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Encyclopedia > Mannerism
In Parmigianino's Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective.
In Parmigianino's Madonna with the Long Neck (1534-40), Mannerism makes itself known by elongated proportions, affected poses, and unclear perspective.

Mannerism is a period of European painting, sculpture, architecture and decorative arts lasting from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520 until the arrival of the Baroque around 1600. Stylistically, it identifies a variety of individual approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals associated with Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (486x800, 98 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (486x800, 98 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An art period is a phase in the development of the work of an artist, groups of artists or art movement. ... The Creation of Adam, Michelangelos fresco from the . ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... In art and painting, a style can refer to either the aesthetic values that are followed in the process of choosing what to paint (and how) or to the actual physical techniques that the artist uses in order to produce the painting. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...


The term is also applied to some Late Gothic painters working in northern Europe from about 1500 to 1530, especially the Antwerp Mannerists and some currents of seventeenth-century literature, especially poetry. Gothic art refers to the art of the Gothic cultural movement in northern Europe. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... Adoration of the Magi by Jan Gossaert Antwerp Mannerism is the name given to a largely anonymous class of painters from Antwerp in the beginning of the 16th century. ...

Contents

Nomenclature

The word derives from the maniera, or "style," which corresponds to an artist's characteristic "touch" or recognizable "manner". Artificiality, as opposed to Renaissance and Baroque naturalism, provides one of the common features of mannerist art. The lasting influence of the Italian Renaissance, as transformed by succeeding generations of artists, is another. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Naturalism may refer to: Naturalism (philosophy), any of several philosophical stances wherein all phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural, are either false, unknowable, or not inherently different from natural phenomena or hypotheses Methodological naturalism is the methodological assumption that that observable events in nature are explained only by natural...


As a stylistic label, "Mannerism" is not easily pigeonholed. It was first popularized by German art historians in the early twentieth-century to categorize the seemingly uncategorizable art of the Italian sixteenth century—art that was no longer perceived to exhibit the harmonious and rational approaches associated with the High Renaissance. This article is about the academic discipline of art history. ...


The term is applied differently to a variety of different artists and styles.


Anti-Classical

The early Mannerists—especially Jacopo da Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino in Florence, Raphael's student in Rome Giulio Romano and Parmigianino in Parma—are notable for elongated forms, exaggerated, out-of-balance poses, manipulated irrational space, and unnatural lighting. These artists matured under the influence of the High Renaissance, and their style has been characterized as a reaction or exaggerated extension of it. Therefore, this style is often identified as "anti-classical" mannerism.[1] Jacopo Carrucci (Pontormo, near Empoli, 1494 - 1557), usually known as Jacopo da Pontormo, or simply Pontormo, was a Florentine painter and portraitist, and one of the classic exemplars of the Mannerist style of the 16th century. ... Moses Defending the Daughters of Jethro by Rosso Fiorentino (c. ... Fire in the Borgo, Vatican fresco Giulio Romano (ca 1499? – November 1, 1546) was an Italian painter, architect, and decorator. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Late Mannerism: fountain by Giambologna's successor, Pietro Tacca, 1629 (Piazza Santissima Annunziata, Florence)
Late Mannerism: fountain by Giambologna's successor, Pietro Tacca, 1629 (Piazza Santissima Annunziata, Florence)

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fountain from Santissima Annunziata Square, outside view in Florence, Italy File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 548 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fountain from Santissima Annunziata Square, outside view in Florence, Italy File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that... Portrait of Giovanni Bologna by Hendrick Goltzius Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, also known as Giovanni Da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna (1529 - 1608) was a sculptor who best known for his marble statuary and works in bronze. ... Pietro Tacca (Carrara September 16, 1557 – Florence 1640) was a Florentine sculptor, the chief pupil and follower of Giambologna, whose atelier he joined in 1592. ...

Maniera

Subsequent mannerists stressed intellectual conceits and artistic ability, features that led early critics to accuse them of working in an unnatural and affected "manner" (maniera). These artists held their elder contemporary Michelangelo as their prime example. Giorgio Vasari, as artist and architect, exemplifies this strain of Mannerism lasting from about 1530 to 1580. Based largely at courts and in intellectual circles around Europe, it is often called the "stylish" style or the Maniera.[2] Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ...


Mannerisms

After 1580 in Italy, a new generation of artists including the Carracci, Caravaggio and Cigoli, reemphasized naturalism. Walter Friedlaender identified this period as "anti-mannerism", just as the early mannerists were "anti-classical" in their reaction to the High Renaissance.[3] Outside of Italy, however, mannerism continued into the seventeenth-century. Important centers include the court of Rudolf II in Prague, as well as Haarlem and Antwerp. There are several people with the name Carracci. ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... Lodovico Cigoli Lodovico Cardi called Cigoli (1559, Villa Castelvecchi di Cigoli - 1613, Rome)) is an Italian painter, architect and poet, born at Cigoli in Tuscany. ... Walter Ferdinand Friedlaender (March 10, 1873, Glogau - September 8, 1966, New York) was a German art historian. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolph IIs personal imperial crown, later crown of the Austrian Empire Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...


Mannerism as a stylistic category is less-frequently applied to English visual and decorative arts, where local categories such as "Elizabethan" and "Jacobean" are more common. Eighteenth-century Artisan Mannerism is one exception.[4] The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... The term Jacobean refers to a period in English history that coincides with the reign of James I (1603 – 1625). ...


Historically regarded, Mannerism is a useful designation for sixteenth-century art that emphasizes artificiality over naturalism, and reflects a growing self-consciousness of the artist.


History

The early Mannerists are usually set in stark contrast to High Renaissance conventions; the immediacy and balance achieved by Raphael's School of Athens, no longer seemed relevant or appropriate. Mannerism developed among the pupils of two masters of the classical approach, with Raphael's assistant Giulio Romano and among the students of Andrea del Sarto, whose studio produced the quintessentially Mannerist painters Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino. Michelangelo displayed tendencies towards Mannerism, notably in his vestibule to the Laurentian Library and the figures on his Medici tombs. This page is about the artist. ... Fire in the Borgo, Vatican fresco Giulio Romano (ca 1499? – November 1, 1546) was an Italian painter, architect, and decorator. ... A self portrait. ... Jacopo Carrucci (Pontormo, near Empoli, May 24, 1494 - January 2, 1557), usually known as Jacopo da Pontormo, or simply Pontormo, was a Florentine Mannerist painter and portraitist. ... Moses Defending the Daughters of Jethro by Rosso Fiorentino (c. ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... A floorplan with a modern vestibule shown in red. ... It has been suggested that Biblioteca Mediceo Lauenziana be merged into this article or section. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ...

Mannerism at the English court: Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, painted in 1546
Mannerism at the English court: Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, painted in 1546

Mannerist centers in Italy were Rome, Florence and Mantua. Venetian painting, in its separate "school," pursued a separate course, represented in the long career of Titian. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 578 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1142 × 1185 pixel, file size: 351 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 578 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1142 × 1185 pixel, file size: 351 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517 – January 19, 1547) was an English aristocrat, and one of the founders of English Renaissance poetry. ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ...


In the mid to late 1500s Mannerism flourished at European courts, where it appealed to knowledgeable audiences with its arcane iconographic programs and sense of an artistic "personality". It reflects a growing trend in which a noticeable purpose of art was to inspire awe and devotion, and to entertain and educate.

Giorgio Vasari, frontispiece to Lives of the Artists, 1568

Giorgio Vasaris Self Portrait The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Giorgio Vasaris Self Portrait The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ...

Giorgio Vasari

Giorgio Vasari's opinions about the "art" of creating art come through in his praise of fellow artists in the great book that lay behind this frontispiece: he believed that excellence in painting demanded refinement, richness of invention (invenzione), expressed through virtuoso technique (maniera), and wit and study that appeared in the finished work, all criteria that emphasized the artist's intellect and the patron's sensibility. The artist was now no longer just a craftsman member of a local Guild of St Luke. Now he took his place at court with scholars, poets, and humanists, in a climate that fostered an appreciation for elegance and complexity. The coat-of-arms of Vasari's Medici patrons appear at the top of his portrait, quite as if they were the artist's own. Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... For the board game, see Medici (board game). ...


The framing of the engraved frontispiece to Mannerist artist Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists (illustration, left) would be called "Jacobean" in an English-speaking context. In it, Michelangelo's Medici tombs inspire the anti-architectural "architectural" features at the top, the papery pierced frame, the satyr nudes at the base. In the vignette of Florence at the base, papery or vellum-like material is cut and stretched and scrolled into a cartouche (cartoccia). The design is self-conscious, overcharged with rich, artificially "natural" detail in physically improbable juxtapositions of jarring scale changes, overwhelming as a mere frame: Mannerist. Giorgio Vasaris selfportrait Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Giorgio Vasari Giorgio Vasari (Arezzo, Tuscany July 3, 1511 - Florence, June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, mainly known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. ... Giorgio Vasari ... The term Jacobean refers to a period in English history that coincides with the reign of James I (1603 – 1625). ... For other uses, see Cartouche (disambiguation). ...


Gian Paolo Lomazzo

Another literary source from the period is Gian Paolo Lomazzo, who produced two works—one practical and one metaphysical—that helped define the Mannerist artist's self-conscious relation to his art. His Trattato dell'arte della pittura, scoltura et architettura (Milan, 1584) is in part a guide to contemporary concepts of decorum, which the Renaissance inherited in part from Antiquity but Mannerism elaborated upon. Lomazzo's systematic codification of esthetics, which typifies the more formalized and academic approaches typical of the later 16th century, controlled a consonance between the functions of interiors and the kinds of painted and sculpted decors that would be suitable. Iconography, often convoluted and abstruse, is a more prominent element in the Mannerist styles. His less practical and more metaphysical Idea del tempio della pittura ("The ideal temple of painting", Milan, 1590) offers a description along the lines of the "four temperaments" theory of the human nature and personality, containing the explanations of the role of individuality in judgment and artistic invention. Self-portrait, ca. ... Etiquette is the code that governs the expectations of social behavior, the conventional norm. ...


Some mannerist examples

Mannerist portraits by Bronzino are distinguished by chilly elegance, perfunctory realism, and meticulous attention to detail.
Mannerist portraits by Bronzino are distinguished by chilly elegance, perfunctory realism, and meticulous attention to detail.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2536 × 3415 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mannerism Bronzino 1500... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 445 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2536 × 3415 pixel, file size: 633 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mannerism Bronzino 1500... Andrea Doria as Neptune Agnolo di Cosimo ( 1503, Firenze – 1572, Firenze) (also known as Agnolo Bronzino and Agnolo Tori). ...

Jacopo da Pontormo

Jacopo da Pontormo's Joseph in Egypt stood in what would have been considered contradicting colors and disunified time and space in the Renaissance. Neither the clothing, nor the buildings— not even the colors— accurately represented the Bible story of Joseph. It was wrong, but it stood out as an accurate representation of society's feelings. Jacopo Carrucci (Pontormo, near Empoli, May 24, 1494 - January 2, 1557), usually known as Jacopo da Pontormo, or simply Pontormo, was a Florentine Mannerist painter and portraitist. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Joseph, in the Hebrew Bible appears in the Book of Genesis. ...


Rosso Fiorentino

Rosso Fiorentino, who had been a fellow-pupil of Pontormo in the studio of Andrea del Sarto, brought Florentine mannerism to Fontainebleau in 1530, where he became one of the founders of the French 16th century Mannerism called the "School of Fontainebleau". Moses Defending the Daughters of Jethro by Rosso Fiorentino (c. ... A self portrait. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Fontainebleau Canton Fontainebleau (chief town) Intercommunality Communauté de communes de Fontainebleau-Avon Mayor Frédéric Valletoux (2005-2008) Statistics Altitude 42–150 (avg. ... June 25 - Augsburg confession presented to Charles V of Holy Roman Empire. ... The Ecole de Fontainebleau refers to two periods of artistic production in France during the late Renaissance centered around the royal Château of Fontainebleau. ...


School of Fontainebleau

The examples of a rich and hectic decorative style at Fontainebleau transferred the Italian style, through the medium of engravings, to Antwerp and thence throughout Northern Europe, from London to Poland, and brought Mannerist design into luxury goods like silver and carved furniture. A sense of tense controlled emotion expressed in elaborate symbolism and allegory, and elongated proportions of female beauty are characteristics of his style. Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...


Angelo Bronzino

Alessandro Allori, Susanna and the elders
Alessandro Allori, Susanna and the elders

Agnolo Bronzino's somewhat icy portraits (illustrated, to the left) put an uncommunicative abyss between sitter and viewer, concentrating on rendering of the precise pattern and sheen of rich textiles. Download high resolution version (683x1180, 118 KB)Alessandro Allori, Florentine,(1535 - 1607) Susanna and the Elders Musée Magnin, Lyon Source:http://gallery. ... Download high resolution version (683x1180, 118 KB)Alessandro Allori, Florentine,(1535 - 1607) Susanna and the Elders Musée Magnin, Lyon Source:http://gallery. ... Andrea Doria as Neptune Agnolo di Cosimo ( 1503, Firenze – 1572, Firenze) (also known as Agnolo Bronzino and Agnolo Tori). ...


Alessandro Allori

Alessandro Allori's (1535 - 1607) Susanna and the Elders (illustrated, right) uses artificial, waxy eroticism and consciously brilliant still life detail, in a crowded contorted composition.


Jacopo Tintoretto

Jacopo Tintoretto's Last Supper (left) epitomizes Mannerism by taking Jesus and the table out of the middle of the room. Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Tintoretto, Last Supper
Tintoretto, Last Supper

He showed all that was happening. In sickly, disorienting colors he painted a scene of confusion that somehow separated the angels from the real world. He had removed the world from God's reach. Image File history File links Tintosoup. ... Image File history File links Tintosoup. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...

El Greco

Baptism, by El Greco
Baptism, by El Greco
Town Hall of Zamość by Bernardo Morando
Town Hall of Zamość by Bernardo Morando

El Greco attempted to express the religious tension with exaggerated Mannerism. This exaggeration would serve to cross over the Mannerist line and be applied to Classicism. After the realistic depiction of the human form and the mastery of perspective achieved in high Renaissance Classicism, some artists started to deliberately distort proportions in disjointed, irrational space for emotional and artistic effect. There are aspects of Mannerism in El Greco (illustration, right), such as the jarring "acid" color sense, elongated and tortured anatomy, irrational perspective and light of his crowded composition, and obscure and troubling iconography. El Greco, “Baptism of Christ”, painted 1608-1614. ... El Greco, “Baptism of Christ”, painted 1608-1614. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1638 × 1229 pixel, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 799 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1638 × 1229 pixel, file size: 308 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lublin Powiat City County Gmina Zamość Estabilished 1580 City Rights 1580 Government  - Mayor Marcin Zamoyski Area  - Town 30. ... Polish-Italian renaissance architect, who built the town of Zamosc for Jan Zamojski. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ...


Benvenuto Cellini

Benvenuto Cellini created a salt cellar of gold and ebony in 1540 featuring Poseidon and Amphitrite (earth and water) in elongated form and uncomfortable positions. It is considered a masterpiece of Mannerist sculpture. Gold Salt cellar by Cellini. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ...


Mannerist architecture

The porphyry portal of the "church house" at Colditz Castle, Saxony, designed by Andreas Walther II (1584), is a clear example of the exuberance of "Antwerp Mannerism".
The porphyry portal of the "church house" at Colditz Castle, Saxony, designed by Andreas Walther II (1584), is a clear example of the exuberance of "Antwerp Mannerism".

An example of mannerist architecture is the Villa Farnese at Caprarola in the rugged country side outside of Rome. The proliferation of engravers during the 16th century spread Mannerist styles more quickly than any previous styles. A center of Mannerist design was Antwerp during its 16th century boom. Through Antwerp, Renaissance and Mannerist styles were widely introduced in England, Germany, and northern and eastern Europe in general. Dense with ornament of "Roman" detailing, the display doorway at Colditz Castle (illustration, left) exemplifies this northern style, characteristically applied as an isolated "set piece" against unpretentious vernacular walling. Download high resolution version (1984x1488, 643 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1984x1488, 643 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Colditz Castle in April 1945. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... The famous Scala Regia in the Villa Farnese. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ...


Mannerism in literature and music

Main article: Metaphysical poets
Main article: Ars subtilior

In English literature, Mannerism is commonly identified with the qualities of the "Metaphysical" poets of whom the most famous is John Donne. The witty sally of a Baroque writer, John Dryden, against the verse of Donne in the previous generation, affords a concise contrast between Baroque and Mannerist aims in the arts: The metaphysical poets were a loose group of British lyric poets of the 17th century, who shared an interest in metaphysical concerns and a common way of investigating them. ... Ars subtilior (more subtle art) is a musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity, centered around Avignon in southern France, at the end of the fourteenth century (Hoppin 1978, p. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles...

"He affects the metaphysics, not only in his satires, but in his amorous verses, where nature only should reign; and perplexes the minds of the fair sex with nice[5] speculations of philosophy when he should engage their hearts and entertain them with the softnesses of love" (italics added).

The word Mannerism has also been used to describe the style of highly florid and contrapuntally complex polyphonic music made in France in the late 14th century. This period is now usually referred to as the ars subtilior. For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... In music, the word texture is often used in a rather vague way in reference to the overall sound of a piece of music. ... Ars subtilior (more subtle art) is a musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity, centered around Avignon in southern France, at the end of the fourteenth century (Hoppin 1978, p. ...


Notes

  1. ^ W. Friedlaender, Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism in Italian Painting, New York, 1957.
  2. ^ John Shearman, Mannerism, Harmondsworth, 1967
  3. ^ W. Friedlaender, Mannerism and Anti-Mannerism in Italian Painting, New York, 1957.
  4. ^ John Summerson, Architecture in Britain, New York, 1983, pp. 157-72.
  5. ^ 'Nice' in the sense of 'finely reasoned.'

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Manneristic paintings
  • John Shearman, 1967. Mannerism A classic summation.
  • Franzsepp Würtenberger, 1963. Mannerism: The European Style of the Sixteenth Century (Originally published in German, 1962).
  • Giuliano Briganti, 1962. Italian Mannerism (Originally published in Italian, 1961).
  • Wylie Sypher, Four Stages of Renaissance Style: Transformations in Art and Literature, 1400-1700, 1955. A classic analysis of Renaissance, Mannerism, Baroque, and Late Baroque.
  • Helen Gardner, Metaphysical Poets, Selected and Edited. Introduction.
  • Essays on High Renaissance art and Mannerism by John Haber
El Greco
General: The Artist | Chronology | Technique and style | Posthumous fame | Cretan School | Spanish Renaissance | Mannerism

Paintings: List of notable works | The Dormition of the Virgin | The Disrobing of Christ (El Espolio) | The Burial of the Count of Orgaz | View of Toledo | Opening of the Fifth Seal | The Adoration of the Shepherds
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (950x1164, 213 KB) El Greco - The Burial of the Count of Orgaz (1586-88, Oil on canvas, 480 x 360 cm) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... El Greco was a prominent painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Portrait of An Old Man (so called self-portrait of El Greco, circa 1595-1600, oil on canvas, 52. ... The term Cretan School describes an important school of icon painting, also known as Post-Byzantine art, which flourished while Crete was under Venetian rule during the late Middle Ages, reaching its climax after the Fall of Constantinople, becoming the central force in Greek painting during the fifteenth, sixteenth and... The Spanish Renaissance was a movement in Spain, originating from the Italian Renaissance in Italy, that spread during the 15th and 16th centuries. ... El Greco was a Cretan-born painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... The Dormition of the Virgin by El Greco was probably created near the end of the artists Cretan period (before 1567). ... The Disrobing of Christ (or El Espolio), a painting begun in the summer of 1577 and completed in the spring of 1579 for the High Altar of the sacristy of the Cathedral of Toledo, where it still hangs, is one of El Grecos most renowned works. ... The Burial of the Count of Orgaz is widely considered to be El Grecos best-known work. ... View of Toledo, sometimes called Toledo in a Storm, is one of the two surviving landscapes painted by El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos). ... The Opening of the Fifth Seal (or The Fifth Seal of the Apocalypse or The Vision of Saint John) was painted in the last years of El Grecos life for a side-altar of the church of Saint John the Baptist outside the walls of Toledo. ... The Adoration of the Shepherds was painted during the last year of El Grecos life. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
MANNERISM, (501 words)
Mannerist painting is characterized by the use of attenuated figures in exaggerated postures (plastically rendered, nevertheless); the unrealistic treatment of space, often for melodramatic effect; and often a seemingly arbitrary choice of thin, unharmonious, often acid colors.
Mannerism, unlike most other art styles, was not so much a rebellion against older styles as a deliberate cultivation, almost to excess, of a previous maniera (Ital., “style”), the way the human figure was treated in the work of the late Italian Renaissance masters Raphael and Michelangelo.
Mannerism as a separate style is first definable after about 1520 in Rome, in the work of Raphael’s pupil Giulio Romano.
artnet.com Magazine Features - Mannerism Today (1025 words)
For his first show of 1999 he presented "Strange Beauty: A Century of Mannerism, 1520-1620." This selection of approximately 30 Old Master paintings and eight drawings is as exciting to the Madison Avenue crowd as it is to the art historian and the museum curator.
"Mannerism exploits the improbable, it has a linear elegance that brings it to the edge of distortion," Feigen said.
Mannerism began the journey into the world of the mind, of metaphor that eventually culminated in the Symbolism of the 19th century and the surrealism of the 20th."
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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