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Encyclopedia > Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945.
The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945.

The Manhattan Project was the project to develop the first nuclear weapon (atomic bomb) during World War II by the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. Formally designated as the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), it refers specifically to the period of the project from 1941–1946 under the control of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, under the administration of General Leslie R. Groves. The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. [1] Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The Military Policy Committee of the Manhattan Project had ultimate responsibility over the projects direction. ... The Manhattan Project was the code-name given to the American effort to develop the first nuclear weapons during World War II with assistance from the United Kingdom and Canada. ... Download high resolution version (1180x1474, 162 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1180x1474, 162 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is a federal agency made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ...


The project's roots lay in scientists' fears since the 1930s that Nazi Germany was also investigating nuclear weapons of its own. Born out of a small research program in 1939, the Manhattan Project eventually employed more than 130,000 people and cost nearly $2 billion USD ($24 billion in 2008 dollars based on CPI). It resulted in the creation of multiple production and research sites that operated in secret.[2] Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The German nuclear energy project was an endeavor by scientists during World War II in Nazi Germany to develop nuclear energy and an atomic bomb for practical use. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ...


The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium-production facility at what is now the Hanford Site, the uranium-enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the weapons research and design laboratory, now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory. Project research took place at over thirty different sites across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The MED maintained control over U.S. weapons production until the formation of the Atomic Energy Commission in January 1947. Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Shield of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. ...

Contents

Origin of name

270 Broadway from the east in 2007
270 Broadway from the east in 2007

The project was coordinated from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers North Atlantic Division headquarters on the 18th floor of 270 Broadway near New York City Hall in Manhattan.[3] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 386 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,083 × 1,683 pixels, file size: 269 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tower 270 in November 2007. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 386 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,083 × 1,683 pixels, file size: 269 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tower 270 in November 2007. ... The North Atlantic Division of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is a Regional Business Center made up of nearly 3900 team members in six districts and a Division Headquarters. ... Tower 270 from the east on Chambers Street Tower 270 (also known as 270 Broadway, Arthur Leavitt State Office Building, and 86 Chambers Street) is a 28-story mixed use building in Downtown Manhattan that has in its past served various government agencies and was the headquarters of the Manhattan... ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ...


The initial proposed name was "Laboratory for the Development of Substitute Materials."[4] Fearing the name would draw undue attention, General Leslie Groves changed it to the (secret) name "Manhattan Engineer District", for a non-existent administrative division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. In daily parlance, the nickname became the Manhattan Project.[4] The Corps Manhattan district, unlike other regional Corps offices, was not to have territorial limits. Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... // A nickname is a name of an entity or thing that is not its proper name. ...


Much of the early research was done at Columbia University in Pupin Hall and at one time employed 700 people on the project. [4] Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Pupin Hall Pupin Hall is the home of Columbia Universitys Physics Department. ...


Coordination for the project moved to Oak Ridge in 1943, but the name Manhattan Engineer District was not changed. Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ...


Discovery of nuclear fission

Main articles: History of physics, History of nuclear weapons, and World War II

The first decades of the twentieth century led to radical changes in the understanding of the physics of the atom, including the discovery of the nucleus, the idea of radiation, and the fact that the splitting of atomic nuclei could lead to massive release of energy (nuclear fission). Since antiquity, human beings have sought to understand the workings of nature: why unsupported objects drop to the ground, why different materials have different properties, the character of the universe such as the form of the Earth and the behavior of celestial objects such as the Sun and the Moon... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Look up nucleus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ...


By 1932, it was thought to consist of a small, dense nucleus containing most of the atom's mass in the form of protons and neutrons and was surrounded by a shell of electrons. Study on the phenomenon of radioactivity began with the discovery of uranium ores by Henri Becquerel in 1896 and was followed by the work of Pierre and Marie Curie on radium. Their research seemed to promise that atoms, previously thought to be ultimately stable and indivisible, actually had the potential of containing and releasing immense amounts of energy. In 1919 Ernest Rutherford achieved the first artificial nuclear disintegrations by bombarding nitrogen with alpha particles emitted from a radioactive source, thus becoming the first person in history to intentionally "split the atom". It had become clear from the Curies' work that there was a tremendous amount of energy locked up in radioactive decay—far more than chemistry could account for. But even in the early 1930s such illustrious physicists as Ernest Rutherford and Albert Einstein could see no way of artificially releasing that energy any faster than nature naturally allowed it to leave. "Radium engines" in the 1930s were the stuff of science fiction, such as was being written at the time by Edgar Rice Burroughs. H. G. Wells included air-dropped "atomic bombs" in his 1914 novel The World Set Free. Though Wells' "atomic bombs" bore little resemblance to actual nuclear weapons (they were simply regular bombs that never stopped exploding), Leó Szilárd later commented that this story influenced his later research into this subject. The nucleus of an atom is the very small dense region, of positive charge, in its centre consisting of nucleons (protons and neutrons). ... Stylized lithium-7 atom: 3 protons, 4 neutrons & 3 electrons (~1800 times smaller than protons/neutrons). ... For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the SI unit of radioactivity, see Becquerel. ... Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859 – died April 19, 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a chemist (B.Sc. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a chemist (B.Sc. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he also produced works in many genres. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... The World Set Free is a novel published in 1914 by H. G. Wells. ... Leó Szilárd (February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964 Originally Szilárd Leó) was a Jewish Hungarian-American physicist who conceived the nuclear chain reaction and worked on the Manhattan Project. ...


Progress in controlling and understanding nuclear fission accelerated in the 1930s when further manipulation of the nuclei of atoms became possible. In 1932, Sir John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton were first to "split the atom" (cause a nuclear reaction) by using artificially accelerated particles. In 1934, Irène and Frédéric Joliot-Curie discovered that artificial radioactivity could be induced in stable elements by bombarding them with alpha particles. The same year Enrico Fermi reported similar results when bombarding uranium with neutrons (discovered in 1932), but he did not immediately appreciate the consequences of his results. See also: John Cockroft (politician) Sir John Douglas Cockcroft (May 27, 1897 - September 18, 1967) was a British physicist. ... Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (October 6, 1903 – June 25, 1995) was an Irish physicist and Nobel laureate for his work with John Cockcroft with atom-smashing experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s. ... Irène Joliot-Curie née Curie, (12 September 1897 – 17 March 1956) was a French scientist, the daughter of Marie SkÅ‚odowska-Curie and Pierre Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot-Curie. ... Frédéric Joliot-Curie Jean Frédéric Joliot-Curie né Joliot (March 19, 1900 – August 14, 1958) was a French physicist and Nobel laureate. ... Radioactivity may mean: Look up radioactivity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fermi redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In December 1938, the Germans Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann published experimental results about bombarding uranium with neutrons. They showed that it produced an isotope of barium. Shortly after, their Austrian co-worker Lise Meitner (a political refugee in Sweden at the time) and her nephew Otto Robert Frisch correctly interpreted the results as the splitting of the uranium nucleus after the absorption of a neutron—nuclear fission—which released a large amount of energy and additional neutrons. A direct experimental evidence of the nuclear fission was performed by Frisch, following a fundamental idea suggested to him by George Placzek [5]. Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, 1913, at the KWI for Chemistry in Berlin Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... Fritz Strassman (February 22, 1902 - April 22, 1980) was a German physical chemist who, along with Otto Hahn, discovered the nuclear fission of uranium in 1938. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... Lise Meitner ca. ... Otto Robert Frisch (1 October 1904–22 September 1979), Austrian-British physicist. ... George Placzek (September 26, 1905 - October 9, 1955) was a Czech physicist. ...


In 1933, Hungarian physicist Leó Szilárd had proposed that if any neutron-driven process released more neutrons than those required to start it, an expanding nuclear chain reaction might result. Chain reactions were familiar as a phenomenon from chemistry (where they typically caused explosions and other run-away reactions), but Szilárd was proposing them for a nuclear reaction, for the first time. However, Szilárd had proposed to look for such reactions in the lighter atoms, and nothing of the sort was found. Upon experimentation shortly after the uranium fission discovery, Szilárd found that the fission of uranium released two or more neutrons on average, and immediately realized that a nuclear chain reaction by this mechanism was possible in theory. Szilárd kept this secret at first because he feared its use as a weapon by fascist governments. He convinced others to do so, but identical results were soon published by the Joliot Curie group, to his great dismay. Leó Szilárd (February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964 Originally Szilárd Leó) was a Jewish Hungarian-American physicist who conceived the nuclear chain reaction and worked on the Manhattan Project. ... A schematic nuclear fission chain reaction. ... From Latin ex- + -periri (akin to periculum attempt). ... Fascism is a term used to describe authoritarian nationalist political ideologies or mass movements that are concerned with notions of cultural decline or decadence. ...


That such mechanisms might have implications for civilian power or military weapons was perceived by numerous scientists in many countries, around the same time. While these developments in science were occurring, many political changes were happening in Europe. Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany in January 1933. His anti-Semitic ideology caused all Jewish civil servants, including many physicists, to be fired from their posts. Consequently many European physicists who later made key discoveries went into exile in the United Kingdom and the United States. After Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939 and World War II began, many scientists in the United States and the United Kingdom became anxious about what Germany might do with nuclear technology. Albert Einstein in particular wrote several letters to Franklin Roosevelt urging him to establish the nuclear capability before the Germans. These letters are considered to be influential in the acceleration of the project. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ...


Acceleration of the Project

A few months after he was put in charge of fast neutron research, Berkeley physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer convened a conference on the topic of nuclear weapon design.
A few months after he was put in charge of fast neutron research, Berkeley physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer convened a conference on the topic of nuclear weapon design.

Having begun to wrest control of the uranium research from the National Bureau of Standards, the project heads began to accelerate the bomb project under the OSRD. Arthur Compton organized the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory in early 1942 to study plutonium and fission piles (primitive nuclear reactors), and asked theoretical physicist Robert Oppenheimer of the University of California, Berkeley to take over research on fast neutron calculations—key to calculations about critical mass and weapon detonation—from Gregory Breit. John Manley, a physicist at the Metallurgical Laboratory, was assigned to help Oppenheimer find answers by coordinating and contacting several experimental physics groups scattered across the country. Download high resolution version (524x721, 182 KB)J. Robert Oppenheimer, first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory. ... Download high resolution version (524x721, 182 KB)J. Robert Oppenheimer, first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer, father of the atomic bomb, served as the first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory, beginning in 1943. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... In June of 1941, the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) superseded the committee structure [of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC)]. The OSRD projects gave the United States and Allied troops more powerful and more accurate bombs, more reliable detonators, lighter and more accurate weapons, safer and more... Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1927) for discovery of the Compton effect named in his honor. ... This sculpture by Henry Moore marks the site at the University of Chicago where Metallurgical Laboratory scientists created the worlds first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Photograph of Gregory Breit. ... Categories: People stubs | Manhattan Project ...


During the spring of 1942, Oppenheimer and Robert Serber of the University of Illinois worked on the problems of neutron diffusion (how neutrons moved in the chain reaction) and hydrodynamics (how the explosion produced by the chain reaction might behave). To review this work and the general theory of fission reactions, Oppenheimer convened a summer study at the University of California, Berkeley, in June 1942. Theorists Hans Bethe, John Van Vleck, Edward Teller, Felix Bloch, Emil Konopinski, Robert Serber, Stanley S. Frankel, and Eldred C. Nelson (the latter three all former students of Oppenheimer) quickly confirmed that a fission bomb was feasible. There were still many unknown factors in the development of a nuclear bomb, however, even though it was considered to be theoretically possible. The properties of pure uranium-235 were still relatively unknown, as were the properties of plutonium, a new element which had only been discovered in February 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and his team. Plutonium was the product of uranium-238 absorbing a neutron which had been emitted from a fissioning uranium-235 atom, and was thus able to be created in a nuclear reactor. But at this point no reactor had yet been built, so while plutonium was being pursued as an additional fissile substance, it was not yet to be relied upon. Only microgram quantities of plutonium existed at the time (produced from neutrons derived from reaction started in a cyclotron). Robert Serber (1909 - June 1, 1997) was a physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project. ... A Corner of Main Quad The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC, U of I, or simply Illinois), is the oldest, largest, and most prestigious campus in the University of Illinois system. ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... John Hasbrouck van Vleck (March 13, 1899 – October 27, 1980) was an American physicist. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... Felix Bloch (October 23, 1905 – September 10, 1983) was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the USA. // A stamp from Guyana commemorating Felix Bloch. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American atomic scientist. ...

A number of the different fission bomb assembly methods explored during the summer 1942 conference, later reproduced as drawings in The Los Alamos Primer. In the end, only the "gun" method (at top) and a more complicated variation of the "implosion" design would be used. At the bottom are "autocatalytic method" designs.
A number of the different fission bomb assembly methods explored during the summer 1942 conference, later reproduced as drawings in The Los Alamos Primer. In the end, only the "gun" method (at top) and a more complicated variation of the "implosion" design would be used. At the bottom are "autocatalytic method" designs.

The scientists at the Berkeley conference determined that there were many possible ways of arranging the fissile material into a critical mass, the simplest being the shooting of a "cylindrical plug" into a sphere of "active material" with a "tamper"—dense material which would focus neutrons inward and keep the reacting mass together to increase its efficiency (this model "avoids fancy shapes", Serber would later write).[6] They also explored designs involving spheroids, a primitive form of "implosion" (suggested by Richard C. Tolman), and explored the speculative possibility of "autocatalytic methods" which would increase the efficiency of the bomb as it exploded. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (440x900, 25 KB) A number of the fission bomb assembly methods proposed during the summer conference on bomb design held at UC Berkeley by Robert Oppenheimer in 1942 during the Manhattan Project. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (440x900, 25 KB) A number of the fission bomb assembly methods proposed during the summer conference on bomb design held at UC Berkeley by Robert Oppenheimer in 1942 during the Manhattan Project. ... A number of the different fission bomb assembly methods explored during the summer 1942 conference, later reproduced as drawings in The Los Alamos Primer. ... In mathematics, a spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... Richard Chace Tolman (March 4, 1881–September 5, 1948) was an American mathematical physicist and physical chemist who was an authority on statistical mechanics and made important contributions to the early development of theoretical cosmology. ... A single chemical reaction is said to have undergone autocatalysis, or be autocatalytic, if the reaction product is itself the catalyst for that reaction. ...


Considering the idea of the fission bomb theoretically settled until more experimental data were available, the conference then turned in a different direction. Hungarian physicist Edward Teller pushed for discussion on an even more powerful bomb: the "Super", which would use the explosive force of a detonating fission bomb to ignite a fusion reaction in deuterium and tritium. This concept was based on studies of energy production in stars made by Hans Bethe before the war, and suggested as a possibility to Teller by Enrico Fermi not long before the conference. When the detonation wave from the fission bomb moved through the mixture of deuterium and tritium nuclei, these would fuse together to produce much more energy than fission could. But Bethe was skeptical. As Teller pushed hard for his "superbomb"—now usually referred to as a "hydrogen bomb"—proposing scheme after scheme, Bethe refuted each one. The fusion idea had to be put aside in order to concentrate on actually producing fission bombs. The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing sustainable fusion power. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Tritium (symbol T or ³H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Fermi redirects here. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Tritium (symbol T or ³H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ...


Teller also raised the speculative possibility that an atomic bomb might "ignite" the atmosphere, because of a hypothetical fusion reaction of nitrogen nuclei. Bethe calculated, according to Serber, that it could not happen. In his book The Road from Los Alamos, Bethe says a refutation was written by Konopinski, C. Marvin, and Teller as report LA-602, showing that ignition of the atmosphere was impossible, not just unlikely.[7] In Serber's account, Oppenheimer mentioned it to Arthur Compton, who "didn't have enough sense to shut up about it. It somehow got into a document that went to Washington" which led to the question being "never laid to rest".[8]


The conferences in the summer of 1942 provided the detailed theoretical basis for the design of the atomic bomb, and convinced Oppenheimer of the benefits of having a single centralized laboratory to manage the research for the bomb project, rather than having specialists spread out at different sites across the United States.


Project sites

Though it involved over thirty different research and production sites, the Manhattan Project was largely carried out at three secret scientific cities that were established by power of eminent domain: Los Alamos, New Mexico; Oak Ridge, Tennessee; and Richland, Washington. The Tennessee site was chosen for the vast quantities of cheap hydroelectric power already available there (due to the Tennessee Valley Authority) necessary to produce uranium-235 in giant ion separation magnets. The Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, was chosen for its location near a river that could supply water to cool the reactors which would produce the plutonium. All the sites were suitably far from coastlines and therefore less vulnerable to possible enemy attack from Germany or Japan. Eminent domain (United States), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to seize a citizens private property, expropriate property, or rights in property, without the owner... Los Alamos is an unincorporated townsite in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. ... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... Richland Police Station in foreground. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ...


The Los Alamos National Laboratory was built on a mesa that previously hosted the Los Alamos Ranch School, a private school for teenage boys. The site was chosen primarily for its remoteness. Oppenheimer had known of it from his horse-riding near his ranch in New Mexico, and he showed it as a possible site to the government representatives, who promptly bought it for $440,000. In addition to being the main "think-tank", Los Alamos was responsible for final assembly of the bombs, mainly from materials and components produced by other sites. Manufacturing at Los Alamos included casings, explosive lenses, and fabrication of fissile materials into bomb cores. Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Los Alamos Ranch School was a private school for boys in Otowi, New Mexico, near Los Alamos, New Mexico. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ...


Oak Ridge facilities covered more than 60,000 acres (243 km²) of several former farm communities in the Tennessee Valley area. Some Tennessee families were given two weeks' notice to vacate family farms that had been their home for generations. So secret was the site during WW2 that the state governor was unaware that Oak Ridge (which was to become the fifth largest city in the state) was being built. At one point Oak Ridge plants were consuming 1/6th of the electrical power produced in the U.S., more than New York City. Oak Ridge mainly produced uranium-235. The Tennessee Valley is the drainage basin of the Tennessee River and is largely within the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The Hanford Site, which grew to almost 1,000 square miles (2,600 km²), took over irrigated farm land, fruit orchards, a railroad, and two farming communities, Hanford and White Bluffs, in a sparsely populated area adjacent to the Columbia River. Hanford hosted nuclear reactors cooled by the river and was the plutonium production center. This article is about the planting of trees in agriculture. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Hanford was a small agricultural community in Benton County, Washington. ... White Bluffs was a town in Benton County, Washington. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ...


The existence of these sites and the secret cities of Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, and Richland were not made public until the announcement of the Hiroshima explosion, and the sites remained secret until after the end of WWII.


The project originally was headquartered at 270 Broadway in Manhattan. Other offices were scattered throughout the city. [9] The Broadway headquarters lasted little more than a year before it was moved in 1943, although many of the other offices in Manhattan remained.[10] This article is about the borough of New York City. ...

A selection of U.S. sites important to the Manhattan Project.
A selection of U.S. sites important to the Manhattan Project.

Major Manhattan Project sites and subdivisions included: Download high resolution version (1000x618, 43 KB)A selection of major United States sites in the Manhattan Project. ... Download high resolution version (1000x618, 43 KB)A selection of major United States sites in the Manhattan Project. ...

Hanford Site during the Manhattan Project. ... Hanford was a small agricultural community in Benton County, Washington. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by UT-Battelle, LLC. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville. ... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... When President Roosevelt in December 1942 authorized the Manhattan Project, the Oak Ridge site in eastern Tennessee had already been obtained and plans laid for an air-cooled experimental pile, a pilot chemical separation plant, and support facilities. ... Y-12 National Security Complex Operated by BWX Technologies Y‑12 for the National Nuclear Security Administration, Y‑12 plays a vital role in the U.S. Department of Energys Nuclear Weapons Complex. ... Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by UT-Battelle, LLC. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville. ... Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by UT-Battelle, LLC. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Los Alamos is an unincorporated townsite in Los Alamos County, New Mexico. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... The Metallurgical Laboratory or Met Lab at the University of Chicago was part of the World War II–era Manhattan Project, created by the United States to develop an atomic bomb. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Aerial photo of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. ... Project Alberta was a section of the U.S. Army Air Force and Manhattan Project which developed the actual combat delivery of the first atomic bombs onto the Empire of Japan during World War II. Much of its work consisted in training a crew for preparation of the atomic bombing... Wendover is a city located in Tooele County, Utah. ... Saipan, Tinian & Aguiguan The atom bomb pit on Tinians North Field, where Little Boy was loaded aboard the Enola Gay Tinian Shinto shrine. ... Main Street in downtown Ames in 2006 Ames is a city located in the central part of the U.S. state of Iowa, about 30 miles north of Des Moines in Story County. ... Ames Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Ames, Iowa. ... The Dayton Project was one of several sites involved in the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs. ... : Gem City : Birthplace of Aviation United States Ohio Montgomery 56. ... Inyokern is a census-designated place located in Kern County, California. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Alamogordo is a city in Otero County, New Mexico, United States of America. ... The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), formerly the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory and usually shortened to Berkeley Lab or LBL, is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory conducting unclassified scientific research. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ... The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), formerly the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory and usually shortened to Berkeley Lab or LBL, is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory conducting unclassified scientific research. ... Trail ( ) is a city in the Kootenay region of the interior of British Columbia, Canada. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ...

Need for coordination

The measurements of the interactions of fast neutrons with the materials in a bomb were essential because the number of neutrons produced in the fission of uranium and plutonium must be known, and because the substance surrounding the nuclear material must have the ability to reflect, or scatter, neutrons back into the chain reaction before it is blown apart in order to increase the energy produced. Therefore, the neutron scattering properties of materials had to be measured to find the best reflectors. A fast neutron is a free neutron with a kinetic energy level close to 1 MeV (10 TJ/kg, hence a speed of 14,000 km/s. ... Nuclear weapon designs are often divided into two classes, based on the dominant source of the nuclear weapons energy. ... The term Neutron Scattering encompasses all scientific techniques whereby neutrons are used as a scientific probe. ...


Estimating the explosive power required knowledge of many other nuclear properties, including the cross section (a measure of the probability of an encounter between particles that result in a specified effect) for nuclear processes of neutrons in uranium and other elements. Fast neutrons could only be produced in particle accelerators, which were still relatively uncommon instruments in 1942. In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between particles. ... Atom Smasher redirects here. ...


The need for better coordination was clear. By September 1942, the difficulties in conducting studies on nuclear weapons at universities scattered throughout the country indicated the need for a laboratory dedicated solely to that purpose. A greater need was the construction of industrial plants to produce uranium-235 and plutonium—the fissionable materials to be used in the weapons.


Vannevar Bush, the head of the civilian Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), asked President Roosevelt to assign the operations connected with the growing nuclear weapons project to the military. Roosevelt chose the Army to work with the OSRD in building production plants. The Army Corps of Engineers selected Col. James Marshall to oversee the construction of factories to separate uranium isotopes and manufacture plutonium for the bomb. Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 30, 1974) was an American engineer and science administrator, known for his political role in the development of the atomic bomb, and the idea of the memex—seen as a pioneering concept for the World Wide Web. ... In June of 1941, the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) superseded the committee structure [of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC)]. The OSRD projects gave the United States and Allied troops more powerful and more accurate bombs, more reliable detonators, lighter and more accurate weapons, safer and more... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 military men and women. ...


Marshall and his deputy, Col. Kenneth Nichols, struggled to understand the proposed processes and the scientists with whom they had to work. Thrust into the new field of nuclear physics, they felt unable to distinguish between technical and personal preferences. Although they decided that a site near Knoxville, Tennessee, would be suitable for the first production plant, they did not know how large the site needed to be and delayed its acquisition. Kenneth David Nichols (13 November 1907 – 21 February 2000) was the deputy to General Leslie Groves in the American project to develop the Atomic Bomb in World War II. He was a United States Army officer and an engineer. ... Knoxville redirects here. ...


Because of its experimental nature, the nuclear weapons work could not compete with the Army's more urgent tasks for priority. The scientists' work and production plant construction often were delayed by Marshall's inability to obtain critical materials, such as steel, needed in other military projects. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ...


Selecting a name for the project was difficult. The title chosen by Gen. Brehon B. Somervell, "Development of Substitute Materials," was objectionable because it seemed to reveal too much. Brehon Burke Somervell (May 9, 1892 — February 13, 1955) was a General in the United States Army and Commanding General of the Army Service Forces in World War II. As such he was responsible for the U.S. Armys logistics. ...


Manhattan Engineer District

General Leslie Groves (left) was appointed the military head of the Manhattan Project, while Robert Oppenheimer (right) was the scientific director.
General Leslie Groves (left) was appointed the military head of the Manhattan Project, while Robert Oppenheimer (right) was the scientific director.

Vannevar Bush became dissatisfied with Marshall's failure to get the project moving forward expeditiously and made this known to Secretary of War Stimson and Army Chief of Staff George Marshall. Marshall then directed General Somervell to replace Col. Marshall with a more energetic officer as director. In the summer of 1942, Col. Leslie Groves was deputy to the chief of construction for the Army Corps of Engineers and had overseen the very rapid construction of the Pentagon, the world's largest office building. He was widely respected as an intelligent, hard driving, though brusque officer who got things done in a hurry. Hoping for an overseas command, Groves vigorously objected when Somervell appointed him to the weapons project. His objections were overruled, and Groves resigned himself to leading a project he thought had little chance of success. Groves appointed Oppenheimer as the project's scientific director, to the surprise of many. (Oppenheimer's radical political views were thought to pose security problems). However, Groves was convinced Oppenheimer was a genius who could talk about and understand nearly anything, and he was convinced such a man was needed for a project such as the one being proposed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x689, 283 KB) General Leslie Groves (left), military head of the Manhattan Project, with Prof. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x689, 283 KB) General Leslie Groves (left), military head of the Manhattan Project, with Prof. ... Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... This article is about the United States military building. ...


Groves renamed the project The Manhattan Engineer District. The name evolved from the Corps of Engineers practice of naming districts after its headquarters' city (Marshall's headquarters were in New York City). At that time, Groves was promoted to brigadier general, giving him the rank necessary to deal with senior scientists in the project. A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ...


Within a week of his appointment, Groves had solved the Manhattan Project's most urgent problems. His forceful and effective manner was soon to become all too familiar to the atomic scientists.


The first major scientific hurdle of the project was solved on December 2, 1942, beneath the bleachers of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, where a team led by Enrico Fermi, for whom Fermilab is named, initiated the first artificial [12] self sustaining nuclear chain reaction in an experimental nuclear reactor named Chicago Pile-1. A coded phone call from Compton saying, "The Italian navigator [referring to Fermi] has landed in the new world, the natives are friendly" to Conant in Washington, D.C., brought news of the experiment's success. is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bleachers is a term used to describe the raised, tiered stands found by sports fields or at other spectator events. ... Stagg Field was a stadium in Chicago, Illinois. ... Fermi redirects here. ... Aerial view of the Fermilab site. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... On December 2, 1942, the worlds first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, Chicago Pile-1, took place on a squash court beneath Stagg Field on the University of Chicago campus. ... A navigator is the person onboard a ship responsible for the navigation of the vessel. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Uranium bomb

A gun-type nuclear bomb.

The Hiroshima bomb, Little Boy, was made from uranium-235, a rare isotope of uranium that has to be physically separated from the more plentiful uranium-238 isotope, which is not suitable for use in an explosive device. Since U-235 is only 0.7% of raw uranium and is chemically identical to the 99.3% of U-238, various physical methods were considered for separation. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 730 × 350 pixelsFull resolution (730 × 350 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This drawing is a modification of the one uploaded by FastFission with URL http://commons. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 730 × 350 pixelsFull resolution (730 × 350 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This drawing is a modification of the one uploaded by FastFission with URL http://commons. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Little Boy was the codename of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945 by the 12-man crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets (Tibbets, age 92, died Nov. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes, for example separating natural uranium into enriched uranium and depleted uranium. ...

Control panels and operators for calutrons at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Control panels and operators for calutrons at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

One method of separating uranium 235 from raw uranium ore was devised by Franz Simon and Nicholas Kurti, two Jewish émigrés, at Oxford University. Their method using gaseous diffusion was scaled up in large separation plants at Oak Ridge Laboratories and used uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas as the process fluid. This method eventually produced most of the U-235, although it was also important for producing partly enriched material to feed the calutrons (see below), which also produced significant U-235. Download high resolution version (640x684, 72 KB)Control panels and operators for calutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ... Download high resolution version (640x684, 72 KB)Control panels and operators for calutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ... Schematic diagram of uranium isotope separation in the calutron. ... Y-12 National Security Complex Operated by BWX Technologies Y‑12 for the National Nuclear Security Administration, Y‑12 plays a vital role in the U.S. Department of Energys Nuclear Weapons Complex. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... Sir Francis Simon was a British scientist and a Fellow of the Royal Society. ... Professor Nicholas Kurti (Hungarian: Kürti Miklós) FRS (May 14, 1908- November 24, 1998) was a Hungarian-born physicist. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... -1... Uranium hexafluoride (UF6), referred to as hex in industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ...


Another method—electromagnetic isotope separation—was developed by Ernest Lawrence at the University of California Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley. This method employed devices known as calutrons, which were effectively mass spectrometers. A total of 70,000,000 pounds of silver from the U.S. Treasury reserves was used for coils. (Copper was originally intended for the coils, but there was an insufficient amount available due to war shortages. The project engineers were forced to borrow silver from the Treasury, which was returned after the project ended.) Initially the method seemed promising for large scale production but was expensive and produced insufficient material and was later abandoned after the war. Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes. ... Ernest O. Lawrence Ernest Orlando Lawrence (August 8, 1901 – August 27, 1958) was an American physicist and Nobel Laureate best known for his invention, utilization, and improvement of the cyclotron beginning in 1929, and his later work in uranium-isotope separation in the Manhattan Project. ... The Berkeley Lab is perched on a hill overlooking the Berkeley central campus and San Francisco Bay. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... Schematic diagram of uranium isotope separation in the calutron. ... Mass spectrometry is a technique for separating ions by their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Other techniques were also tried, such as thermal diffusion. Most of this separation work was performed at Oak Ridge.


The uranium bomb was a gun-type fission weapon. One mass of U-235, the "bullet," is fired down a more or less conventional gun barrel into another mass of U-235, rapidly creating the critical mass of U-235, resulting in an explosion. The method was so certain to work that no test was carried out before the bomb was dropped over Hiroshima. Also, the bomb dropped used all the existing extremely highly purified U-235 (and even most of the highly purified material) so there was no U-235 available for such a test anyway. Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the gun method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ...


Plutonium bomb

The basic concept of an implosion-style nuclear weapon. Actual pictures and details of the bomb's inner workings remain classified.
The basic concept of an implosion-style nuclear weapon. Actual pictures and details of the bomb's inner workings remain classified.

The bombs used in the first test at Trinity Site on July 16, 1945, in New Mexico (the gadget of the Trinity test), and in the Nagasaki bomb, Fat Man, were made primarily of plutonium-239, a synthetic element. Implosion type nuclear weapon (Fat Man) drawn by User:Fastfission in Adobe Illustrator. ... Implosion type nuclear weapon (Fat Man) drawn by User:Fastfission in Adobe Illustrator. ... An early stage in the Trinity fireball. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The gadget, partially assembled on the shot tower for the Trinity test. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ...


Although uranium-238 is useless as fissile isotope for an atomic bomb, U-238 is used to produce plutonium. The fission of U-235 produces relatively slow neutrons which are absorbed by U-238, which after a few days of decay turns into plutonium-239. The production and purification of plutonium used techniques developed in part by Glenn Seaborg while working at Berkeley and Chicago. Beginning in 1943, huge plants were built to produce plutonium at the Hanford Site. Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American atomic scientist. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ...

A mock-up of the plutonium bomb, Fat Man
A mock-up of the plutonium bomb, Fat Man

From 1943–1944, development efforts were directed to a gun-type fission weapon with plutonium, called "Thin Man". Once this was achieved, the uranium version "Little Boy" would require a relatively simple adaptation, it was thought. Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the gun method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another. ... Thin Man plutonium gun test casings at Wendover Army Air Field, as part of Project Alberta in the Manhattan Project. ...


Initial tests of the properties of plutonium were done using cyclotron-generated plutonium-239, very pure but in very small amounts. On April 5, 1944, Emilio Segrè at Los Alamos received the first sample of Hanford-produced plutonium. Within ten days, he discovered a fatal flaw: reactor-bred plutonium was far less isotopically pure than cyclotron-produced plutonium, and as a result had a much higher spontaneous fission rate than uranium-235. The unwanted isotope responsible for this high fission rate was plutonium-240, formed from plutonium-239 by capture of an additional neutron. Unlike the cyclotron, the plutonium breeding reactors had a much higher neutron flux and thus yielded an increased proportion of plutonium-240. Plutonium-240 was even harder to separate from plutonium-239 than U-235 was to separate from U-238, so there was no question of doing so. The contaminating Pu-240 had to stay in the plutonium metal used in the bomb, where its spontaneous fissions were a source of unwanted neutrons. The implications of this made a "gun" detonation mechanism unsuitable. Because of the relatively slow speed of the gun device, "early" neutrons from spontaneously fissioning Pu-240 would start the reaction before the device was fully assembled by the gun process, and as a result, a plutonium bomb would "fizzle" (that is, heat up and blow itself apart) before it could be turned into a shape suitable for an efficient chain reaction which would split a substantial amount of the plutonium. Even a 1% fission of the material would result in a workable bomb, almost a thousand times more powerful than conventional bombs for the weight; but a fizzle promised far less even than this. A modern Cyclotron for radiation therapy For other uses, see Cyclotron (disambiguation). ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Dr. Emilio Segre Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 - April 22, 1989) was an Italian American physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... neutron flux n : the rate of flow of neutrons; the number of neutrons passing through a unit area in unit time via dictionary. ...


In July 1944, the decision was made to cease work on the plutonium gun method. There would be no "Thin Man." The gun method was further developed for uranium only, which had few complications. Most efforts were then directed to a different method for plutonium.

In July 1944 the laboratory abandoned the plutonium gun-type bomb ("Thin Man", shown above) and focused almost entirely on the problem of implosion.
In July 1944 the laboratory abandoned the plutonium gun-type bomb ("Thin Man", shown above) and focused almost entirely on the problem of implosion.

Ideas of using alternative detonation schemes had existed for some time at Los Alamos. One of the more innovative had been the idea of "implosion"—a sub-critical sphere of fissile material could, using chemical explosives, be forced to collapse in on itself, creating a very dense critical mass, which because of the very short distances the metal needed to travel to make it, would come into existence for a far shorter time than it would take to assemble a mass from a bullet. Initially, implosion had been entertained as a possible, though unlikely method. However, after it was discovered that it was the only possible solution for using reactor-bred plutonium, and that uranium-235 production could not be substantially increased, the implosion project received the highest priority, as the only solution to scaling up fissionable material production to the level needed for multiple bombs. By the end of July 1944, the entire project had been reorganized around solving the implosion problem. It eventually involved using shaped charges with many explosive lenses to produce the perfectly spherical explosive wave needed to properly compress the plutonium sphere. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (898x520, 335 KB) Casings for the Thin Man plutonium gun design weapons being developed during the Manhattan Project as part of Project Alberta at Wendover Field, Utah (additional Fat Man test casings can be seen in the background as well). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (898x520, 335 KB) Casings for the Thin Man plutonium gun design weapons being developed during the Manhattan Project as part of Project Alberta at Wendover Field, Utah (additional Fat Man test casings can be seen in the background as well). ... Thin Man plutonium gun test casings at Wendover Army Air Field, as part of Project Alberta in the Manhattan Project. ... Sectioned HEAT round with the inner shaped charge visible 1:Aerodynamic cover 2: Empty room 3: Conical liner 4: Detonator 5: Explosive 6: Piezo-electric sensor A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosives energy. ...


Because of the complexity of an implosion-style weapon, it was decided that, despite the waste of fissile material, an initial test would be required. The first nuclear test took place on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico, under the supervision of Groves's deputy Brig. Gen. Thomas Farrell. This test was dubbed by Oppenheimer "Trinity". A nuclear test explosion is an experiment involving the detonation of a nuclear weapon. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Alamogordo is a city located in Otero County, New Mexico, United States of America. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ... General Thomas Francis Farrell (December 3, 1891 –April 1967) was the Deputy Commanding General and Chief of Field Operations of the Manhattan Engineer District, acting as executive officer to General Leslie Groves. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ...


Similar efforts

A similar effort was undertaken in the USSR in September 1941 headed by Igor Kurchatov (with some of Kurchatov's World War II knowledge coming secondhand from Manhattan Project countries, thanks to spies, including at least two on the scientific team at Los Alamos, Klaus Fuchs and Theodore Hall, unknown to each other). Igor The Beard Kurchatov Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov (И́горь Васи́льевич Курча́тов) (January 8, 1903 – February 7, 1960), Soviet/Russian physicist. ... Klaus Fuchs ID badge at Los Alamos. ... Theodore Halls ID badge photo from Los Alamos. ...


After the MAUD Committee's report, the British and Americans exchanged nuclear information but initially did not pool their efforts. A British project, code-named Tube Alloys, was started but did not have American resources. Consequently the British bargaining position worsened, and their motives were mistrusted by the Americans. Collaboration therefore lessened markedly until the Quebec Agreement of August 1943, when a large team of British and Canadian scientists joined the Manhattan Project. // Tube Alloys was the code-name for the British nuclear weapon programme during World War II, when the very possibility of nuclear weapons was kept at such a high level of secrecy that it had to be referred to by code even in the highest circles of government. ... The Quebec Agreement was an Anglo-Canadian-American document which outlined the terms of nuclear nonproliferation between the United Kingdom and the United States. ...

The German experimental nuclear pile at Haigerloch
The German experimental nuclear pile at Haigerloch

The question of Axis efforts on the bomb has been a contentious issue for historians. It is believed that token efforts in Germany, headed by Werner Heisenberg, and in Japan, were also undertaken during the war with little progress. It was initially feared that Hitler was very close to developing his own bomb. Many German scientists in fact expressed surprise to their Allied captors when the bombs were detonated in Japan. They were convinced that talk of atomic weapons was merely propaganda. However, Werner Heisenberg (by then imprisoned in England at Farm Hall with several other nuclear project physicists) almost immediately figured out what the Allies had done, explaining it to his fellow scientists (and hidden microphones) within days. The Nazi reactor effort had been severely handicapped by Heisenberg's belief that heavy water was necessary as a neutron moderator (slowing preparation material) for such a device. The Germans were short of heavy water throughout the war because of Allied efforts to prevent Germany from obtaining it, and the Germans never did stumble on the secret of purified graphite for making nuclear reactors from natural uranium. German Experimental Pile - Haigerloch - April 1945 The original caption reads: Picture scanned by me Ian Dunster from: Most Secret War by R. V. Jones - Coronet - 1981 - ISBN 0-340-24169-1 and uncredited. ... German Experimental Pile - Haigerloch - April 1945 The original caption reads: Picture scanned by me Ian Dunster from: Most Secret War by R. V. Jones - Coronet - 1981 - ISBN 0-340-24169-1 and uncredited. ... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... Haigerloch is a town in the north-western part of the Swabian Alb in Germany. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... During the 1930s, the scientific community in the world started to understand the power of nuclear energy, and the Empire of Japan, like many other governments, was made aware of the possibility of developing a weapon which utilized nuclear fission as the source of its energy. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Farm Hall transcripts were made during and after the second world war in Britain over the possibility of Germany producing an atomic bomb during the war. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Bohr, Heisenberg and Fermi were all colleagues who were key figures in developing the quantum theory together with Wolfgang Pauli, prior to the war. They had known each other well in Europe and were friends. Niels Bohr and Heisenberg even discussed the possibility of the atomic bomb prior to and during the war, before the United States became involved. Bohr recalled that Heisenberg was unaware that the supercritical mass could be achieved with U-235, and both men gave differing accounts of their conversations at this sensitive time. Bohr at the time did not trust Heisenberg, and never quite forgave him for his decision not to flee Germany before the war when given the chance. Heisenberg, for his part, seems to have thought he was proposing to Bohr a mutual agreement between the two sides not to pursue nuclear technology for destructive purposes. If so, Heisenberg's message did not get through. Heisenberg, to the end of his life, maintained that the partly-built German heavy-water nuclear reactor found after the war's end in his lab was for research purposes only, and a full bomb project had not been contemplated (there is no evidence to contradict this, but by this time late in the war, Germany was far from having the resources for a Hanford-style plutonium bomb, even if its scientists had decided to pursue one and had known how to do it). Fig. ... This article is about the Austrian-Swiss physicist. ... Niels Henrik David Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. ...


Together with the cryptographic efforts centered at Bletchley Park and also at Arlington Hall, the development of radar and computers in the UK and later in the US, and the jet engine in the UK and Germany, the Manhattan Project represents one of the few massive, secret and outstandingly successful technological efforts spawned by the conflict of World War II. The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... During World War II, codebreakers at Bletchley Park decrypted and interpreted messages from a large number of Axis code and cipher systems, including the German Enigma machine. ... Arlington Hall Arlington Hall was the headquarters of the US Armys Signal Intelligence Service (SIS) cryptography effort during World War II. It was named for its location in Arlington Hall Station, Arlington, Virginia—a private girls school which was commandeered during the War. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... The tower of a personal computer. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...


See also

The following is a timeline of the Manhattan Project, the effort by the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada to develop the first nuclear weapons for use during World War II. The following includes a number of events prior to the official formation of the Manhattan Project as the Manhattan... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... The Smyth Report was the common name given to an administrative history written by physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Allied World War II effort to develop the atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... Ames Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Ames, Iowa. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... The Metallurgical Laboratory or Met Lab at the University of Chicago was part of the World War II–era Manhattan Project, created by the United States to develop an atomic bomb. ... Oak Ridge is an incorporated city in Anderson and Roane Counties in East Tennessee, about 25 miles northwest of Knoxville. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by UT-Battelle, LLC. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville. ... Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multiprogram science and technology national laboratory managed for the United States Department of Energy by UT-Battelle, LLC. ORNL is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near Knoxville. ... An early stage in the Trinity fireball. ... Trail ( ) is a city in the Kootenay region of the interior of British Columbia, Canada. ... Heavy water is dideuterium oxide, or D2O or 2H2O. It is chemically the same as normal water, H2O, but the hydrogen atoms are of the heavy isotope deuterium, in which the nucleus contains a neutron in addition to the proton found in the nucleus of any hydrogen atom. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes, for example separating natural uranium into enriched uranium and depleted uranium. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ... The United States of America was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ... Lise Meitner ca. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner, 1913, at the KWI for Chemistry in Berlin Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... David Bohm. ... Operation Alsos was an effort at the end of World War II by the Allies (principally Britain and the United States), branched off from the Manhattan Project, to investigate the German nuclear energy project, seize German nuclear resources, materials and personnel to further American research and to prevent their capture... The German nuclear energy project was an endeavor by scientists during World War II in Nazi Germany to develop nuclear energy and an atomic bomb for practical use. ... During the 1930s, the scientific community in the world started to understand the power of nuclear energy, and the Empire of Japan, like many other governments, was made aware of the possibility of developing a weapon which utilized nuclear fission as the source of its energy. ... Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right) The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. ... // Tube Alloys was the code-name for the British nuclear weapon programme during World War II, when the very possibility of nuclear weapons was kept at such a high level of secrecy that it had to be referred to by code even in the highest circles of government. ... Above & Beyond is a trance music group formed in 2000, famous for their remixes to famous artists such as Madonna and their own hit records. ... Colonel Paul Tibbets Jr. ... This article is about the 1955 film. ... Two silhouetted figures in The Big Combo (1955). ... // Day One is a 1989 television film about the creation of the first nuclear bomb during World War II in the USA by a team of international physicists headed by Robert Oppenheimer. ... Fat Man and Little Boy (aka Shadow Makers in the UK) is a 1989 film that reenacts the Manhattan Project, the secret Allied endeavor to develop the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It is named after the nuclear weapons known as Fat Man and Little Boy, and also... This article is about the American actor and race team owner. ... Manhattan Project is a 1985 song by Canadian progressive rock band Rush named for the WWII project that created the first Atomic Bomb. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band originally formed in August 1968, in the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario; presently comprised of bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... Iron Maiden are a British heavy metal band from east London. ... Doctor Atomic is an opera by the contemporary minimalist American composer John Adams, with libretto by Peter Sellars. ... For the Alaska-based postminimalist composer, see John Luther Adams. ... Peter Sellars Peter Sellars (born September 27, 1957) is an American theater director, renowned for his modern stagings of classical operas and plays. ... Freedom Force may refer to: Freedom Force (comics), a fictional supervillain team in the Marvel Comics universe Freedom Force (NES game), a video game for the Nintendo Entertainment System Freedom Force (computer game), a superhero computer game This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same... 3D Realms is the name of a computer game publisher and developer based in Garland, Texas. ... Doctor Manhattan is a fictional superhero who is a central character in the classic comic book series, Watchmen by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons and published by DC Comics. ... For other uses, see Watchman. ... This article is about the original PlayStation game. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  2. ^ Stephen I. Schwartz Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998. Manhattan Project expenditures
  3. ^ "Why They Called It the Manhattan Project" by William J. Broad - New York Times - October 30, 2007
  4. ^ a b c William J. Broad, Why They Called It the Manhattan Project, The New York Times, October 30, 2007
  5. ^ Frisch O. R.: "The Discovery of Fission—How It All Began". Physics Today 20 (1967), 11, pp. 43–48. Wheeler J. A.: "Mechanism of Fission". Physics Today 20 (1967), 11, pp. 49–52
  6. ^ Serber, Robert. The Los Alamos Primer (Los Alamos Report LA-1, compiled April 1943, declassified 1965): p. 21.
  7. ^ (Konopinski, C. Marvin, and Teller, Report LA-602, declassified Feb. 1973, PDF
  8. ^ In Bethe's account, the possibility of this ultimate catastrophe came up again in 1975 when it appeared in a magazine article by H. C. Dudley, who got the idea from a report by Pearl Buck of an interview she had with Arthur Compton in 1959. The worry was not entirely extinguished in some people's minds until the Trinity test.
  9. ^ "The Manhattan Project", nytimes.com, accessed Nov 2, 2007.
  10. ^ Why They Called It the Manhattan Project, nytimes.com, accessed Nov 2, 2007.
  11. ^ Chris Waltham (20 June 2002). "An Early History of Heavy Water" (PDF). Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia.
  12. ^ Natural self-sustaining nuclear reactions have occurred in the distant past (circa two billion years ago); see Natural nuclear fission reactor

The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A number of the different fission bomb assembly methods explored during the summer 1942 conference, later reproduced as drawings in The Los Alamos Primer. ... Declassified is a television series, produced by Ten Worlds Productions, on the History Channel, that originally aired on November 9, 2004. ... Pearl S. Buck (birth name Pearl Comfort Sydenstricker, Chinese name 賽珍珠) (June 26, 1892 - March 6, 1973) was a novelist. ... For other uses, see Interview (disambiguation). ... Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1927) for discovery of the Compton effect named in his honor. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Natural Reactors refer to a handful of Uranium deposits that have been discovered, mostly in Oklo, Gabon. ...

References

Overall, administrative, and diplomatic histories of the Manhattan Project
  • DeGroot, Gerard, "The Bomb: A History of Hell on Earth", London: Pimlico, 2005. ISBN 0-7126-7748-8
  • Groves, Leslie. Now it Can be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project. New York: Harper, 1962. ISBN 0-306-70738-1
  • Herken, Gregg. Brotherhood of the Bomb : The Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2002. ISBN 0-8050-6588-1
  • Hewlett, Richard G., and Oscar E. Anderson. The New World, 1939-1946. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1962.
  • Howes, Ruth H. and Herzenberg, Caroline L. Their Day in the Sun: Women of the Manhattan Project. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999. ISBN 1-56639-719-7
  • Jungk, Robert, Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists, (NY: Harcourt, Brace, 1956, 1958)
  • Norris, Robert S., "Racing for the Bomb: General Leslie R. Groves, The Manhattan Project's Indispensable Man". Vermont: Steerforth Press, First Paperback edition, 2002. ISBN 1-58642-067-4.
  • Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986. ISBN 0-671-44133-7
  • Rhodes, Richard. Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-684-80400-X
  • Feynman, Richard P. Surely you're joking, Mr. Feynman W. W. Norton & Company, 1997. ISBN-13: 978-0393316049
Technical histories
  • Sherwin, Martin J. A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975. ISBN 0-394-49794-5
  • Groueff, Stephane. Manhattan Project: The Untold Story of the Making of the Atomic Bomb. Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1967.
  • Hoddeson, Lillian, Paul W. Henriksen, Roger A. Meade, and Catherine L. Westfall. Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer Years, 1943–1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-521-44132-3
  • Serber, Robert. The Los Alamos Primer: The First Lectures on How to Build an Atomic Bomb. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992. ISBN 0-520-07576-5—Original 1943, Los Alamos Report "LA-1", declassified in 1965. (Available on Wikimedia Commons).
  • Smyth, Henry DeWolf. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes; the Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940–1945. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1945. See Smyth Report.
  • Yenne, William. "The Manhattan Project," Secret Weapons of World War II: The Techno-Military Breakthroughs That Changed History. New York: Berkley Books, 2003. 2-7.
Participant accounts
  • Badash, Lawrence, Joseph O. Hirschfelder, Herbert P. Broida, eds. Reminiscences of Los Alamos, 1943–1945. Dordrecht, Boston: D. Reidel, 1980. ISBN 90-277-1097-X
  • Bethe, Hans A. The Road from Los Alamos. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. ISBN 0-671-74012-1
  • Nichols, Kenneth David. The Road to Trinity: A Personal Account of How America's Nuclear Policies Were Made. New York: William Morrow and Company Inc, 1987. ISBN 0-688-06910-X
  • Serber, Robert. Peace and War: Reminiscences of a Life on the Frontiers of Science. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-231-10546-0

Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... Richard Greening Hewlett (b. ... Robert Jungk (1913-1994) was an Austrian writer and journalist who wrote mostly on issues relating to nuclear weapons. ... Richard Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American author of fiction and verity, including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb in 1986, and most recently, John James Audubon: the Making of an American in 2004. ... Richard Feynman Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918–February 15, 1988) (surname pronounced FINE-man) was one of the most influential American physicists of the 20th century, expanding greatly the theory of quantum electrodynamics. ... Robert Serber (1909 - June 1, 1997) was a physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project. ... Henry DeWolf Smyth (May 1, 1898 – September 11, 1986) was an American physicist, diplomat, and a bureaucrat who played a number of key roles in the early development of nuclear energy. ... The Smyth Report was the common name given to an administrative history written by physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Allied World War II effort to develop the atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... Kenneth David Nichols (13 November 1907 – 21 February 2000) was the deputy to General Leslie Groves in the American project to develop the Atomic Bomb in World War II. He was a United States Army officer and an engineer. ... Robert Serber (1909 - June 1, 1997) was a physicist who participated in the Manhattan Project. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Sherlock Holmes, pipe-puffing hero of crime fiction, confers with his colleague Dr. Watson; together these characters popularized the genre. ... For other uses, see Novel (disambiguation). ... Joseph Kanon (born 1946 in Pennsylvania) is an American author, best known for post World War II thriller and spy novels. ... Hanford Site plutonium production reactors along the Columbia River during the Manhattan Project. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), formerly the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory and usually shortened to Berkeley Lab or LBL, is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory conducting unclassified scientific research. ... The Metallurgical Laboratory or Met Lab at the University of Chicago was part of the World War II–era Manhattan Project, created by the United States to develop an atomic bomb. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Project Alberta was a section of the U.S. Army Air Force and Manhattan Project which developed the actual combat delivery of the first atomic bombs onto the Empire of Japan during World War II. Much of its work consisted in training a crew for preparation of the atomic bombing... Ames Laboratory is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Ames, Iowa. ... The Dayton Project was one of several sites involved in the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs. ... Diagram of an idealized Lithium atom, primarily useful to illustrate the nucleus of an atom. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... Fermi redirects here. ... David Bohm. ... Portrait of Dr. Emilio Segre Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 - April 22, 1989) was an Italian American physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... The following is a timeline of the Manhattan Project, the effort by the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada to develop the first nuclear weapons for use during World War II. The following includes a number of events prior to the official formation of the Manhattan Project as the Manhattan... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... The United States of America was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ... The S-1 Uranium Committee was a Committee of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) that superceded the Briggs Advisory Committee on Uranium and later grew into the Manhattan Project. ... On December 2, 1942, the worlds first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, Chicago Pile-1, took place on a squash court beneath Stagg Field on the University of Chicago campus. ... When President Roosevelt in December 1942 authorized the Manhattan Project, the Oak Ridge site in eastern Tennessee had already been obtained and plans laid for an air-cooled experimental pile, a pilot chemical separation plant, and support facilities. ... Y-12 National Security Complex Operated by BWX Technologies Y‑12 for the National Nuclear Security Administration, Y‑12 plays a vital role in the U.S. Department of Energys Nuclear Weapons Complex. ... Operation Alsos was an effort at the end of World War II by the Allies (principally Britain and the United States), branched off from the Manhattan Project, to investigate the German nuclear energy project, seize German nuclear resources, materials and personnel to further American research and to prevent their capture... The Smyth Report was the common name given to an administrative history written by physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Allied World War II effort to develop the atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project. ... The 509th Composite Group was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War and as the 509th Operations Group, is a current unit of the United States Air Force. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... Little Boy was the codename of the atomic bomb which was dropped on Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945 by the 12-man crew of the B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets (Tibbets, age 92, died Nov. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is a subject of contention among scholars, popular media, and cultures. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Manhattan Project - MSN Encarta (2653 words)
Manhattan Project, the name given to the United States effort—strongly aided by the United Kingdom—to build the atomic bombs that helped end World War II (1939-1945).
The Manhattan Project ushered in a new era in human history known as the Atomic Age.
Among the scientists and mathematicians who participated in the Manhattan Project were Philip H. Abelson, Hans Bethe, Niels Bohr, Sir James Chadwick, Enrico Fermi, Richard Feynman, Otto Frisch, George Kistiakowsky, Ernest Lawrence, Philip Morrison, Seth Neddermeyer, John von Neumann, Rudolf Peierls, I.
Manhattan Project - Conservapedia (608 words)
The Manhattan Project was the code word for the project that developed the first nuclear weapons—"atomic bombs" as they were then called—in history.
Manhattan borough had at least 10 sites that supported the project, including the project's first headquarters located in a skyscraper across from City Hall.
It was not until Dec. 6, 1941, the day before Pearl Harbor, that an all-out effort to build an atomic bomb began under the direction of General Leslie Groves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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