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Encyclopedia > Manna

Manna (sometimes or archaically spelt mana), (Hebrew: מָ‏ן) is the name of a food which, according to the Bible, was eaten by the Israelites during their travels in the desert; until they reached Canaan, the Israelites are implied by some passages in the Bible to have eaten only manna during their desert sojourn,[1] despite the availability of milk and meat from the livestock with which they traveled, and the references to provisions of fine flour, oil, and meat, in later parts of the journey's narrative.[2] The manna is also briefly mentioned in the Qur'an, with the Sura of the Cow,[3] Sura of the Heights,[4] and Sura of the Flattening,[5] mentioning the divine supply of manna as one of the miracles with which the Israelites were favoured; these passages only describe manna as being good things which have been provided ... as sustenance.[6] Mannaz or Manwaz is the Proto-Germanic term for man, in the gender-neutral sense of person, human being. The word developed into Old English man, mann human being, person, (c. ... Look up mana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Look up Israelite in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... A glass of cows milk. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... SÅ«rata’l-Baqarah (Arabic: ‎ the Cow) is the second, and the longest, chapter of the Quran, with 286 verses. ... Surat al-Araf (Arabic: سورة الأعراف ) (The Heights)[1] is the 7th sura of the Quran, with 206 ayat. ... Sura Ta-Ha is the 20th sura of the Quran. ...

Contents

Biblical description

Hoarfrost on grass lawn.
Coriander Seeds close-up.

In the description in the Book of Exodus, manna is described as appearing each morning after the dew had gone,[7] while in the description in the Book of Numbers, manna arrived with the dew during the night;[8] the Book of Exodus adds that manna was comparable to hoarfrost in size,[9] and similarly had to be collected before it was melted by the heat of the sun.[10] According to the Biblical description, manna resembled coriander seed;[11][12] in the Book of Exodus, manna is described as being white in colour,[13] while the Book of Numbers describes it as being the same colour as bdellium.[14] According to the Book of Numbers, the Israelites ground it up and pounded it into cakes, which were then baked, resulting in something that tasted like olive oil;[15] the Book of Exodus states that it tasted like wafers that had been made with honey.[16] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 411 pixelsFull resolution (999 × 513 pixel, file size: 193 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 411 pixelsFull resolution (999 × 513 pixel, file size: 193 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1194 × 797 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1194 × 797 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Dew on a spider web Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Hoar frost refers to the ice crystals deposited on the ground or exposed objects that form when the air is saturated. ... Sol redirects here. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Bedellium (Hebrew bedolach) was probably an aromatic gum like balsam that was exuded from a tree, probably one of several species in the genus Commiphora. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ...


Textual scholars view the two descriptions of manna as deriving from different sources, with the description in the Book of Numbers being from the Jahwist text, and the description in the Book of Exodus being from the later Priestly Source.[17][18] The Babylonian Talmud, however, argues instead that the differences in description were due to the taste varying depending on who ate it, with it tasting like honey for small children, like bread for youths, and like oil for the elderly;[19] similarly classical rabbinical literature rectifies the question of whether manna came before or after dew, by arguing that the manna was sandwiched between two layers of dew, one layer of dew falling before the manna, and the other falling after it[20] The Jahwist, also referred to as the Jehovist, Yahwist, or simply as J, is one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Priestly Source (P) is the most recent of the four sources of the Torah postulated by the documentary hypothesis. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ...


Identifying manna

A tamarisk tree in the Levant desert.

Some scholars have proposed that manna is cognate with the Egyptian term mennu, meaning food.[21] At the turn of the 20th century, Arabs residing in the Sinai Peninsula were selling resin from the tamarisk tree as man es-simma, roughly meaning heavenly manna.[22] Tamarisk trees (particularly Tamarix Gallica) were once comparatively extensive throughout the southern parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and their resin is similar to wax, melts in the sun, is sweet and aromatic (like honey), and has a dirty-yellow colour, fitting somewhat with the biblical descriptions of manna;[23][24] however, this resin is mostly composed from sugar, so couldn't provide sufficient nutrition for a population to survive over large periods of time,[25] and it would be very difficult for it to have been compacted to become cakes.[26] Tamarix aphylla Photo by Forest & Kim Starr Photo # starr-030923-0205 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tamarix aphylla Photo by Forest & Kim Starr Photo # starr-030923-0205 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Tamarix africana Tamarix anglica Tamarix aphylla Tamarix canariensis Tamarix chinensis Tamarix dioica Tamarix gallica Tamarix hispida Tamarix indica Tamarix juniperina Tamarix parviflora Tamarix ramosissima Tamarix tetrandra The genus Tamarix, known as tamarisk or (US) saltcedar, comprises about 50-60 species of deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees growing... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ...

black ant with a clear bubble of honeydew produced by a green aphid.
Scale insects covered in waxy secretions.

In the Biblical account, the name manna is said to derive from the question man hu, seemingly meaning what is this;[27] but this is an Aramaic etymology not a Hebrew one.[28] Man here is most likely to be cognate with the Arabic term man, meaning plant lice, with man hu thus meaning this is plant lice;[29] the equation with plant lice fits with one of the two most widespread modern identifications of manna, namely that manna refers to the crystallised honeydew of certain scale insects.[30][31] In the environment of a desert, such honeydew rapidly dries due to evaporation of its water content, becoming a sticky solid, and later turning whitish, yellowish, or brownish;[32] honeydew of this form is considered a delicacy in the middle east, and is a good source of carbohydrate.[33] Image File history File linksMetadata Ant_Receives_Honeydew_from_Aphid. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ant_Receives_Honeydew_from_Aphid. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Families There are 10 families: Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 493 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (708 × 860 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Wax Scale on a Lemon Tree Branch File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 493 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (708 × 860 pixel, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Wax Scale on a Lemon Tree Branch File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Families There are 10 families: Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly, blackfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. ... Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky substance secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap. ... Families Aclerdidae Asterolecaniidae Beesoniidae Carayonemidae Cerococcidae Coccidae Conchaspididae Dactylopiidae Diaspididae Electrococcidae Eriococcidae Grimaldiellidae Halimococcidae Inkaidae Jersicoccidae Kermesidae Kerriidae Kukaspididae Labiococcidae Lecanodiaspididae Margarodidae Micrococcidae Ortheziidae Phenacoleachiidae Phoenicococcidae Pseudococcidae Putoidae Stictococcidae The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, notable for their habit of secreting a waxy covering that covers... “Vaporization” redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The other widespread identification is that manna is the thalli of certain Lichen (particularly Lecanora esculenta);[34][35] this food source is often used as a substitute for maize in the steppes of central asia.[36] This material is light, often drifting in the wind, and has a yellow outer coat with white inside, somewhat matching the biblical description of manna, although it does need additional drying, and is definitely not similar to honey in taste.[37] Thallus is an undifferentiated vegetative tissue (without specialization of function) of some non-mobile organisms, which were previously known as the thallophytes. ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... The Eurasian Steppe (sometimes referred to collectively as The Steppes or The Steppe) is the term often used to describe the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia stretching from the western borders of the steppes of Hungary to the eastern border of the steppes of Mongolia. ...

A collection of dried Liberty Cap mushrooms.

Attracting derision from scholars, a number of ethnomycologists such as R. Gordon Wasson, John Marco Allegro and Terence McKenna, have argued that a number of characteristics of manna are similar to that of magic mushrooms, namely that such mushrooms rot rapidly, and appear as pinpricks upon the ground like hoarfrost. This speculation is based on a comparison with the praise of Haoma in the Rigveda, and Mexican praise of teonanácatl.[38] In addition, omnivorous humans emerging from the jungle upon the savannah would have first encountered cattle and the psychedelic mushroom psilocybin which grows in cow-dung. Around this same period, humankind first developed the hallmarks of civilization: agriculture, religion, and writing. (Agriculture=foresight, acute perception of time. Religion=Divine encounters with higher beings from a spiritual dimension, wholly separate from the material dimension. Writing=Abstract thought.) What is more, the molecules of psychedelic mushrooms parallel the structure of neuro-transmitters. Finally, both the Egyptians and Hebrews developed the some of the earliest civilizations, alphabets, etc.[39][40] These theories are viewed by academics as viewpoints beyond the fringe. Similarly viewed by scholars as implausible is the hypothesis of Immanuel Velikovsky that manna consisted of hydrocarbon rain resulting from a close encounter between Venus and Earth; this claim has been debunked by Carl Sagan, Stephen Jay Gould, and others. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1206x966, 262 KB) de: Spitzkegeliger Kahlkopf pl: Łysiczka lancetowata - baj KoÅ„. kopirajt? olrajt! Originally uploaded to pl. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1206x966, 262 KB) de: Spitzkegeliger Kahlkopf pl: Łysiczka lancetowata - baj KoÅ„. kopirajt? olrajt! Originally uploaded to pl. ... Binomial name (Fr. ... Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi, most specifically psychoactive mushrooms such as Amanita muscaria and those containing psilocybin, and can be considered a branch of both mycology and anthropology. ... R. Gordon Wasson (September 22, 1898 – December 23, 1986) was an author, amateur researcher and banker. ... John Marco Allegro (17 February 1923 - 17 February 1988) was a controversial archaeologist and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar. ... For the Canadian writer, actor, producer & director, see Terence McKenna (film producer). ... Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... Haoma is the Avestan language name of a plant and its divinity, both of which play a role in Zoroastrian doctrine and in later Persian culture and mythology. ... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Psilocybe. ... Pseudohistory is a pejorative term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard historiographical conventions in a way which undermines their conclusions. ... Immanuel Velikovsky photographed by Fima Noveck, ca. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... This article is about precipitation. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ...


Other minority identifications of manna are that it was a kosher species of locust,[41] that it was the sap of certain succulent plants (such as those of the genus Alhagi, which have an appetite-suppressing effect[42]), or that it was the miraculous appearance of fully-formed wafers of shewbread. Some people also attribute it to the hemp seed The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... Desert locust Nymph of Locust Schistocera americana with distinct wing-rudiments Locust nymph from the Philippines Egyptian grasshopper Anacridium aegyptum Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague For other uses, see Locust (disambiguation). ... Succulent plants, such as this Aloe, store water in their fleshy leaves Succulent plants, also known as succulents or fat plants, are water-retaining plants adapted to xerophilic climatic or soil conditions. ... Species Alhagi is a genus of Old World plants in the family Fabaceae. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Showbread, shewbread, Schaubrot, lechem (hap)pānīm(לחם פנים) // Composition and Presentation Biblical Data: Twelve cakes, with two-tenths of an ephah in each, and baked of fine flour, which were ranged in two rows (or piles) on the pure table that stood before Yhwh and remained exposed to view for... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ...


Origin

The origin of Manna isn't really mentioned in the bible, but the various naturalistic identifications of manna have clear origins in nature. However, in the Mishnah manna is treated as a supernatural substance, created during the twilight of the first Friday in existence,[43] and ensured to be clean by the sweeping of the ground by a northern wind, and subsequent rains, before it arrives.[44] According to classical rabbinical literature, manna was ground in a heavenly mill for the use of the righteous, but some of it was allocated to the wicked and left for them to grind themselves.[45] The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... For other uses, see Twilight (disambiguation). ...


Use and function

As a natural food substance, the consumption of manna would produce waste products; but in classical rabbinical literature, as a supernatural substance, it was argued that manna produced no waste, resulting in no defecation among the Israelites until several decades later, when the manna had ceased to fall.[46] According to modern medical science, the lack of defecation over such a long period of time would cause extremely severe bowel problems, especially when other food later began to be consumed again; the classical rabbinical writers argue that the Israelites complained about the lack of defecation, and were concerned about potential bowel problems.[47]


According to a number of vegetarian Christians, God had originally intended that man would not eat meat, because (according to these sources) plants cannot move, and therefore killing them wouldn't be sinful;[48] the supply of manna, a non-meat substance, is quoted by these sources as an example of this intention against eating meat.[49] This may not be true considering God sent the people of Israel quails to eat every evening (Exodus 16:12-13) For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ...


Food wasn't the only use that manna was put to, according to the rabbinical writers; one classical rabbinical source states that the fragrant odour of manna was used as a perfume by the Israelite women.[50]


Gathering

According to the biblical text, each day exactly one Omer of manna was gathered per member of each household,[51] regardless of how much effort was put into gathering it;[52] a midrash attributed to Rabbi Tanhuma remarks that although some people were diligent enough to go into the fields to gather manna, lazy individuals just lay down and caught it with their outstretched hands.[53] The Talmud argues that this property was used to solve disputes about the ownership of slaves, since the number of omers of manna each household could gather would indicate how many people were legitimately part of the household;[54] the omers of manna for stolen slaves could only be gathered by the legitimate owner, and therefore the legitimate owner would have a spare omer of manna.[55] Omer is the common infrastructure project manager for a large, distributed application at a leading financial institution Omer is an ancient unit of measure used in the era of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...


Nevertheless, according to the Talmud, manna was found near to the homes of those with strong belief in Yahweh, and far from the homes of those with doubts;[56] indeed, one classical midrash argues that manna was intangible to non-Jews, as it would inevitably slip from their hands.[57] The Midrash Tanhuma argues that when manna melted, it formed liquid streams that were drunk by a number of animals, flavouring their flesh;[58] this Midrash goes on to argue that some of these animals were subsequently eaten by non-Israelites (implying that such food was also available as an alternative to manna), and it was only in this indirect manner that non-Israelites were able to taste manna.[59] Despite these descriptions of uneven distribution, classical rabbinical literature expresses the view that the manna fell in very large quantities each day, layering over two thousand square cubits, between 50-60 cubits in height;[60] rabbinical literature states that this was enough to nourish the Israelites for 2000 years,[61] and could be seen from the palaces of every king in the East and West,[62] although this improbable statement may be metaphorical. Midrash Tanhuma (Hebrew: מדרש תנחומא) is the name given to three different collections of Pentateuch haggadot; two are extant, while the third is known only through citations. ... This derivation of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts nine historical units of measurement: the Yard, the Span, the Cubit, the Flemish Ell, the English Ell, the French Ell, the Fathom, the Hand , and the Foot. ...


The Sabbath

The biblical text states that twice as much manna than usual was available on Friday mornings, and none at all could be found on the following day[63];[64][65] the text goes on to state that although the manna usually rotted after a single night,[66] the manna which had been collected on Fridays remained fresh for two nights.[67] According to the narrative, the sabbath was instituted at this point,[68] with Moses stating that the extra portion was to be consumed on the sabbath,[69] and Yahweh instructing him that no-one should leave his place on the sabbath,[70] so the people rest during it.[71] This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ...


Textual scholars regard this part of the manna narrative to be spliced together from the Yahwist and Priestly Source texts, with the Yahwist text being the one emphasising rest during the sabbath, while the Priestly Source merely states that a sabbath exists, implying that the meaning of a sabbath was already known.[72][73] Biblical scholars regard this part of the manna narrative as an aetiological myth designed to explain the origin of sabbath observance, which in reality was probably pre-Mosaic.[74] Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of Greek words aitia = cause and logos = word/speech) is used in philosophy, physics and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Duration of supply

According to the Book of Exodus, the Israelites consumed the manna for 40 years, but it then ceased to appear once they had reached an uninhabited land;[75] the Book of Exodus also states that the manna ceased to appear once the Israelites reached the borders of Canaan (which was inhabited, by the Canaanites).[76] According to the Book of Joshua, the manna ceased to appear on the day after the annual passover festival, when the Israelites had reached Gilgal.[77] Textual scholars attribute these variations to the fact that each expression, of when the manna ceased, derives from different source texts; the claim that the Israelites ate manna for 40 years, until reaching an uninhabited land, is attributed by textual scholars to the Priestly Source;[78][79] the reference to Canaan's borders is considered to be either from the Jahwist account, or a later redaction to synchronise the account with that of the book of Joshua.[80][81] There is also a disagreement among classical rabbinical writers as to when the manna ceased, particularly in regard to whether it remained after the death of Moses for a further 40 days, 70 days, or 14 years;[82] indeed, according to Joshua ben Levi, the manna ceased to appear at the moment that Moses died.[83] This article is about the land called Canaan. ... The Book of Joshua is the sixth book in both the Hebrew Tanakh and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ... Gilgal is a place name in the Hebrew Bible. ... The Torah redactor (R) is, according to the documentary hypothesis, the figure who assembled hypothetical source texts of the Torah—the Deuteronomist text (D), the Priestly text P, and JE (an earlier joining of the Jahwist text [J] and the Elohist text [E])—into a single work. ... Joshua ben Levi or Yehoshua ben Levi was a Palestinian amora of the first half of the third century. ...


The Pot of Manna

Despite the eventual termination of the supply of manna, the text states that a small amount of it survived within a pot, which was kept adjacent to the Ark of the Covenant;[84] the text indicates that the instruction for this to occur had been given to Moses by Yahweh, and Moses had delegated the task to Aaron.[85] The Epistle to the Hebrews gives a slightly different account, stating that the pot was stored inside the Ark.[86] The classical rabbinical sources give different viewpoints on how long the pot survived, with some arguing that it was only there for the generation following Moses, and others arguing that it survived at least until the time of Jeremiah;[87] textual scholars attribute the mention of the pot to the priestly source, therefore indicating that the pot existed in the early 6th century BC.[88] The Ark of the Covenant (ארון הברית in Hebrew: aron habrit) is described in the Hebrew Bible as a sacred container, wherein rested the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments as well as other sacred Israelite objects. ... The Epistle to the Hebrews (abbr. ... For other uses, see Jeremiah (disambiguation). ...


Later cultural references

Manna Ash

By extension "manna" has been used to refer to any divine or spiritual nourishment. In a modern botanical context, manna is often used to refer to the secretions of various plants, especially of certain shrubs and trees, and in particular the sugars obtained by evaporating the sap of the Manna Ash, extracted by making small cuts in the bark.[89] The Manna Ash, native to southern Europe and southwest Asia, produces a blue-green sap, which has medicinal value as a mild laxative,[90] demulcent, and weak expectorant.[91] Image File history File links Koeh-062. ... Image File history File links Koeh-062. ... Binomial name Fraxinus ornus L. Fraxinus ornus (Flowering Ash or Manna Ash) is a species of ash which occurs in Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Laxatives (or purgatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Demulcent herbs often have a high content of mucilage, making them ideal to soothe and protect irritated or inflammed internal tissues of the body. ... A cough medicine or antitussive is a medication given to people to help them stop coughing. ...


In the 17th century, a woman manufactured a clear, tasteless, cosmetic product, which she named the Manna of Saint Nicholas of Bari; initially this was very popular, but after the deaths of 600 men, who were married to women using the product, government investigations discovered that the cosmetic was primarily composed of arsenic.[92] In modern times, Roman Catholic authorities annually collect a clear liquid from the tomb of Saint Nicholas;[93] the pleasant perfume of this liquid is argued by Roman Catholic legend to be able to ward off evil, and for this reason it is sold to pilgrims as the Manna of Saint Nicholas.[94] The liquid gradually seeps out of the tomb, but it is unclear whether it originates in the body within the tomb, or from the marble itself;[95] since the town of Bari is a harbour, and the tomb is below sea level, there are several natural explanations for the Manna fluid, including the transfer of seawater to the tomb by capillary action.[96] For other uses, see Nicholas. ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Monument to pilgrims in Burgos, Spain This article is on religious pilgrims. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Capillary Flow Experiment to investigate capillary flows and phenomena onboard the International Space Station Capillary action, capillarity, capillary motion, or wicking is the ability of a substance to draw another substance into it. ...


Further reading

  • Mushrooms and Mankind: The Impact of Mushrooms on Human Consciousness and Religion by James Arthur [13]
  • Magic Mushrooms in Religion and Alchemy by Clark Heinrich [14]
  • The Mystery of Manna: The Psychedelic Sacrament of the Bible by Robert Forte [15]
  • Food of the Gods: The Search for the Original Tree of Knowledge A Radical History of Plants, Drugs, and Human Evolution by Terence Mckenna [16]

See also

Ayahuasca (Quechua, pronounced ) is any of various psychoactive infusions or decoctions prepared from the Banisteriopsis spp. ... Binomial name Amanita muscaria Amanita muscaria is a basidiomycete mushroom of the genus Amanita. ... Operation Manna took place from 29 April to 8 May 1945, at the end of World War II. Lancaster bombers of the Royal Air Force dropped food into parts of the occupied Netherlands, with the acquiescence of the occupying German forces, to feed people who were in danger of starvation... Binomial name (Lem. ... A collection of interconnected science fiction short stories by George R.R. Martin, written from the late 1970s onwards and published in collected form in 1987. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Numbers 21:5
  2. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  3. ^ The Holy Quran, Surat Al-Baqara, Verse 27 (Wikisource)[1]
  4. ^ The Holy Quran Surat Al-Araf (Wikisource)[2]
  5. ^ The Holy Quran, Surat Taha (Wikisource)[3]
  6. ^ ibid
  7. ^ Exodus 16:14
  8. ^ Numbers 11:9
  9. ^ Exodus 16:14
  10. ^ Exodus 16:21
  11. ^ Exodus 16:31
  12. ^ Numbers 11:7
  13. ^ Exodus 16:31
  14. ^ Numbers 11:7
  15. ^ Numbers 11:8
  16. ^ Exodus 16:31
  17. ^ Peake's Commentary on the Bible
  18. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Book of Exodus; Jewish Encyclopedia, Book of Numbers
  19. ^ Yoma 75b
  20. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  21. ^ George Ebers, Durch Gosen zum Sinai, p. 236
  22. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  23. ^ Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica
  24. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  25. ^ Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica
  26. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  27. ^ Exodus 16:15
  28. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  29. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  30. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  31. ^ [4]
  32. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  33. ^ [5]
  34. ^ Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica
  35. ^ [6]
  36. ^ Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica
  37. ^ Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica
  38. ^ Terence McKenna, Food of the Gods, (New York, Harper Collins) p. 84.
  39. ^ [7]
  40. ^ Terence McKenna, Food of the Gods, (New York, Harper Collins) p. 84.
  41. ^ [8]
  42. ^ [9]
  43. ^ Pirkei Avot 5:9
  44. ^ Mekhilta, Beshalah, Wayassa, 3
  45. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  46. ^ Sifre (on Numbers) 87-89
  47. ^ Sifre (on Numbers) 87-89
  48. ^ Jean Soler, The Semiotics of Food in the Bible
  49. ^ ibid
  50. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  51. ^ Exodus 16:16
  52. ^ Exodus 16:17-18
  53. ^ Tanhuma, Beshalah 22
  54. ^ Yoma 75a
  55. ^ Yoma 75a
  56. ^ Yoma 75a
  57. ^ Midrash Abkir (on Exodus) 258
  58. ^ Midrash Tanhuma
  59. ^ Midrash Tanhuma
  60. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  61. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  62. ^ Yoma 76a
  63. ^ Exodus 16:5
  64. ^ Exodus 16:22
  65. ^ Exodus 16:26-27
  66. ^ Exodus 16:20
  67. ^ Exodus 16:24
  68. ^ Exodus 16:23
  69. ^ Exodus 16:23
  70. ^ Exodus 16:27-29
  71. ^ Exodus 16:30
  72. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  73. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Book of Exodus
  74. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  75. ^ Exodus 16:35
  76. ^ Exodus 16:35
  77. ^ Joshua 5:12
  78. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Book of Exodus
  79. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  80. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Book of Exodus
  81. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
  82. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, manna
  83. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  84. ^ Exodus 16:34
  85. ^ Exodus 16:32-33
  86. ^ Hebrews 9:4
  87. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  88. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Book of Exodus
  89. ^ Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  90. ^ http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/a/ashmn075.html]
  91. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,723060,00.html
  92. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,723060,00.html
  93. ^ [10]
  94. ^ [11]
  95. ^ [12]
  96. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/article398236.ece?token=null&offset=12

Moed (Festivals) is the second Order of the Mishnah (also the Tosefta and Talmud), Of the six orders of the Mishna, Moed is the third shortest. ... Pirkei Avoth (Hebrew: Chapters of the Fathers, פרקי אבות ) or simply Avoth is a tractate of the Mishna composed of ethical maxims of the Rabbis of the Mishnaic period. ... Sifre (סִפְרֵי siphrēy, Sifre, Sifrei) is a Midrash halakhah originated from Devarim and Shmot. ... Midrash Abkir (Hebrew: מדרש אבכיר) is one of the smaller midrashim, the extant remains of which consist of more than 50 excerpts contained in the Yalḳuṭ and a number of citations in other works. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
JewishEncyclopedia.com - MANNA (1290 words)
It may be either that the manna constituted their main but not only food-supply during the whole forty years, or that it became their exclusive food after the provisions they took with them from Egypt were exhausted.
The manna was adapted to the taste of each individual; to the adult it tasted like the food of the adult, while to the sucking child it tasted like the milk of its mother's breasts.
The manna exhaled a fragrant odor, and during the forty years the Israelites wandered in the wilderness it served the women as perfume.
Manna, Chapter 1, by Marshall Brain (2213 words)
Manna's job was to manage the store, and it did this in a most interesting way.
Manna was connected to the cash registers, so it knew how many people were flowing through the restaurant.
Manna could tell if the employee was in the right area for an assigned task, and how fast the employee was moving.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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