]

By Maria Taronitissa, the wife of John Komnenos Protovestiarios, whose legitimate children included Maria Komnene, Queen consort of Jerusalem: Billon trachy (a cup-shaped coin) of Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185) Andronikos I Komnenos or Andronicus I Comnenus (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Α’ Κομνηνός, Andronikos I Komnēnos) (c. ... Maria Komnene or Comnena (Greek: Μαρία Κομνηνή, Maria Komnēnē), (c. ...

  • Alexios Komnenos Pinkernes ("the Cupbearer"), who fled Constantinople in 1184 and was a figurehead of the Norman invasion and the siege of Thessalonica in 1185.

By other lovers: The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ...

  1. A daughter whose name is unknown. She was born around 1150 and married Theodore Maurozomes before 1170. Her son was Manuel Maurozomes, and some of her descendants ruled the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.[64]
  2. A daughter whose name is unknown, born around 1155. She was the maternal grandmother of the author Demetrios Tornikes.[65]

Manuel Maurozomes, a Byzantine warlord, was the son of Theodore Maurozomes and an illegitimate daughter of the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnenos. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuk Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307...

Assessments

Foreign and military affairs

As a young man, Manuel had been determined to restore by force of arms the predominance of the Byzantine Empire in the Mediterranean countries. By the time he died in 1180, 37 years had passed since that momentous day in 1143 when, amid the wilds of Cilicia, his father had proclaimed him emperor. These years had seen Manuel involved in conflict with his neighbours on all sides. Manuel's father and grandfather before him had worked patiently to undo the damage done by the battle of Manzikert and its aftermath. Thanks to their efforts, the empire Manuel inherited was stronger and better organised than at any time for a century. While it is clear that Manuel used these assets to the full, it is not so clear how much he added to them, and there is room for doubt as to whether he used them to best effect.[1]

"The most singular feature in the character of Manuel is the contrast and vicissitude of labour and sloth, of hardiness and effeminacy. In war he seemed ignorant of peace, in peace he appeared incapable of war."
Edward Gibbon[66]

Manuel had proven himself to be an energetic Emperor who saw possibilities everywhere, and whose optimistic outlook had shaped his approach to foreign policy. However, in spite of his military prowess Manuel achieved but in a slight degree his object of restoring the Byzantine Empire. Retrospectively, some commentators have criticised some of Manuel's aims as unrealistic, in particular citing the expeditions he sent to Egypt as proof of dreams of grandeur on an unattainable scale. His greatest military campaign, his grand expedition against the Turkish Sultanate of Iconium, ended in humiliating defeat, and his greatest diplomatic effort apparently collapsed, when Pope Alexander III became reconciled to the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Peace of Venice. Historian Mark C. Bartusis argues that Manuel (and his father as well) tried to rebuild a national army, but his reforms were adequate for neither his ambitions nor his needs; the defeat at Myriokephalon underscored the fundamental weakness of his policies.[67] According to Edward Gibbon, Manuel's victories were not productive of any permanent or useful conquest.[66] A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... The Treaty or Peace of Venice, 1177, was an important peace treaty between the papacy and its allies, the north Italian city-states of the Lombard League, and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ...


Internal affairs

Choniates criticised Manuel for raising taxes and pointed to Manuel's reign as a period of excession; according to Choniates, the money thus raised was spent lavishly at the cost of his citizens. Whether one reads the Greek encomiastic sources, or the Latin and oriental sources, the impression is consistent with Choniates' picture of an emperor who spent lavishly in all available ways, rarely economising in one sector in order to develop another.[68] Manuel spared no expense on the army, the navy, diplomacy, ceremonial, palace-building, the Komnenian family, and other seekers of patronage. A significant amount of this expenditure was pure financial loss to the Empire, like the subsidies poured into Italy and the crusader states, and the sums spent on the failed expeditions of 1155–1156, 1169, and 1176.[69] Encomium is a Greek word which, in a general sense, means the praise of a person or thing. ...


The problems this created were counterbalanced to some extent by his successes, particularly in the Balkans; Manuel extended the frontiers of his Empire in the Balkan region, ensuring security for the whole of Greece and Bulgaria. Had he been more successful in all his ventures, he would have controlled not only the most productive farmland around the Eastern Mediterranean and Adriatic seas, but also the entire trading facilities of the area. Even if he did not achieve his ambitious goals, his wars against Hungary brought him control of the Dalmatian coast, the rich agricultural region of Sirmium, and the Danube trade route from Hungary to the Black Sea. His Balkan expeditions are said to have taken great booty in slaves and livestock;[70] Kinnamos was impressed by the amount of arms taken from the Hungarian dead after the battle of 1167.[24] And even if Manuel's wars against the Turks probably realised a net loss, his commanders took livestock and captives on at least two occasions.[70] For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


This allowed the Western provinces to flourish in an economic revival which had begun in the time of his grandfather Alexios I, and which continued till the close of the century. Indeed it has been argued that Byzantium in the twelfth century was richer and more prosperous than at any time since the Persian invasion during the reign of Herakleios, some five hundred years earlier. There is good evidence from this period of new construction, and new churches even in remote areas strongly suggest that wealth was widespread.[71] Trade was also flourishing; it has been estimated that the population of Constantinople, the biggest commercial center of the Empire, during Manuel's reign was between half a million and one million, making it by far the largest city in Europe. Furthermore, the Byzantine capital was a city undergoing expansion. The cosmopolitan character of Constantinople was being reinforced by the arrival of Italian merchants and Crusaders en route to the Holy Land. The Venetians, the Genoese and others opened up the ports of the Aegean to commerce, shipping goods from the Crusader kingdoms of Outremer and Fatimid Egypt to the west and trading with Byzantium via Constantinople.[72] These maritime traders stimulated demand in the towns and cities of Greece, Macedonia and the Greek Islands, generating new sources of wealth in a predominantly agrarian economy.[73] Thessaloniki, the second city of the Empire, hosted a famous summer fair which attracted traders from across the Balkans and even further afield to its bustling market stalls. In Corinth, silk production fuelled a thriving economy. All this is a testament to the success of the Komnenian Emperors in securing a Pax Byzantina in these heartland territories.[71] The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Heraclius or Herakleios or (Latin: ; Greek: , Hērakleios), (c. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the greek province of Macedonia. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ...


Legacy

Map of the Byzantine Empire under Manuel, c. 1180.
Map of the Byzantine Empire under Manuel, c. 1180.

To the rhetors of his court, Manuel was the "divine emperor". A generation after his death, Choniates referred to him as "the most blessed among emperors", and a century later John Stavrakios described him as "great in fine deeds". John Phokas, a soldier who fought in Manuel's army, characterised him some years later as the "world saving" and glorious emperor.[74] Manuel would be remembered in France, Italy and the Crusader states as the most powerful sovereign in the world.[3] A Genoese analyst noted that with the passing of "Lord Manuel of divine memory, the most blessed emperor of Constantinople ... all Christendom incurred great ruin and detriment."[75] William of Tyre called Manuel "a wise and discreet prince of great magnificence, worthy of praise in every respect", "a great-souled man of incomparable energy," whose "memory will ever be held in benediction." Manuel was further extolled by Robert of Clari as a "a right worthy man, [...] and richest of all the Christians who ever were, and the most bountiful."[76] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (801x370, 188 KB) Summary I made this image, based on an illustration in the Times Atlas of the Medieval World. Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (801x370, 188 KB) Summary I made this image, based on an illustration in the Times Atlas of the Medieval World. Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Rhetoric (from Greek ρητωρ, rhêtôr, orator) is one of the three original liberal arts or trivium (the other members are dialectic and grammar). ... Robert de Clari was one of the few documented witnesses to the Shroud of Turin before 1358. ...


A telling reminder of the influence that Manuel held in the Crusader states in particular can still be seen in the church of the Holy Nativity in Bethlehem. In the 1160s the nave was redecorated with mosaics showing the councils of the church.[77] Manuel was one of the patrons of the work. On the south wall, an inscription in Greek reads: "the present work was finished by Ephraim the monk, painter and mosaicist, in the reign of the great emperor Manuel Porphyrogennetos Komnenos and in the time of the great king of Jerusalem, Amalric." That Manuel's name was placed first was a symbolic, public recognition of Manuel's overlordship as leader of the Christian world. Manuel's role as protector of the Orthodox Christians and Christian holy places in general is also evident in his successful attempts to secure rights over the Holy Land. Manuel participated in the building and decorating of many of the basilicas and Greek monasteries in the Holy Land, including the church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, where thanks to his efforts the Byzantine clergy were allowed to perform the Greek liturgy each day. All this reinforced his position as overlord of the Crusader states, with his hegemony over Antioch and Jerusalem secured by agreement with Raynald, Prince of Antioch, and Amalric, King of Jerusalem respectively. Manuel was also the last Byzantine emperor who, thanks to his military and diplomatic success in the Balkans, could call himself "ruler of Dalmatia, Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Hungary".[78] Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ...


Byzantium looked impressive, when Manuel died in 1180, having just celebrated the betrothal of his son Alexios II to the daughter of the king of France.[79] Thanks to the diplomacy and campaigning of Alexios, John, and Manuel, the empire was a great power, economically prosperous, and secure on its frontiers; but there were serious problems as well. Internally, the Byzantine court required a strong leader to hold it together, and after Manuel's death stability was seriously endangered from within. Some of the foreign enemies of the Empire were lurking on the flanks, waiting for a chance to attack, in particular the Turks in Anatolia, whom Manuel had ultimately failed to defeat, and the Normans in Sicily, who had already tried but failed to invade the Empire on several occasions. Even the Venetians, the single most important western ally of Byzantium, were on bad terms with the empire at Manuel's death in 1180. Given this situation, it would have taken a strong Emperor to secure the Empire against the foreign threats it now faced, and to rebuild the depleted Imperial Treasury. But Manuel's son was a minor, and his unpopular regency government was overthrown in a violent coup d'état. This troubled succession weakened the dynastic continuity and solidarity on which the strength of the Byzantine state had come to rely.[79] // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ...


Notes

^  a:  The mood that prevailed before the end of 1147 is best conveyed by a verse enconium to Manuel (one of the poems included in a list transmitted under the name of Theodore Prodromos in Codex Marcianus graecus XI.22 known as Manganeios Prodromos), which was probably an imperial commission, and must have been written shortly after the Germans had crossed the Bosporus. Here Conrad is accused of wanting to take Constantinople by force, and to install a Latin patriarch (Manganeios Prodromos, no 20.1).[80]
^  b:  According to Paul Magdalino, one of Manuel's primary goals was a partition of Italy with the German empire, in which Byzantium would get the Adriatic coast. His unilateral pursuit, however, antagonized the new German emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, whose own plans for imperial restoration ruled out any partnership with Byzantium. Manuel was thus obliged to treat Frederick as his main enemy, and to form a web of relationships with other western powers, including the papacy, his old enemy, the Norman kingdom, Hungary, several magnates and cities throughout Italy, and, above all, the crusader states.[79]
^  c:  Magdalino underscores that, whereas John had removed the Rupenid princes from power in Cilicia twenty years earlier, Manuel allowed Toros to hold most of his strongholds he had taken, and effectively restored only the coastal area to imperial rule. From Raynald, Manuel secured recognition of imperial suzerainty over Antioch, with the promise to hand over the citadel, to instal a patriarch sent from Constantinople (not actually implemented until 1165–66), and to provide troops for the emperor's service, but nothing seems to have been said about the reversion of Antioch to direct imperial rule. According to Magdalino, this suggests that Manuel had dropped this demand on which both his grandfather and father insisted.[15] For his part, Medieval historian Zachary Nugent Brooke believes that the victory of Christianity against Nur ad-Din was made impossible, since both Greeks and Latins were concerned primarily with their own interests. He characterises the policy of Manuel as "short-sighted", because "he lost a splendid opportunity of recovering the former possessions of the Empire, and by his departure threw away most of the actual fruits of his expedition".[81] According to Piers Paul Read, Manuel's deal with Nur ad-Din was for the Latins another expression of Greeks' perfidy.[12]
^  d:  Alexios had been ordered to bring soldiers, but he merely brought his empty ships to Brindisi.[25]
^  e:  In 1155 Hadrian sent legates to Manuel, with a letter for Basil, Archbishop of Thessaloniki, in which he exhorted that bishop to procure the reünion of the churches. Basil answered that there was no division between the Greeks and Latins, since they held the same faith and offered the same sacrifice. "As for the causes of scandal, weak in themselves, that have separated us from each other," he added, "your Holiness can cause them to cease, by your own extended authority and the help of the Emperor of the West."[82]
^  f:  This probably meant that Amalric repeated Baldwin's assurances regarding the status of Antioch as an imperial fief.[40]
^  g:  According to Michael Angold, after the controversy of 1166 Manuel took his responsibilities very seriously, and tightened his grip over the church. 1166 was also the year in which Manuel first referred in his legislation to his role as the disciplinarian of the church (epistemonarkhes).[83]

Encomium: A Tribute to Led Zeppelin is a tribute album by various artists dedicated to Led Zeppelin, released by Atlantic Records on March 14, 1995. ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Patriarch of Antioch is the traditional title carried by the Bishop of Antioch. ... Zachary Nugent Brooke (1883–1946) was a UK historian and author. ... Piers Paul Read (born March 7, 1941 in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, UK) is a novelist and non-fiction British writer and author. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...

Citations

  1. ^ a b P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 3
  2. ^ P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 3–4
  3. ^ a b c d e f A. Stone, Manuel I Comnenus
  4. ^ Gibbon-Womersley, The decline and fall of the Roman Empire, 72
  5. ^ Gibbon-Womersley, The decline and fall of the Roman Empire, 72
    * J.H. Norwich, A short history of Byzantium
    * A. Stone, Manuel I Comnenus
  6. ^ "Byzantium". Papyros-Larousse-Britannica. (2006). 
  7. ^ J. Cinnamus, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, 33–35
    * P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 40
  8. ^ A. Komnene, The Alexiad, 333
  9. ^ a b c P. Magdalino, The Byzantine Empire, 621
  10. ^ Letter by the Emperor Manuel I Komnenos, Vatican Secret Archives.
  11. ^ P.P. Read, The Templars, 238
  12. ^ a b c P.P. Read, The Templars, 239
  13. ^ William of Tyre, Historia, XVIII, 10
  14. ^ C. Hillenbrand, The Imprisonment of Raynald of Chatillon, 80
    * T.F. Madden, The New Concise History of the Crusades, 65
  15. ^ a b P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 67
  16. ^ B. Hamilton, William of Tyre and the Byzantine Empire, 226
    * William of Tyre, Historia, XVIII, 23
  17. ^ a b c Z.N. Brooke, A History of Europe, from 911 to 1198, 482
    * P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 67
    * J.H. Norwich, A short history of Byzantium
  18. ^ K. Paparrigopoulos, History of the Greek Nation, Db, 134
  19. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, 98
  20. ^ a b J. Duggan, The Pope and the Princes, 122
  21. ^ a b J.W. Birkenmeier, The Development of the Komnenian Army, 114
    * J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, 112
  22. ^ a b c A. A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, VII
  23. ^ William of Tyre, Historia, XVIII, 2
  24. ^ a b J. Cinnamus, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, 172
  25. ^ a b J.W. Birkenmeier, The Development of the Komnenian Army, 115
    * J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, 115
  26. ^ J.W. Birkenmeier, The Development of the Komnenian Army, 115–116
    * A.A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, VII
  27. ^ P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 61
  28. ^ Abbé Guettée, The Papacy, Chapter VII
    * J.W. Birkenmeier, The Development of the Komnenian Army, 114
  29. ^ J.W. Birkenmeier, The Development of the Komnenian Army, 116
  30. ^ P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 84
    * A.A. Vasiliev, History of the Byzantine Empire, VII
  31. ^ J. Cinnamus, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, 231
    * P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 84
  32. ^ P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 93
  33. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Decline and Fall, 131
  34. ^ Curta, Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, xxiii
  35. ^ a b J.W. Sedlar, East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 372
  36. ^ D. Obolensky, The Byzantine Commonwealth, 299-302.
  37. ^ M. Angold, The Byzantine Empire, 1025–1204, 177.
  38. ^ a b c P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 73
  39. ^ P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 73
    * J.G. Rowe, Alexander III and the Jerusalem Crusade, 117
  40. ^ a b c P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 74
  41. ^ I. Heath, Byzantine Armies: AD 1118-1461, 17
  42. ^ William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea
  43. ^ R. Rogers, Latin Siege Warfare in the Twelfth Century, 84–86
  44. ^ William of Tyre, Historia, XX 15–17
  45. ^ T.F. Madden, The New Concise History of the Crusades, 68
  46. ^ T.F. Madden, The New Concise History of the Crusades, 68–69
  47. ^ P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 75
    * H.E. Mayer, The Latin East, 657
  48. ^ I. Health, Byzantine Armies, 4
  49. ^ K. Paparrigopoulos, History of the Greek Nation, Db, 140
  50. ^ a b c J.W. Birkenmeier, The Development of the Komnenian Army, 128
  51. ^ J. Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades (Crusader Worlds), 31
  52. ^ a b J. Brandbury, Medieval Warfare, 176
  53. ^ a b c D. MacGillivray Nicol, Byzantium and Venice, 102
  54. ^ P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 98
  55. ^ J.W. Birkenmeier, The Development of the Komnenian Army, 128
    * K. Paparrigopoulos, History of the Greek Nation, Db, 141
  56. ^ J.W. Birkenmeier, The Development of the Komnenian Army, 196
  57. ^ a b J.H. Kurtz, History of the Christian Church to the Restoration, 265–266
  58. ^ P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 217
  59. ^ a b G.L. Hanson, Manuel I Komnenos and the "God of Muhammad", 55
  60. ^ Gibbon-Womersley, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 73
    * K. Paparrigopoulos, History of the Greek Nation, Db, 121
  61. ^ Garland-Stone, Bertha-Irene of Sulzbach, first wife of Manuel I Comnenus
  62. ^ K. Varzos, Genealogy of the Komnenian Dynasty, 155
  63. ^ Každan-Epstein, Change in Byzantine Culture, 102
  64. ^ C.M. Brand, The Turkish Element in Byzantium, 1–25
    * P. Magdalino,
    The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 98
  65. ^ K. Varzos, Genealogy of the Komnenian Dynasty, 157a
  66. ^ a b Gibbon-Womersley, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 74
  67. ^ M. Batusis, The Late Byzantine Army, 5–6
  68. ^ K. Paparrigopoulos, History of the Greek Nation, Db, 134
  69. ^ N. Choniates, O City of Byzantium, Annals of Niketas Choniates, 96–97
    * P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 173
  70. ^ a b P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 174
  71. ^ a b M. Angold, The Byzantine Empire, 1025–1204
  72. ^ G.W. Day, Manuel and the Genoese, 289–290
  73. ^ P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 143–144
  74. ^ J. Harris, Byzantium and the Crusades
    * P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 3
  75. ^ G.W. Day, Manuel and the Genoese, 289–290
    * P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 3
  76. ^ Robert of Clari, "Account of the Fourth Crusade", 18
  77. ^ B. Zeitler, Cross-cultural interpretations
  78. ^ J.W. Sedlar, East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 372–373
  79. ^ a b c P. Magdalino, The Medieval Empire, 194
  80. ^ Jeffreys-Jeffreys, The "Wild Beast from the West", 102
    * P. Magdalino, The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 49
  81. ^ Z.N. Brooke, A History of Europe, from 911 to 1198, 482
  82. ^ Abbé Guettée, The Papacy, Chapter VII
  83. ^ M. Angold, Church and Society under the Komneni, 99

Carole Hillenbrand is professor of Islamic History at the University of Edinburgh. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Vasiliev (Russian: Александр Александрович Васильев) (1867-1953) was considered the foremost authority on Byzantine history and culture in the mid-20th century. ...

References

Primary sources

  • Choniates, Nicetas, O City of Byzantium, Annals of Niketas Choniates. Trans. Harry J. Magoulias. Wayne State University Press, 1984.
  • Cinammus, John, Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, trans. Charles M. Brand. Columbia University Press, 1976.
  • Komnene, Anna (1969). "XLVIII-The First Crusade", The Alexiad translated by Edgar Robert Ashton Sewter. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044215-4. 
  • Robert of Clari (c. 1208). Account of the Fourth Crusade.
  • William of Tyre, Historia Rerum In Partibus Transmarinis Gestarum (A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea), translated by E. A. Babock and A. C. Krey (Columbia University Press, 1943). See the original text in the Latin library.

Nicetas Choniates, sometimes called Acominatus, was an historian like his brother Michael whom he accompanied from their birthplace Chonae to Constantinople. ... John Cinnamus (12th century) was a Byzantine historian. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Robert de Clari was one of the few documented witnesses to the Shroud of Turin before 1358. ... William of Tyre (c. ...

Secondary sources

  • Abbé Guettée (1866). "Chapter VII", The Papacy: Its Historic Origin and Primitive Relations with the Eastern Churches. 
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  • Angold, Michael (1997). The Byzantine Empire, 1025–1204. Longman. ISBN 0-582-29468-1. 
  • Birkenmeier, John W. (2002). "The Campaigns of Manuel I Komnenos", The Development of the Komnenian Army: 1081–1180. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9-004-11710-5. 
  • Bradbury, Jim (2006). "Military events", The Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare. Read Country Books. ISBN 1-846-64983-8. 
  • Brand, Charles M. (1989). "The Turkish Element in Byzantium, Eleventh-Twelfth Centuries". Dumbarton Oaks Papers 43: 1–2. 
  • Brooke, Zachary Nugent (2004). "East and West:1155–1198", A History of Europe, from 911 to 1198. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-22126-9. 
  • (Greek) "Byzantium". Papyros-Larousse-Britannica (Volume XIII). (2006). ISBN 9-608-32284-7. 
  • Curta, Florin (2006). "Chronology", Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81539-8. 
  • Day, Gerald. W. (June 1977). "Manuel and the Genoese: A Reappraisal of Byzantine Commercial Policy in the Late Twelfth Century". The Journal of Economic History 37 (2): 289–301. 
  • Duggan, Anne J. (2003). "The Pope and the Princes", Adrian IV, the English Pope, 1154–1159: Studies and Texts edited by Brenda Bolton and Anne J. Duggan. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. ISBN 0-754-60708-9. 
  • Garland Lynda, Stone Andrew. Bertha-Irene of Sulzbach, first wife of Manuel I Comnenus. Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  • Gibbon Edward, Womersley David (1994). "XLVIII-The Decline and Fall", The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Volume III). Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-140-43395-3. 
  • Hamilton, Bernard (2003). "William of Tyre and the Byzantine Empire", Porphyrogenita: : Essays on the History and Literature of Byzantium and the Latin East in Honor of Julian Chrysostomides edited by Charalambos Dendrinos, Jonathan Harris, Eirene Harvalia-Crook and Judith Herrin. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. ISBN 0-754-636968. 
  • Hanson, Graig L. (2003). "Manuel I Komnenos and the "God of Muhammad": A Study in Byzantine Ecclesiastical Politics", Medieval Christian Perceptions of Islam: A Book of Essays edited by John Tolan. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92892-3. 
  • Harris, Jonathan (2003). Byzantium and the Crusades. Hambledon and London. ISBN 1-85285-298-4. 
  • Heath, Ian (1995). Byzantine Armies 1118–1461 AD (Illustrated by Angus McBride). Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-855-32347-8. 
  • Hillenbrand, Carole (2003). "The Imprisonment of Raynald of Chatillon", Texts, Documents, and Artefacts: Islamic Studies in Honour of D.S. (Donald Sidney) Richards edited by Chase F. Robinson. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 9-004-10865-3. 
  • Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Jeffreys Michael (2001). "The "Wild Beast from the West": Immediate Literary Reactions in Byzantium to the Second Crusade", The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World edited by Angeliki E. Laiou and Roy Parviz Mottahedeh. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. ISBN 0-884-02277-3. 
  • Každan, Alexander P.; Epstein, Ann Wharton (1990). "Popular and Aristrocratic Popular Trends", Change in Byzantine Culture in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06962-5. 
  • Kurtz, Johann Heinrich (1860). "Dogmatic Controversies, 12th and 14th Centuries", History of the Christian Church to the Reformation. T. & T. Clark. 
  • Letter by the Emperor Manuel I Komnenos To Pope Eugene III on the Issue of the Crusades. Vatican Secret Archives. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  • Madden, Thomas F. (2005). "The Decline of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade", The New Concise History of the Crusades. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-742-53822-2. 
  • MacGillivray Nicol, Donald (1988). "The Parting of the Ways", Byzantium and Venice: A Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42894-7. 
  • Magdalino, Paul (2005). "The Byzantine Empire (1118–1204)", The New Cambridge Medieval History edited by Rosamond McKitterick, Timothy Reuter, Michael K. Jones, Christopher Allmand, David Abulafia, Jonathan Riley-Smith, Paul Fouracre, David Luscombe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41411-3. 
  • Magdalino, Paul (2002). "The Medieval Empire (780–1204)", The Oxford History of Byzantium By Cyril A. Mango. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-198-14098-3. 
  • Magdalino, Paul (2002). The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143–1180. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52653-1. 
  • Mayer, Hans, Eberhard (2005). "The Latin East, 1098–1205", The New Cambridge Medieval History edited by Rosamond McKitterick, Timothy Reuter, Michael K. Jones, Christopher Allmand, David Abulafia, Jonathan Riley-Smith, Paul Fouracre, David Luscombe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41411-3. 
  • Norwich, John Julius (1998). A Short History of Byzantium. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-025960-0. 
  • Norwich, John J. (1995). Byzantium: The Decline and Fall. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.. ISBN 0-679-41650-1. 
  • Obolensky, Dimitri (1971). The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe 500-1453. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 
  • (Greek) Paparrigopoulos, Constantine; Karolidis, Pavlos (1925). History of the Hellenic Nation (Volume Db). Athens: Eleftheroudakis.
  • Read, Piers Paul (2003—English edition 1999). The Templars (translated in Greek by G. Kousounelou). Enalios. ISBN 9-605-36143-4. 
  • Rogers, Randal (1997). "The Capture of the Palestinian Coast", Latin Siege Warfare in the Twelfth Century. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-198-20689-5. 
  • Sedlar, Jean W. (1994). "Foreign Affairs", East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295972904. 
  • Stone, Andrew. Manuel I Comnenus (A.D. 1143–1180). Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Retrieved on 2007-02-05.
  • (Greek) Varzos, K. (1984). The Genealogy of the Komnenian Dynasty. Center of Byzantine Researches. 
  • Vasiliev, Alexander Alexandrovich (1928–1935). "Byzantium and the Crusades", History of the Byzantine Empire. 
  • Zeitler, Barbara. Cross-cultural Interpretations of Imagery in the Middle Ages. Find Articles. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.

Jim Bradbury is a British historian specialising in the military history of the Middle Ages. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Vatican Secret Archives (Latin: Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum), is the central repository for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Constantine Paparregopoulus Constantine Paparrigopoulos (Κωνσταντίνος Παπαρρηγόπουλος) (1815-1891) is considered the founder of modern Greek historiography. ... Piers Paul Read (born March 7, 1941 in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, UK) is a novelist and non-fiction British writer and author. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Vasiliev (1867-1953) was considered the foremost authority on Byzantine history and culture in the mid-20th century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Haldon, John (2002). Byzantium - A History. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-2343-6. 
  • Lilie, Ralph-Johannes (1988). Byzantium and the Crusader States, 1096–1204. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-198-20407-8. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Manuel I Comnenus
  • Manuel coinage: [1]
Manuel I Komnenos
Komnenid dynasty
Born: 28 November 1118 Died: 24 September 1180
Regnal titles
Preceded by
John II Komnenos
Byzantine Emperor
1143–1180
Succeeded by
Alexios II Komnenos


  Results from FactBites:
 
Royalty.nu - Eastern Roman Empire - The Byzantine Empire - Emperors of Byzantium (2147 words)
Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus by John Cinnamus.
Account of the reigns of John II and Manuel I, written by a secretary of Manuel I. The Empire of Manuel I Komnenos, 1143-1180 by Paul Magdalino.
Manuel II Palaeologus (1391-1425): A Study in Late Byzantine Statesmanship by John W. Barker.
Roman Emperors DIR Mary of Antioch (6469 words)
The need for a male heir to the throne was of paramount importance and Manuel decided to use this as an opportunity to cement his alliance with the Frankish kingdom of Jerusalem and its dependent principalities.
Whereas the emperor Manuel I Comnenus' grandfather Alexius I and his father John II had attempted to solve the question of Latin Crusader Principalities in Syria and Palestine through absorption, whether by treaty or by conquest, Manuel's policy differed from theirs in his acceptance of the independence of the principalities as a fait accompli.
At Antioch, Choniates tells us, Manuel took part in a tournament with blunted lances, in which the men of Reynald of Chatillon, prince of Antioch, were outmatched and Manuel excelled himself by unhorsing two knights with one blow.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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