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Encyclopedia > Manuel Azaña
Manuel Azana

Dr. Manuel Azaña Diaz (Alcala de Henares (Madrid), Spain, January 10, 1880 - Montauban, France, November 3, 1940) was the second and last President of the Second Spanish Republic. He had previously served as Minister of War in the first government of the Second Spanish Republic (April-June 1931), and as Prime Minister between June 1931 and September 1933, prior to becoming President of the Republic (May 1936 - April 1939). File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Flag of the Second Spanish Republic The Second Spanish Republic (1931 – 1939) was the second period in Spanish history in which the election of both the positions of Head of State and Head of government were in the hands of the people. ... 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the directives of the President and... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Career

Born into a rich family, he was orphaned at a very young age. He studied in the Complutensian School, the Cisneros Institute and the Agustinos of El Escorial. He became a Lawyer by the University of Zaragoza in 1897, and a doctor by the Central University of Madrid in 1900. In 1909 he achieved a position at the Main Directorate of the Registries and the Profession of Notary. In 1911 he traveled to Paris. He became involved in politics and in 1914 he joined the Reformist Party led by Melquiades Alvarez. He collaborated on newspapers like El Imparcial and El Sol. He directed the magazines Pluma and España between 1920 and 1924, founding the former with his brother-in-law Cipriano Rivas Cherif. He was secretary of the Ateneo de Madrid (1913-1920) and becoming its president in 1930. He was a candidate for the province of Toledo in 1918 and 1923, but lost on both occasions. In 1926 he founded Acción Republicana with José Giral. The Complutense University of Madrid, in Spanish Universidad Complutense de Madrid, is an important Spanish university, located in Madrid. ... Francisco Jimenez de Cisneros (1436 - November 8, 1517) was a Spanish cardinal and statesman. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... A lawyer or attorney at law is a person licensed by the state to advise clients in legal matters and represent them in courts of law (and in other forms of dispute resolution). ... For alternative meanings, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... 1909 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Notary can refer to either of the following two professions: Notary public. ... A database query syntax error has occurred. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... José Giral Pereira, (Santiago de Cuba, 1879 - Mexico, 1962) was a Spanish politician during the Second Spanish Republic. ...


A strong critic of the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera, he published an energetic manifesto against the dictator and King Alfonso XIII in 1924. He later participated in the Pact of San Sebastián in 1930, which would form the nucleus of the future republican government that arose after favorable results to the republican candidacies in the municipal elections of April 12, 1931 and the subsequent abandonment of the country on the part of King Alfonso XIII. Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja (Jerez, January 8, 1870 - Paris, March 16, 1930) was a Spanish military official who ruled Spain as a dictator from 1923 to 1930, ending the turno system of alternating parties. ... Alfonso XIII of Spain (May 17, 1886 - February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... The Pact of San Sebastián was a meeting promoted by Niceto Alcalá Zamora and Miguel Maura, which took place in San Sebastián, Spain August 17, 1930. ... Alfonso XIII of Spain (May 17, 1886 - February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ...


He was named Minister of War in the provisional Government of the Second Republic on April 14, 1931. He replaced Don Niceto Alcalá-Zamora as provisional prime minister (in October of the same year), due to Alcalá-Zamora's resignation over the subject of the religious question. As prime minister of the Republican-Socialist coalition government, he carried out the main reforms anticipated in the republican program: The Reformation of the Army, to determine its proportions in agreement with the capacity of the country, the Agrarian Reformation, the Reformation of Education, suppressing religious activities and promoting public ones, etc. Niceto Alcala-Zamora Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres (July 6, 1877 – February 18, 1949), served as first president of the Second Spanish Republic from 1931 to 1936. ...


Those issues, along with the existing social agitation in a large extent of the country would carry him into conflict with various factions, especially with the Church and parts of the army, finally leading to the events of Casa Viejas, Castilblanco y Arnedo, which forced his resignation on September 8, 1933. The triumph of the coalition formed by Alejandro Lerroux's Partido Republicano Radical and the Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA) of José Maria Gil-Robles on November 19, 1933, caused him to temporarily withdraw from politics and return to literary activity. This political distance lasted only a short while, and in 1934 he founded the Republican Left party, the fruit of the fusion of Acción Republicana with the Party Radical-Socialist, led by Marcelino Domingo and the Organización Republicana Gallega Autónoma (ORGA) of Santiago Casares Quiroga. In 1934 serious revolutionary events took place in Asturias and Barcelona. Accused of helping instigate the events, he was jailed on board the destroyer Sanchez Barcáiztegui anchored in the port in Barcelona. He was later acquitted. Alejandro Lerroux García (La Rambla, Córdoba, 1864 - Madrid, 1949) was a Spanish politician who was the leader of the Spanish Radical Party during the Second Spanish Republic. ... The Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA) was a Spanish political party in the Second Spanish Republic. ... (for the Catholic politician in the Spanish Civil War, see José María Gil Robles y Quinoñes) José Maria Gil-Robles is a Spanish politician. ... Santiago Casares Quiroga (La Coruña, 1884 - París, 1950) was a Spanish politician who was Prime Minister of Spain from May 13 to July 19, 1936. ... Asturias - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Barcelona within Barcelonès Population (2003) 1,582,738 Area 1004 Km2 Population density (2001) 15,764/Km2 Barcelona is the capital of Catalonia, an autonomous region in northeastern Spain ( 41°23′ N 2°11′ E). ...


After his release in January 1935, he initiated a political campaign that gave rise to the creation of the Popular Front, a leftist coalition that won the elections of February 16, 1936. 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Frente Popular (Spanish Popular Front) was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that years election. ...


President

On May 10 of that year, he was elected President of the Republic after the removal of Alcalá-Zamora, a position that he occupied during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). His futile attempts to warn the different republican political forces about the dangers from its lack of unity left him isolated in the government. His memoirs would faithfully reflect conflicts with governing Republican leaders like Francisco Largo Caballero and Juan Negrín. With the fall of Barcelona on January 26 and Gerona on February 5, 1939 to Franco's Nationalist troops, he fled to France the same day as Gerona's fall, and later submitted his resignation as President of the Republic. He died in exile in Montauban, France on November 3, 1940, the Vichy French authorities refusing to allow his coffin to be covered with the Republican flag. History of Spain Series -Timeline -Roman Spain -Visigothic Spain -Moorish Spain -Age of Reconquest -Age of Expansion -Age of Enlightenment -Reaction and Revolution -First Spanish Republic -The Restoration -Second Spanish Republic -Spanish Civil War -The Dictatorship -Modern Spain Topics -Economic History -Military History -Social History The Spanish Civil War (July... Francisco Largo Caballero (October 15, 1869 -March 23, 1946) was a Spanish politician and trade unionist. ... Juan Negrín Lopez (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, February 3, 1887 _ Paris, November 12, 1956) was a Spanish republican political figure during the Spanish Civil War. ... Girona (Catalan: Girona, Spanish: Gerona, French: Gérone) is a city located in the northwest of Catalonia, Spain on the confluence of the rivers Ter and Onyar. ... See Exile (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Montauban (Montalban in Occitan) is a town and commune of southwestern France, préfecture (capital) of the Tarn-et-Garonne département, 31 miles north of Toulouse. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vichy France, or the Vichy regime (in French, now called: Régime de Vichy or Vichy; at the time, called itself: État Français, or French State) was the French government of 1940-1944. ...

Preceded by:
Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
Prime Minister of Spain
1931-1933
Succeeded by:
Alejandro Lerroux
Preceded by:
Manuel Portela Valladares
Prime Minister of Spain
1936
Succeeded by:
Augusto Barcía Trelles
Preceded by:
Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
President of Spain
1936-1939
Succeeded by:
Francisco Franco

 
 

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