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Encyclopedia > Manta Ray
Manta ray
Giant Pacific Manta. A large symbiotic remora is visible on the manta's ventral side
Giant Pacific Manta. A large symbiotic remora is visible on the manta's ventral side
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Order: Rajiformes
Family: Myliobatidae
Genus: Manta
Bancroft, 1829
Species: M. birostris
Binomial name
Manta birostris
Dondorff, 1798

The manta ray, or giant manta (Manta birostris), is the largest of the rays, with the largest known specimen having been nearly 7.6 meters (25 ft) across its pectoral fins (or "wings") and weighed in at 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). It ranges throughout the tropical seas of the world, typically around coral reefs. Mantas are most commonly black above and white below, but some are blue on their backs. A giant manta's eyes are located at the base of the cephalic lobes on each side of the head, and unlike other rays the mouth is found at the anterior edge of its head. To breathe, like other rays, the manta has five pairs of gills on the underside. Giant Pacific Manta Ray, , image created by David McMurdie, from a photo taken by David McMurdie, near San Bendicto Island, Mexico, Spring, 2003 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Genera Echeneis Phtheiricthys Remora Remorina See text for species. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Near Threatened (NT) is an conservation status assigned to species or lower taxa which may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses and Orders See text. ... Superorders Batoidea (rays and skates) Selachimorpha (sharks) Elasmobranchii is the subclass of cartilaginous fish that includes skates, rays (batoidea) and sharks (selachii). ... Families Anacanthobatidae Dasyatidae Gymnuridae Hexatrygonidae Myliobatidae Plesiobatidae Potamotrygonidae Rajidae Rhinobatidae Urolophidae Rajiformes is the order of true rays and skates, flat-bodied cartilaginous fishes related to sharks. ... Genera Myliobatis Rhinoptera Pteromylaeus Aetobatus Aetomylaeus Eagle rays (Myliobatidae) are a family of mostly large rays living in the open sea rather than at the bottom of the sea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Orders Rajiformes - common rays and skates Pristiformes - sawfishes Torpediniformes - electric rays See text for families. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ...


With distinctive "horns" (from which the common name 'devil ray' stems), on either side of its broad head, the manta is a prized sighting by divers. These unique structures are actually derived from the pectoral fins. During embryonic development, part of the pectoral fin breaks away and moves forward, surrounding the mouth. This gives the Manta Ray the distinction of being the only jawed vertebrate to have novel limbs (the so-called six-footed tortoise (Manouria emys) does not actually have six legs, only enlarged tuberculate scales on their thighs that look superficially like an extra pair of hind limbs). These flexible horns are used to direct plankton, small fish and water into the Manta's very broad and wide mouth. The manta can curl them up to reduce drag while swimming. Binomial name Manouria emys (Schlegel & Müller, 1844) Brown Tortoise (Manouria emys) is a species of tortoise found in India (Assam), Bangladesh, Myanmar (formerly Burma), Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo). ...

Manta Ray at Hin Daeng, Thailand.
Manta Ray at Hin Daeng, Thailand.

Manta Rays may have evolved from bottom feeding ancestors but have adapted to become filter feeders in the open ocean. This has allowed them to grow to a larger size than any other species of ray. Because of their pelagic lifestyle as plankton feeders, some of the ancestral characterstics have degenerated. For example, all that is left of their oral teeth is a small band of vestigial teeth on the lower jaw, almost hidden by the skin. Their dermal denticals are also greatly reduced in number and size, but are still present, and they have a much thicker body mucus coating than other rays. Their spiracles have become small and non-functional, as all water is taken in through their mouth instead. Image File history File linksMetadata Manta_birostris-Thailand. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Manta_birostris-Thailand. ...


To swim better through the ocean, they have a diamond shaped body plan, using their pectoral fins as graceful "wings".


Mantas are filter feeders: they feed on plankton, fish larvae and the like, passively filtered from the water passing through their gills as they swim. The small prey organisms are caught on flat horizontal plates of russet-coloured spongy tissue, that span the spaces between the manta's gill bars. Filter feeders (also known as suspension feeders) are animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized structure, such as the baleen of baleen whales. ... Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton are any drifting organism that inhabits the water column of oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. ...


Mantas frequent reef-side cleaning stations where small fish such as wrasses and angelfish swim inside the manta's gills and all over its skin to feed, in the process cleaning it of parasites and removing bits of dead skin. A cleaning station is a location where fish, and other marine life, congregate to be cleaned. ... Genera (60 genera) The wrasses are a family (family Labridae) of reef safe marine fish, many of which are brightly-colored and popular for aquaria. ... The name angelfish may refer to two unrelated types of fish: Freshwater angelfish, tropical cichlids of the genus Pterophyllum. ...


The predators of the Manta Ray include mainly large sharks, however in some circumstances killer whales have also been observed preying on them.


Taxonomically, the situation of the mantas is still under investigation. Three species have been identified: Manta birostris, Manta ehrenbergii, and Manta raya, but they are quite similar to each other, and the last two may just be isolated populations. The genus Manta is sometimes placed in its own family, Mobulidae, but this article follows FishBase, and places it in the family Myliobatidae, with the eagle rays and their relatives. FishBase is a comprehensive database of information about fish. ... Genera Myliobatis Rhinoptera Pteromylaeus Aetobatus Aetomylaeus Eagle rays (Myliobatidae) are a family of mostly large rays living in the open sea rather than at the bottom of the sea. ... Genera Myliobatis Rhinoptera Pteromylaeus Aetobatus Aetomylaeus Manta Mobula Eagle rays (the Myliobatidae family of fish) are a family of mostly large rays living in the open ocean rather than at the bottom of the sea. ...


Mantas have been given a variety of common names, including Atlantic manta, Pacific manta, devil ray, devilfish, and just manta. Some people just call all members of the family stingrays. Genera Dasyatis Himantura Pastinachus Pteroplatytrygon Taeniura Urogymnus See text for species. ...


Mantas are extremely curious around humans, and are fond of swimming with scuba divers. They have the biggest brains of any fish. [citation needed]

Manta Ray in the Maldives.
Manta Ray in the Maldives.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1400x899, 406 KB) Summary Attribution would be appreciated, but is not compulsory Richard Harvey 18:41, 6 August 2006 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1400x899, 406 KB) Summary Attribution would be appreciated, but is not compulsory Richard Harvey 18:41, 6 August 2006 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed...

References

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Manta Ray FAQ (2017 words)
Mantas are derived from stingrays, which are flattened bottom-dwellers that swim by undulating their expanded pectoral fins.
Mantas and mobulas (also known as "devil rays", of which there are 9 species) are similar in form, sharing paddle-shaped cephalic lobes and gracefully curved pectoral wings.
Mantas and mobulas are most readily distinguished by the position of the mouth: in Mantas, the mouth is terminal (located at the front of the head), while in mobulas the mouth is subterminal (located underneath the head, as in many sharks).
Manta ray - Manta birostris: More Information - ARKive (0 words)
Manta rays are generally solitary, although loose aggregations of individuals may occur where there are abundant food sources or during the breeding season.
Mantas are often host to remoras (Remorina spp.), which attach to the underside of the larger fish and consume particles of food that fall from the mouth (2).
Manta rays were traditionally harvested for their oil-rich livers and for their skins, which were used as an abrasive (3); these practices centred on eastern Australia and the Gulf of California (2).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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