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Encyclopedia > Manned mission to Mars
Artist's conception of a human mission on the surface of Mars

A human mission to Mars (sometimes, "manned" mission to Mars) refers to humans going to the planet Mars, including orbiting Mars, landing on the surface, or walking on the surface. Image File history File links Acap. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...

Contents

Challenges

There are several key challenges that a human mission to Mars must overcome:

  1. physical effects of exposure to high-energy cosmic rays and other ionizing radiation[1]
  2. physical effects of a prolonged low-gravity environment
  3. psychological effects of isolation from Earth
  4. social effects of several humans living under crowded conditions for over one earth year
  5. inaccessibility of terrestrial medical facilities

Some of these issues were estimated statistically in the HUMEX study.[2] Ehlmann and others have reviewed political and economic concerns, as well as technological and biological feasibility aspects.[3] The Health threat from cosmic rays (termed Space radiation by NASA in this context) is the danger posed by cosmic rays generated by the Sun and other stars to astronauts on interplanetary missions. ...


While fuel for roundtrip travel could be a challenge, methane and oxygen can be produced utilizing Martian H2O (preferably as water ice instead of chemically bound water) and atmospheric CO2 with mature technology.[4]


Proposals

Over the last century, a number of mission concepts for such an expedition have been proposed. David Portree's history volume Humans to Mars: Fifty Years of Mission Planning, 1950 - 2000 discusses many of these.[5]


Wernher von Braun proposal (1947 through 1950s)

Wernher von Braun was the first person to make a detailed technical study of a Mars mission.[6][5] Details were published in his book Das Marsprojekt (1952); published in English as The Mars Project[7] (1962) and several subsequent works,[8], and featured in Collier's magazine in a series of articles beginning March 1952. A variant of the Von Braun mission concept was popularized in English by Willy Ley in the book The Conquest of Space (1949), featuring illustrations by Chesley Bonestell. Von Braun's Mars project envisioned nearly a thousand three-stage vehicles launching from Earth to ferry parts for the Mars mission to be constructed at a space station in Earth orbit [9][6]. The mission itself featured a fleet of ten spacecraft heading to Mars, each one carrrying 70 people, bringing three winged surface excursion ships that would land horizontally on the surface of Mars. (Winged landing was considered possible because at the time of his proposal, the Martian atmosphere was believed to be much more dense than was later found to be the case.) For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... Colliers Weekly was a United States magazine that was published between 1888 and 1957. ... Willy Ley (October 2, 1906 - June 24, 1969) was a science writer and space advocate who helped popularise rocketry and spaceflight in Germany and the United States in the early-mid twentieth century. ... Chesley Bonestell (1888-1986) was a painter, designer, and illustrator. ...


In the 1956 revised vision of the Mars Project plan, published in the book The Exploration of Mars by Wernher Von Braun and Willy Ley, the size of the mission was trimmed, requiring only 400 launches to put together two ships, still carrying a winged landing vehicles.[10] Later versions of the mission proposal, featured in the Disney "Man In Space" film series [11], showed nuclear powered ion propulsion vehicles for the interplanetary cruise. Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... An ion engine test An ion thruster is a type of spacecraft propulsion that uses beams of ions for propulsion. ...


U.S. proposals (1950s and 1960s)

Artist's depiction of Mars Excursion Module landed on Mars, from a 1963 NASA study

Eugene F. Lally of Caltech for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory designed manned Mars missions and presented them at American Rocket Society conventions as early as 1959. In another paper Lally proposed a simulated gravity concept that would protect the astronauts during the prolonged weightlessness of the flight to Mars. The paper titled "To Spin or Not to Spin" proposed separating two main segments of the spacecraft connected by cables and spun up to simulate gravity. In the center of rotation Lally placed an all-optical guidance module to provide real time onboard navigation to the astronauts, this paper was titled "Mosaic Guidance for Interplanetary Travel" 1961. California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... The American Rocket Society began life on April 4, 1930, under the name American Interplanetary Society. ...


In 1962, Aeronutronic Ford[12], General Dynamics and the Lockheed Missiles and Space Company made studies of Mars mission designs as part of NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center "Project EMPIRE".[6] These studies indicated that a Mars mission (possibly including a Venus fly-by) could be done with a launch of eight Saturn V boosters and assembly in low Earth orbit, or possibly with a single launch of a hypothetical "post Saturn" heavy-lift vehicle. Although the EMPIRE missions were only studies, and never proposed as funded projects, these were the first detailed analyses of what it would take to accomplish a human voyage to Mars using data from the actual NASA spaceflight, and laid much of the basis for future studies, including significant mission studies by TRW, North American, Philco, Lockheed, Douglas, and General Dynamics, along with several in-house NASA studies.[6]


Following the success of the Apollo Program, von Braun advocated a manned mission to Mars as a focus for NASAs manned space program.[13] Von Braun's proposal used Saturn V boosters to launch nuclear-powered (NERVA) upper stages that would power two six-crew spacecraft on a dual mission in the early 1980s. The proposal was considered by (then president) Richard Nixon but passed over in favor of the Space Shuttle. This article is about the series of human spaceflight missions. ... For the moon designated Saturn V, see Rhea. ... For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... Nixon redirects here. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ...


Soviet mission proposals (1956 through 1970)

The Martian Piloted Complex or "'MPK'" was the a proposal by Mikhail Tikhonravov of the Soviet Union for a manned Mars expedition, using the (then proposed) N-1 rocket, in studies from 1956 to 1962.

Artist's depiction of TMK-MAVR

Heavy Piloted Interplanetary Spacecraft (known by the Russian acronym TMK) was the designation of a Soviet Union space exploration proposal in the 1960s to send a manned flight to Mars and Venus (TMK-MAVR design) without landing. The TMK spacecraft was due to launched in 1971 and make a three-year long flight including a Mars fly-by at which time probes would have been dropped. The TMK project was planned as an answer from the Soviet Union to the United States manned moon landings. The project was never completed because the required N1 rocket never flew successfully. TMK was the designation of a Soviet Union space exploration project to send a manned flight to Mars (without landing). ... Two N1 Moon rockets appear on the pads at Baikonur Cosmodrome in early July 1969. ...


The Mars Expeditionary Complex, or "'MEK"' (1969) was another Soviet proposal for a Mars expedition that would take a crew from three to six to Mars and back with a total mission duration of 630 days.


Case for Mars (1981-1996)

Following the Viking missions to Mars, between 1981 and 1996 a series of conferences named The Case for Mars were held at the University of Colorado at Boulder. These conferences advocated human exploration of Mars, presented concepts and technologies, and held a series of workshops to develop a baseline concept for the mission. The baseline concept was notable in that it proposed use of In Situ Resource Utilization to manufacture rocket propellant for the return trip using the resources of Mars. The mission study was published in a series of proceedings volumes[14][15] published by the American Astronautical Society. Later conferences in the series presented a number of alternative concepts, including the "Mars Direct" concept of Robert Zubrin and David Baker; the "Footsteps to Mars" proposal of Geoffrey A. Landis[16], which proposed intermediate steps before the landing on Mars, including human missions to Phobos; and the "Great Exploration" proposal from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, among others. Viking mission profile. ... The University of Colorado at Boulder (CU-Boulder, UCB officially[3]; Colorado and CU colloquially) is the flagship university of the University of Colorado System in Boulder, Colorado. ... ISRU Reverse Water Gas Shift Testbed (NASA KSC). ... The American Astronautical Society logo Formed in 1954, the American Astronautical Society (AAS) is the premier independent scientific and technical group in the United States exclusively dedicated to the advancement of space science and exploration. ... Zubrin giving a talk in 2005. ... Geoffrey A. Landis emerged in the late 1980s as one of the foremost scientist-writers in the science fiction genre. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of...


NASA Space Exploration Initiative (1989)

In response to a presidential initiative, NASA made a study of a project for human lunar- and Mars exploration as a proposed follow-on to the International Space Station project. This resulted in a report, called the 90-day study[17], in which the agency proposed a long-term plan consisting of completing Space Station as "a critical next step in all our space endeavors," returning to the moon and establishing a permanent base, and then sending astronauts to Mars. This report was widely criticized as too elaborate and expensive, and all funding for human exploration beyond Earth orbit was canceled by Congress.[18] On July 20, 1989 President George H. W. Bush announced plans for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), calling for construction of the Space Station Freedom, sending humans back to the Moon, and ultimately sending astronauts to Mars. ... ISS redirects here. ...


Mars Direct (early 1990s)

Main article: Mars Direct

Because of the distance between Mars and Earth, the Mars mission would be much more risky and more expensive than past manned flights to the Moon. Supplies and fuel would have to be prepared for a 2-3 year round trip and the spacecraft would have to be designed with at least partial shielding from intense solar radiation. A 1990 paper by Robert Zubrin and David A. Baker, then of Martin Marietta, proposed reducing the mission mass (and hence the cost) with a mission conceptual design using In Situ Resource Utilization to manufacture propellant from the Martian Atmosphere.[19][20] This proposal drew on a number of concepts developed by the former "Case for Mars" conference series. Over the next decade, this proposal was developed by Zubrin into a mission concept, Mars Direct, which he developed in a book, The Case for Mars (1996). The mission is advocated by the Mars Society as a practical and affordable plan for a manned Mars mission. Mars Direct is a proposal for a relatively low-cost manned mission to Mars with current rocket technology. ... Martin Marietta Corporation was founded in 1961 through the merger of The Martin Company and American-Marietta Corporation. ... Mars Direct is a proposal for a relatively low-cost manned mission to Mars with current rocket technology. ... The Case For Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must is a nonfiction science book by Robert Zubrin, first published in 1996. ... Mars Society logo. ...


NASA Design reference mission (late 1990s)

Main article: Design reference mission 3.0
Mars design reference mission 3.0

In the mid to late 1990s NASA developed several conceptual level human Mars exploration architectures. One of the most notable and often quoted was the NASA Design reference mission 3.0 (DRM 3.0). The study was performed by the NASA Mars Exploration Team at the NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in the 1990s. Personnel representing several NASA field centers formulated a “Reference Mission” addressing human exploration of Mars. The plan describes the first human missions to Mars with concept of operations and technologies to be used as a first cut at an architecture. The architecture for the Mars Reference Mission builds on previous work, principally on the work of the Synthesis Group (1991) and Zubrin’s (1991) concepts for the use of propellants derived from the Martian atmosphere. The primary purpose of the Reference Mission was to stimulate further thought and development of alternative approaches, which can improve effectiveness, reduce risks, and reduce cost. Improvements can be made at several levels; for example, in the architectural, mission, and system levels. Overview of the Reference Mission Version 3. ... Overview of the Reference Mission Version 3. ...


Vision for Space Exploration (2004)

United States President George W. Bush announced an initiative of manned space exploration on January 14, 2004, known as the Vision for Space Exploration. It includes developing preliminary plans for a lunar outpost by 2012[21] and establishing an outpost by 2020. Precursor missions that would help develop the needed technology during the 2010-2020 decade were tentatively outlined by Adringa and others.[22] On Sep 24 2007, Michael Griffin, the NASA administrator, hinted that NASA may be able to launch a human mission to Mars by 2037.[23] The needed funds are to be generated by diverting $11 billion[24] from space science missions to the vision for human exploration. Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2020 (MMXX) will be a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image from NASA site Two planned configurations for a return to the moon, heavy lift (left) and crew (right) The Vision for Space Exploration is the United States space policy announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush. ...


Aurora Program (early 2000s)

The European Space Agency has the long-term vision of sending a human mission to Mars by 2030, the Aurora Program. ESA redirects here. ... 2030 (MMXXX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Aurora Programme of the European Space Agency is an ambitious programme of manned and unmanned exploration of the Solar system, and particularly Mars. ...


Russian Mission Proposals (current)

A number of Mars mission concepts and proposals have been put forth by Russian scientists. Stated dates were for a launch sometime between 2016 and 2020. The Mars probe would carry a crew of four to five cosmonauts, who would spend close to two years in space.


Another proposal for a joint mission with ESA is based on two spacecraft being sent to Mars, one carrying a six-person crew and the other the expedition's supplies. The mission would take about 440 days to complete with three astronauts visiting the surface of the planet for a period of two months. The entire project would cost $20 billion dollars and Russia would contribute 30 per cent of these funds.[25]


A ground-based biomedical experiment called Mars-500 simulating manned flight to Mars is planned to start in 2007 in Russia. MARS-500, the ground-based experiment simulating manned flight to Mars, will start in the fourth quarter of 2007 at the Institute of Biomedical Problems [1] of the Russian Academy of Sciences. ...


Preparedness

A number of nations and organizations have long-term intentions to send humans to Mars. The state of their readiness is summarized below.

  • The United States has a number of missions currently exploring Mars, with a sample-return planned in the near future. The Orion spacecraft, currently under development by NASA, could ferry astronauts from the surface of Earth to join a Mars-bound expedition in Earth orbit and then back to Earth's surface once the expedition has returned from Mars.
  • The European Space Agency has sent robotic probes, and has long-term plans to send humans but has not yet built a human-capable launcher.
  • Russia (and previously the Soviet Union) has sent a large number of failed probes. It can send humans into Earth-Orbit and has extensive experience with long-term manned orbital space flight due to its space station programs. Russia does not have a launcher capable of sending humans to Mars, although the Kliper program was proposed as the Russian-European counterpart to the United States' Orion Spacecraft.
  • Japan's robotic missions to Mars have so far failed.
  • China plans its first robotic mission to Phobos in 2009 in cooperation with Russia. China was the third country after Russia and the USA to launch humans into Earth orbit.

Orion spacecraft in lunar orbit Orion spacecraft with docked LSAM lunar lander Orion spacecraft approaching the ISS Orion during a landing on Earth The Orion Spacecraft (formerly known as the Crew Exploration Vehicle or CEV) is a proposed series of American manned and unmanned spacecraft, intended to replace the Space... ESA redirects here. ... Russian media coverage of Kliper spacecraft - Russias Channel One TV network. ... Phobos (IPA: or [ˈfoʊ.bəs]) (systematic designation: ) is the larger and closer of Mars two moons (the other being Deimos). ...

Criticism

Some scientists have argued that attempting manned flight to Mars would actually be counterproductive for science. For example, in 2004 the Special committee on the funding of Astrophysics, a committee of the American Physical Society, stated that "shifting NASA priorities toward risky, expensive missions to the moon and Mars will mean neglecting the most promising space science efforts".[26] Moreover, given the rapidly advancing capabilities of robotic explorers, including the Mars Exploration Rovers' demonstrated ability to carry out continuous observations during multi-year sojourns on the hostile Martian surface, it is not obvious whether human explorers would actually return more science data for the dollar. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Artists Concept of Rover on Mars (credit: Maas Digital LLC) Marvin the Martian, Spirit rover Mission patch Duck Dodgers, Opportunity rover Mission patch NASAs Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission is an ongoing robotic mission of exploring Mars, that began in 2003 with the sending of two rovers â€” Spirit...


In the even longer term (centuries hence), some scientists believe Mars to be a good candidate for terraforming and human colonization, though other prominent skeptics dispute the practicality of both. Many scientists have argued that if life is found on Mars, all human activities on the planet should be carried out with the goal of preservation in mind. Others argue that the presence of life on Mars would imply that life is prevalent throughout the universe; decreasing the relative importance of Martian microbes. Artists conception of a terraformed Mars in three stages of development. ... Mars Mars is the focus of much speculation and serious study about possible human colonization. ...


See also

Computer-generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rovers which touched down on Mars in 2004. ... Mars Mars is the focus of much speculation and serious study about possible human colonization. ... MARS-500, the ground-based experiment simulating manned flight to Mars, will start in the fourth quarter of 2007 at the Institute of Biomedical Problems [1] of the Russian Academy of Sciences. ... Fictional representations of Mars have been popular for over a century. ... As part of the Apollo Applications Program, in 1967 NASA studied the possibility of carrying out a manned flyby of Venus using hardware derived from the Apollo program. ... Aurora australis observed by Discovery, May 1991. ... The Health threat from cosmic rays (termed Space radiation by NASA in this context) is the danger posed by cosmic rays generated by the Sun and other stars to astronauts on interplanetary missions. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ Saganti, P. B. et al. (2006) [1]
  2. ^ Horneck and Comet (2006), doi 10.1016/j.asr.2005.06.077
  3. ^ Ehlmann, B. L., et al. (2005), doi 10.1016/j.actaastro.2005.01.010
  4. ^ Rapp et al. (2005), http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AERO.2005.1559325 doi 10.1109/AERO.2005.1559325]
  5. ^ a b David S. F. Portree, Humans to Mars: Fifty Years of Mission Planning, 1950 - 2000, NASA Monographs in Aerospace History Series, Number 21, February 2001. Available as NASA SP-2001-4521.
  6. ^ a b c d Annie Platoff, Eyes on the Red Planet: Human Mars Mission Planning, 1952-1970, (1999); available as NASA/CR-2001-2089280 (July 2001)
  7. ^ Wernher von Braun, The Mars Project, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 1962
  8. ^ Wernher von Braun, “The Next 20 Years of Interplanetary Exploration,” Astronautics & Aeronautics, November 1965, pp 24-34.
  9. ^ M. Wade, Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1952, in Encyclopedia Astronautica
  10. ^ Von Braun Mars Expedition - 1956, in Encyclopedia Astronautica
  11. ^ "The Disney-Von Braun Collaboration and Its Influence on Space Exploration" by Mike Wright [2]
  12. ^ Franklin Dixon, “Summary Presentation: Study of a Manned Mars Excursion Module,” in Proceeding of the Symposium on Manned Planetary Missions: 1963/1964 Status, NASA TM X-53049 (1964).
  13. ^ Wernher von Braun, “Manned Mars Landing Presentation to the Space Task Group,” presentation materials, August 1969 (referenced by Portree, 2001 op cit.
  14. ^ Penelope J. Boston, ed., AAS Science and Technology Series Volume 57, Proceedings of The Case for Mars I, 1984 (second printing 1987), ISBN 0-87703-197-5
  15. ^ Christopher P. McKay, ed., AAS Science and Technology Series Volume 62, Proceedings of The Case for Mars II, 1985 (second printing 1988) 730p. Hard cover: ISBN 0-87703-219-1, Soft cover: ISBN 0-87703-220-3.
  16. ^ Geoffrey A. Landis, "Footsteps to Mars: an Incremental Approach to Mars Exploration," Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, Vol. 48, pp. 367-342 (1995); presented at Case for Mars V, Boulder CO, 26-29 May 1993; appears in From Imagination to Reality: Mars Exploration Studies, R. Zubrin, ed., AAS Science and Technology Series Volume 91 pp. 339-350 (1997). (text available as Footsteps to Mars pdf file
  17. ^ NASA, Report of the 90-day study on human exploration of the Moon and Mars, published 11/1989; abstract
  18. ^ Dwayne Day, "Aiming for Mars, grounded on Earth," The Space Review February 16, 2004 link
  19. ^ R. M. Zubrin, D. A. Baker and O. Gwynne, "Mars Direct: A Simple, Robust, and Cost Effective Architecture for the Space Exploration Initiative," paper AAS 90-168, in The Case for Mars IV: The International Exploration of Mars, Part I, MISSION STRATEGY & ARCHITECTURES, AAS Science and Technology Series Volume 89, Proceedings of The Case for Mars Conference, ed. Thomas R. Meyer, 1997 (ISBN 0-87703-418-4).
  20. ^ R. Zubrin and D. A. Baker, "Mars Direct: Humans to the Red Planet by 1999," 41st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation (1990)
  21. ^ NASA - Lunar Outpost Plans Taking Shape
  22. ^ Adringa, J. M. et al. (2005), doi 10.1109/AERO.2005.1559312
  23. ^ AFP: NASA aims to put man on Mars by 2037
  24. ^ President Bush Announces New Vision for Space Exploration Program
  25. ^ Russia proposes manned Mars mission by 2015 - 08 July 2002 - New Scientist
  26. ^ November 22, 2004 - NASA's Moon-Mars initiative jeopardizes important science opportunities, according to American Physical Society Report
  • a longer bibliography can be found in the bibliography of Portree's book, available in pdf format from NASA.
International Astronautical Federation (IAF) is based in Paris. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... The classical albedo features of Mars are those light and dark features which can be seen on the planet Mars through an Earth-based telescope. ... Solis Lacus (85° W, 26° S) is a dark feature on Mars. ... Mars, the fourth planet from the Sun, has a very different atmosphere from that of Earth. ... For a time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was believed that there were canals on Mars. ... The canals were named, by Schiaparelli and others, after real and legendary rivers of various places on Earth or the mythological underworld. ... An electron microscope reveals bacteria-like structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001 For other uses of Life on Mars, see Life on Mars (disambiguation). ... The North Polar Basin is a large basin in the northern region on Mars. ... This is a list of areas of chaos terrain officially named by the International Astronomical Union on the planet Mars. ... The Cydonia Region taken by the Viking 1 orbiter and released by NASA/JPL on July 25, 1976 (north is to the upper right). ... Viking mosaic of Planum Boreale and surrounds. ... Planum Australe, taken by Mars Global Surveyor. ... Mosaic of the Cerberus hemisphere of Mars Cerberus Hemisphere is a part of Mars geography and refers to the area approximately of Latitude: 20° South to 55° North and Longitude: 150° to 230°. Prominent features of the Cerberus Hemisphere include: Amazonis Planitia Cerberus Mangala Valles Utopia Planitia. ... Vastitas Borealis is the largest lowland region of Mars. ... Aram Chaos is the circular depression in the top left. ... Clouds hover over the volcano peaks of the Tharsis region in this color mosaic image. ... Ultimi Scopuli is a region near the south pole of Mars. ... Eridania Lake is a theorized ancient lake on Mars with a surface area of roughly 1. ... Olympia Undae is a large dune field on the planet Mars, located next to the north polar region of Planum Boreum and covering from 100°E to 240°E. In 2006 rich gypsum deposits were detected there by the Mars Express orbiter, suggesting that the region had been wet at... This is a list of all the named mountains on Mars. ... Olympus Mons 27km Ascraeus Mons 11km Pavonis Mons 7km Alba Patera 3km Categories: Lists of mountains by height | Mars ... Echus Montes is a large mountain on Mars at 6. ... Elysium Planitia is the second largest volcanic region on Mars, after Tharsis Montes. ... Alba Patera is a unique volcanic feature to the north of the Tharsis region of Mars, an enormous shield volcano roughly 1600 kilometers in diameter but only ~3 kilometers tall at its highest point. ... topography of Albor Tholus and its neighbourhood Albor Tholus is an extinct volcano in the Elysium Planitia area on Mars. ... Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech Arsia Mons is the southernmost of three volcanos (collectively known as Tharsis Montes) on the Tharsis bulge near the equator of the planet Mars. ... Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech Ascraeus Mons is the northernmost of three volcanos (collectively known as Tharsis Montes) on the Tharsis bulge near the equator of the planet Mars. ... Biblis Patera is an extinct Martian volcano located at 2. ... Elysium Mons is a volcano on Mars located in the Elysium Planitia, at 25°N, 213°W, in the Martian eastern hemisphere. ... Hecates Tholus is a Martian volcano, notable for results from the European Space Agencys Mars Express mission which indicate a major eruption took place 350 million years ago. ... This article is about the volcano on Mars and Solar Systems tallest mountain in Latin, For other uses, see Olympus (disambiguation). ... Pavonis Mons is the middle of three volcanos (collectively known as Tharsis Montes) on the Tharsis bulge near the equator of the planet Mars. ... Syrtis Major is a dark spot (an albedo feature) located in the boundary between the northern lowlands and southern highlands of Mars. ... Clouds hover over the volcano peaks of the Tharsis region in this color mosaic image. ... The three volcanoes that comprise Tharsis Montes: Arsia Mons is southernmost; Pavonis Mons is at center; Ascraeus Mons is at north. ... There are hundreds of thousands of craters on Mars, but only some of them have names. ... This is a list of named catenae on Mars. ... NASA image of Hellas Planitia Hellas Planitia, also known as the Hellas Impact Basin, is a roughly circular impact crater located in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mars. ... Argyre Planitia is a plain located in the Argyre impact basin in the southern highlands of Mars between -35 and -61 deg S and 27 and 62 deg W. The basin is approximately 1120 miles (1800 kilometers) wide, the second-largest impact basin on Mars after Hellas Planitia, and drops... Elevation map of Schiaparelli crater, as seen by Mars Global Surveyor. ... Gusev Crater is a meteor crater in Russia. ... Eberswalde crater, formerly known as Holden NE crater, is a partially buried impact crater in Margaritifer Terra, Mars. ... Eagle Crater is the small crater in which the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity found itself after landing on Mars in 2004. ... False colour view of a landslide in Zunil crater The geology of Mars, also known as areology (from Greek: Ἂρης, ArÄ“s, Ares; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), refers to the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, history and the processes that shape the planet Mars. ... Evidence for carbonates on Mars has remained elusive. ... Spheules still in their originating strata Martian spherules, also known as blueberries, are the abundant spherical hematite inclusions discovered by the Mars rover Opportunity at Meridiani Planum on the planet Mars. ... Martian spiders are geological formations thus far unique to the south polar region of Mars. ... Pits in south polar ice cap, taken in consecutive southern hemesphere summers, the first of which was in 1999, the second in 2001. ... Image File history File links Mars_Hubble. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The relative sizes of and distance between Mars, Phobos, and Deimos, to scale : Phobos (top) and Deimos (bottom). ... Phobos (IPA: or [ˈfoÊŠ.bÉ™s]) (systematic designation: ) is the larger and closer of Mars two moons (the other being Deimos). ... Deimos (IPA or ; Greek Δείμος: Dread), is the smaller and outermost of Mars’ two moons, named after Deimos from Greek Mythology. ... The discovery of the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos, occurred in 1877 when American astronomer Asaph Hall, Sr. ... This is a list of geological features on Phobos and Deimos, the moons of Mars. ... Stickney crater (at left), with radiating grooves Stickney at top in sunlight, imaged by Mars Global Surveyor Stickney crater is the largest crater on Phobos, which is a satellite of Mars. ... Phobos and Deimos, the two moons of Mars, are locations frequently mentioned in works of science fiction. ... A Martian meteorite is a meteorite, that has landed on Earth but is believed to have originated from Mars. ... Meteorite fragment ALH84001 ALH 84001 (Allan Hills 84001) is a meteorite found in Allan Hills, Antarctica in December 1984 by a team of US meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project. ... Thin section of Chassigny under cross-polarized light (JPL) Chassigny is a Mars meteorite that was seen to fall on October 3rd, 1815 at about 8:00 am in Chassigny, Haute-Marne, France[1][2]. Chassigny is the meteorite for which the Chassignites are named and gives rise to the... The Kaidun meteorite is a meteorite that fell on March 12, 1980 on a Soviet military base in Yemen. ... The Shergotty meteorite is the first example of the shergottite Mars meteorite family. ... The Nakhla meteorite, the first and eponymous example of a Nakhlite type meteorite of the SNC Group type of meteorites, fell to Earth on the 28th of June, 1911, at approximately 09:00 in the Nakhla region of Abu Hommos, Alexandria, Egypt. ... Computer-generated image of one of the two Mars Exploration Rovers which touched down on Mars in 2004. ... Mars Mars is the focus of much speculation and serious study about possible human colonization. ... Illustration of the Phobos spacecraft Image of Phobos taken by Phobos 2 spacecraft The Phobos program was an unmanned space mission consisting of two probes launched by the Soviet Union to study Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos. ... The following is a list of surface features of Mars seen by the Spirit rover: // Apollo 1 Hills Columbia Hills Grissom Hill Husband Hill McCool Hill Bonneville (crater) Gusev crater Thira (crater) Adirondack (Mars) Home Plate (Mars) Pot of Gold (Mars) Larrys Lookout Sleepy Hollow (Mars) List of surface... The following is a list of surface features of Mars seen by the Opportunity rover: // Argo (crater) Eagle (crater) Emma Dean (crater) Endurance (crater) Erebus (crater) Fram (crater) Victoria (crater) Vostok (crater) Bounce Rock El Capitan Heat Shield Rock Last Chance Cape Verde (Mars) Meridiani Planum Terra Meridiani List of... HiRISE The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera is a camera onboard the Mars Reconaissance Orbiter. ... A Mars landing is when a spacecraft lands on the surface of Mars. ... A Mars Rover is an unmanned land vehicle for exploration of the planet Mars. ... Artificial objects on Mars that are currently in use are the MER-A Spirit rover and the MER-B Opportunity rover. ... Artists conception of the process of terraforming Mars Since the origin of the idea of terraforming, or changing a planets environment to produce a world that is habitable by humans, one of the primary subjects of study for potential terraforming has been the planet Mars. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... 2003 Transit of Mercury The term transit or astronomical transit has two meanings in astronomy: A transit is the astronomical event that occurs when one celestial body appears to move across the face of another celestial body, as seen by an observer at some particular vantage point. ... Deimos transits the Sun, as seen by Mars Rover Opportunity on March 4, 2004 A transit of Deimos across the Sun as seen from Mars takes place when Deimos passes directly between the Sun and a point on the surface of Mars, obscuring a small part of the Suns... Phobos transits the Sun, as seen by Mars Rover Opportunity on March 10, 2004 A transit of Phobos across the Sun as seen from Mars takes place when Phobos passes directly between the Sun and a point on the surface of Mars, obscuring a large part of the Suns... Earth and Moon transiting the Sun in 2084, as seen from Mars Earth and Moon from Mars, as imaged by Mars Global Surveyor A transit of Earth across the Sun as seen from Mars takes place when the planet Earth passes directly between the Sun and Mars, obscuring a small... A transit of Mercury across the Sun as seen from Mars takes place when the planet Mercury passes directly between the Sun and Mars, obscuring a small part of the Suns disc for an observer on Mars. ... A transit of Venus across the Sun as seen from Mars takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and Mars, obscuring a small part of the Suns disc for an observer on Mars. ... A Mars-crosser asteroid is an asteroid whose orbit crosses that of Mars. ... This article presents information and images about viewing astronomical phenomena from the planet Mars. ... The Darian Calendar is a system of time-keeping designed to serve the needs of any possible future human settlers on the planet Mars. ... Various schemes have been used or proposed to keep track of time and date on the planet Mars independently of Earth time and calendars. ... The Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) is an international interdisciplinary field research project being carried out near the Haughton impact crater on Canadas northern Devon Island. ... This article is about hypothetical native inhabitants of the planet Mars. ... Mars Society logo. ... Mars flag While not official in any legal sense, the Mars tricolor has not only been approved by the Mars Society and The Planetary Society, it has also flown in space. ... Fictional representations of Mars have been popular for over a century. ...

 
 

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