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Encyclopedia > Mangrove
Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal.
Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal.

Mangroves (generally) are trees and shrubs that grow in saline coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics. The word is used in at least three senses: (1) most broadly to refer to the habitat and entire plant assemblage or mangal [1], for which the terms mangrove swamp and mangrove forest are also used, (2) to refer to all trees and large shrubs in the mangal, and (3) narrowly to refer to the mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more specifically just to mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora. Mangals are found in depositional coastal environments where fine sediments, often with high organic content, collect in areas protected from high energy wave action. Mangrove swamp, partly underwater image showing the root system. ... Mangrove swamp, partly underwater image showing the root system. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Rhizophoraceae Categories: Stub | Plant families ... Species of note: Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) Category: ...



A mangrove is a plant and mangal is a plant community and habitat where mangroves thrive[2]. They are found in tropical and sub-tropical tidal areas, and as such have a high degree of salinity. Areas where mangals occur include estuaries and marine shorelines. This article is about tides in the ocean. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ...

Plants in mangals are diverse but all are able to exploit their habitat (the intertidal zone) by developing physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia, high salinity and frequent tidal inundation. About 110 species have been identified as belonging to the mangal.[2] Each species has its own capabilities and solutions to these problems; this may be the primary reason why, on some shorelines, mangrove tree species show distinct zonation. Small environmental variations within a mangal may lead to greatly differing methods of coping with the environment. Therefore, the mix of species at any location within the intertidal zone is partly determined by the tolerances of individual species to physical conditions, like tidal inundation and salinity, but may also be influenced by other factors such as predation of plant seedlings by crabs. The rocky shoreline of Newport, Rhode Island showing a clear line where high tide occurs. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... Species of note: Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) Category: ...

A cluster of mangroves on the banks of the Vellikeel River in Kannur District of Kerala, India
A cluster of mangroves on the banks of the Vellikeel River in Kannur District of Kerala, India

Once established, roots of mangrove plants provide a habitat for oysters and help to impede water flow, thereby enhancing the deposition of sediment in areas where it is already occurring. Usually, the fine, anoxic sediments under mangroves act as sinks for a variety of heavy (trace) metals which are scavenged from the overlying seawater by colloidal particles in the sediments. In areas of the world where mangroves have been removed for development purposes, the disturbance of these underlying sediments often creates problems of trace metal contamination of seawater and biota. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 175 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 175 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me. ... , For the city with the same name, see Kannur. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... Colloidal particle - small amount of matter having size typical for colloids and with a clear phase boundary (phase colloids), a group of such particles (aggregate, agglomerate) or being a macromolecule (eg. ... It has been suggested that Biota (taxonomy) be merged into this article or section. ...

Mangroves protect the coast from erosion, surge storms (especially during hurricanes), and tsunamis.[3][4] Their massive root system is efficient at dissipating wave energy.[5] Likewise, they slow down tidal water enough that its sediment is deposited as the tide comes in and is not re-suspended when the tide leaves, except for fine particles.[6] As a result, mangroves build their own environment.[3] Because of the uniqueness of the mangrove ecosystems and their protection against erosion, they are often the object of conservation programs including national Biodiversity Action Plans.[4] This article is about weather phenomena. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ...

Despite their benefits, the protective value of mangroves is sometimes overstated. Wave energy is typically low in areas where mangroves grow,[7] so their effect on erosion can only be measured in the long-term.[5] Their capacity to limit high-energy wave erosion is limited to events like storm surges and tsunamis.[8] Erosion often still occurs on the outer sides of bends in river channels that wind through mangroves, just as new stands of mangroves are appearing on the inner sides where sediment is accreting.[citation needed] Oceanic-continental convergence: The required conditions for plate accretion Accretion, in geology, is a process by which sediment is added to a tectonic plate. ...

Mangroves support unique ecosystems, especially on their intricate root systems. The mesh of mangrove roots produces a quiet marine region for many young organisms. In areas where roots are permanently submerged, they may host a wide variety of organisms, including algae, barnacles, oysters, sponges, and bryozoans, which all require a hard substratum for anchoring while they filter feed. Shrimps and mud lobsters use the muddy bottom as their home[9]. Mangrove crabs improve the nutritional quality of the mangal muds for other bottom feeders by mulching the mangrove leaves. [10] In at least some cases, export of carbon fixed in mangroves is important in coastal food webs. The habitats also host several commercially important species of fish and crustaceans. In Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, and India, mangrove plantations are grown in coastal regions for the benefits they provide to coastal fisheries and other uses. Despite replanting programs, over half of the world's mangroves have been lost in recent times. For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... For other uses, see Barnacle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oyster (disambiguation). ... Classes Calcarea Hexactinellida Demospongiae The sponges or poriferans (from Latin porus pore and ferre to bear) are animals of the phylum Porifera. ... Fossilized Bryozoa, Ordovician limestone, Batavia, Ohio Bryozoans (moss animals) are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Superfamilies and Families Thalassinoidea Thalassinidae Callianassoidea Callianassidae Callianideidae Ctenochelidae Laomediidae Thomassiniidae Upogebiidae Axioidea Axiidae Calocarididae Micheleidae Strahlaxiidae Thalassinidea is an infraorder of decapod crustaceans that live in burrows in muddy bottoms of the worlds oceans. ... Mangrove crabs are crabs that live among mangroves, and may belong to many different species and even families. ...


A red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle
A red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle

A wide variety of plant species can be found in mangrove habitat, but of the recognized 110 species, only about 54 species in 20 genera from 16 families constitute the "true mangroves", species that occur almost exclusively in mangrove habitats and rarely elsewhere[1]. Convergent evolution has resulted in many species of these plants finding similar solutions to the problems of variable salinity, tidal ranges (inundation), anaerobic soils and intense sunlight that come from living in the tropics. Plant biodiversity is generally low in a given mangal—more than twenty species are uncommon.[2] This is especially true in higher latitudes and in the Americas. The greatest biodiversity occurs in the mangal of New Guinea, Indonesia and Malaysia.[11] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1417x1063, 233 KB) Summary Mangrove (Rhizophora sp. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1417x1063, 233 KB) Summary Mangrove (Rhizophora sp. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ...

Adaptations to low oxygen

Red mangroves, which can live in the most inundated areas, prop themselves up above the water level with stilt roots and can then take in air through pores in their bark (lenticels). Black mangroves live on higher ground and make many pneumatophores (specialised root-like structures which stick up out of the soil like straws for breathing) which are covered in lenticels. These "breathing tubes" typically reach heights of up to thirty centimeters, and in some species, over three meters. There are four types of pneumatophore—stilt or prop type, snorkel or peg type, knee type, and ribbon or plank type. Knee and ribbon types may be combined with buttress roots at the base of the tree. The roots also contain wide aerenchyma to facilitate oxygen transport within the plant. A lenticel is either One of the small, oval, rounded spots upon the stem or branch of a plant, from which the underlying tissues may protrude or roots may issue, either in the air, or more commonly when the stem or branch is covered with water or earth, or A... Aerial roots are roots that are aboveground. ... Aerenchyma is the spongy tissue occurring mainly in the stems of many aquatic or marsh plants. ...

Salt crystals formed on grey mangrove leaf
Salt crystals formed on grey mangrove leaf

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1242x2001, 347 KB) Photo taken on the mangrove walk St Kilda, South Australia I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1242x2001, 347 KB) Photo taken on the mangrove walk St Kilda, South Australia I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Limiting salt intake

Red mangroves exclude salt by having rather impermeable roots which are highly suberised, acting as an ultra-filtration mechanism to exclude sodium salts from the rest of the plant. Water inside the plant shows that 90%, and in some cases of high salinity, up to 97%, of the salt has been excluded at the roots. Any salt which does accumulate in the shoot is concentrated in old leaves which are then shed, as well as stored away safely in cell vacuoles. White (or grey) mangroves can secrete salts directly; they have two salt glands at each leaf base (hence their name—they are covered in white salt crystals). Binomial name Rhizophora mangle L. Rhizophora mangle, known as the red mangrove, is distributed in estuarine ecosystems throughout the tropics. ... Suberin is a waxy substance found in higher plants. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... For other meanings of the word salt see table salt or salt (disambiguation). ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components: (1) nucleolus (2) nucleus (3) ribosome (4) vesicle (5) rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (6) Golgi apparatus (7) Cytoskeleton (8) smooth ER (9) mitochondria (10) vacuole (11) cytoplasm (12) lysosome (13) centrioles Vacuoles are found in the cytoplasm of most plant cells and...

Limiting water loss

Because of the limited availability of freshwater in the salty soils of the intertidal zone, mangrove plants have developed ways of limiting the amount of water that they lose through their leaves. They can restrict the opening of their stomata (pores on the leaf surfaces, which exchange carbon dioxide gas and water vapour during photosynthesis). They also vary the orientation of their leaves to avoid the harsh midday sun and so reduce evaporation from the leaves. Anthony Calfo, a noted aquarium author, has observed anecdotally that a red mangrove in captivity only grows if its leaves are misted with fresh water several times a week, simulating the frequent rainstorms in the tropics.[12] This is not about surgically created bowel openings; see stoma (medicine) In botany, a stoma (also stomate; plural stomata) is a tiny opening or pore, found mostly on the undersurface of a plant leaf, and used for gas exchange. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... “Aquaria” redirects here. ...

Nutrient uptake

The biggest problem that mangroves face is nutrient uptake. Because the soil is perpetually waterlogged, there is little free oxygen. Thus anaerobic bacteria liberate nitrogen gas, soluble iron, inorganic phosphates, sulfides, and methane, which makes the soil much less nutritious and contributes to a mangrove's pungent odor. Prop root systems allow mangroves to take up gasses directly from the atmosphere, and various other nutrients, like iron, from the inhospitable soil. Gases are quite often stored directly inside the roots and processed even when the roots are submerged during high tide. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Aroma redirects here. ...

Increasing survival of offspring

In this harsh environment, mangroves have evolved a special mechanism to help their offspring survive. All mangroves have buoyant seeds suited to dispersal in water. Unlike most plants, whose seeds germinate in soil, many mangrove plants (e.g. Red Mangrove) are viviparous, i.e., their seeds germinate while still attached to the parent tree. Once germinated, the seedling grows either within the fruit (e.g. Aegialitis, Acanthus, Avicennia and Aegiceras), or out through the fruit (e.g. Rhizophora, Ceriops, Bruguiera and Nypa) to form a propagule (a seedling ready to go), which can produce its own food via photosynthesis. When the propagule is mature it drops into the water where it can then be transported great distances. Propagules can survive desiccation and remain dormant for weeks, months, or even over a year until they arrive in a suitable environment. Once a propagule is ready to root, it will change its density so that the elongated shape now floats vertically rather than horizontally. In this position, it is more likely to become lodged in the mud and root. If it does not root, it can alter its density so that it floats off again in search of more favorable conditions. A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... A propagule is any plant material used for the purpose of plant propagation. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


The following listing (modified from Tomlinson, 1986) gives the number of species of mangroves in each listed plant genus and family.

Major components

Family Genus, number of species Common name
Acanthaceae, Avicenniaceae or Verbenaceae
(family allocation disputed)
Avicennia, 9 Black mangrove
Combretaceae Conocarpus, 1; Laguncularia, 11; Lumnitzera, 2 Buttonwood, White mangrove
Arecaceae Nypa, 1 Mangrove palm
Rhizophoraceae   Bruguiera, 6; Ceriops, 2; Kandelia, 1; Rhizophora, 8 Red mangrove
Lythraceae Sonneratia, 5 Mangrove apple

Species See text Avicennia is a genus of mangrove tree. ... Species See text Avicennia is a genus of mangrove tree. ... Genera Anogeissus Buchenavia Bucida Calopyxis Calycopteris Combretum Conocarpus Dansiea Guiera Laguncularia Lumnitzera Macropteranthes Melostemon Pteleopsis Quisqualis Strephonema Terminalia Terminaliopsis Thiloa Combretaceae is a family of flowering plants. ... Binomial name Conocarpus erectus L. Conocarpus erectus, one of two species in the genus Conocarpus, is a mangrove shrub and tree in the family Combretaceae growing on shorelines in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including Florida, Bermuda, The Bahamas, the Caribbean, Central and South America from Mexico to... Binomial name Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid[1]), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants belonging to the monocot order, Arecales. ... Binomial name Nypa fruticans Wurmb Nypa fruticans , known as the Attap Palm (Singapore), Nipa Palm (Philippines), and Mangrove Palm or Nipah palm (Malaysia), is the only palm considered a mangrove. ... Rhizophoraceae Categories: Stub | Plant families ... Species of note: Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) Category: ... Genera 32 (28); see text. ... Sonneratia is a genus of plants in the family Lythraceae. ...

Minor components

Family Genus, number of species
Acanthaceae Acanthus, 1; Bravaisia, 2
Bombacaceae Camptostemon, 2
Cyperaceae Fimbristylis, 1
Euphorbiaceae Excoecaria, 2
Lecythidaceae Barringtonia, 6
Lythraceae Pemphis, 1
Meliaceae Xylocarpus, 2
Myrsinaceae Aegiceras, 2
Myrtaceae Osbornia, 1
Pellicieraceae Pelliciera, 1
Plumbaginaceae   Aegialitis, 2
Pteridaceae Acrostichum, 3
Rubiaceae Scyphiphora, 1
Sterculiaceae Heritiera, 3

Type Genus Acanthus L. Genera See text The family Acanthaceae (or Acanthus family) is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants containing almost 250 genera and about 2500 species. ... Species See text Acanthus is a genus of about 30 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae, native to tropical and warm temperate regions of the Old World, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean region and Asia. ... Adansonia – Baobab Bombax – Silk_cotton tree Ceiba – Kapok Durio – Durian Ochroma – Balsa The Bombacaceae is a family of tropical trees in the order Malvales, closely related to the mallow family (Malvaceae), and often included in it, being distinguishable from that family only by the smooth pollen, and larger mature tree stature. ... Genera See text The Family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ... Genera See text Ref: Euphorbiaceae in The Families of Flowering Plants, as of 2002-07-13 The Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is a large family of flowering plants with 280 genera and around 6000 species. ... Species Excoecaria agallocha Excoecaria cochinchinensis Excoecaria parvifolia et al. ... Genera Abdulmajidia Allantoma Barringtonia Bertholletia Careya Cariniana Couratari Couroupita Foetidia Grias Gustavia Lecythis Napoleonaea The Lecythidaceae is a family of about 20 genera and 250-300 species woody plants native to tropical South America and Madagascar. ... Species See text Barringtonia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lecythidaceae. ... Genera 32 (28); see text. ... Genera See text The Meliaceae, or the Mahogany family, is a flowering plant family of mostly tropical trees and shrubs in the order Sapindales, characterised by alternate, usually pinnate leaves without stipules and by syncarpous, usually bisexual flowers borne in panicles, cymes, spikes, or clusters. ... Genera See text. ... Genera 130; see list The Myrtaceae or Myrtle family are a family of dicotyledon plants, placed within the order Myrtales. ... Genera (examples) Armeria Ceratostigma Limonium Plumbago The Plumbaginaceae are a family of flowering plants that includes a number of popular garden species, which are grown world wide for their attractive flowers. ... Genera See text Pteridaceae is a large family of ferns in the order Pteridales. ... Type Genus Rubia L. Genera See text For a full list, see: List of Rubiaceae genera Egyptian Starcluster Pentas lanceolata White luculia gratissima Rubiaceae Juss. ... Genera Abelmoschus - Okra Abutilon - Abutilon Adansonia – Baobab Alcea - Hollyhock Althaea - Marsh mallow Bombax – Silk-cotton tree Callirhoe - Poppy mallow Ceiba – Kapok Chiranthodendron – Mexican Hand Tree Cola - Kola nut Corchorus - Jute Durio – Durian Fremontodendron – Flannelbush Gaya – Gaya Gossypium - Cotton plant Hibiscus - Hibiscus Hoheria – Lacebark Kosteletzkya - Saltmarsh mallow Lavatera - Tree mallow or... Heritiera is a genus of flowering plant in the Sterculiaceae family. ...

Geographical regions

Mangroves occur in numerous areas worldwide. See List of mangrove ecoregions. This is a list of mangrove ecoregions ordered according to whether they lie in the Afrotropic, Australasian, Indomalayan or Neotropic areas of the world. ...


There are important examples of mangrove swamps in Kenya and Madagascar, the latter even admixed at the coastal verge with the Madagascar dry deciduous forests. Nigeria has the largest concentration of mangroves in Africa, spanning an area of 36,000 sq km. Many of Nigeria's mangroves have been destroyed in the last fifty years due to oil spills and leaks, destroying local fishing economy and water quality.[13] Aerial photo of a portion of the Anjajavy Forest, inset by a swath of mangrove riparian forest. ...


Mangroves are found in many parts of the tropical and subtropical coastal parts of the Americas.

United States

Because of their sensitivity to sub-freezing temperatures, mangroves in the continental United States are limited to the coastal Florida Peninsula (see Florida mangroves) and south Texas. This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... The distribution of the mangrove community in Florida is shown in red. ...

Central America & Caribbean

Mangroves also occur on the west coast of Costa Rica, on the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Nicaragua, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama and on many Caribbean Islands, such as Antigua and St. Lucia. Significant mangals include the Marismas Nacionales-San Blas mangroves in Mexico. Mangroves can also be found in Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and the Pacific coast of El Salvador. This is a list of inhabited islands in the Caribbean. ... This article is about the country in the Caribbean; for the Catholic saint, see Saint Lucy Saint Lucia is an island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Largest mangrove forest in Mexico, a critical and endangered biome. ...

South America

Brazil contains approximately 26,000 km² of mangals, which is 15% of the world's total of 172,000 km².

Ecuador and Peru also have significant areas of mangroves mainly in the Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes mangroves. The Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes mangroves are an ecoregion located in the Gulf of Guayaquil in South America, in northern Peru and southern Ecuador. ...

Venezuela's northern Caribbean island, Margarita, also possesses mangrove forest in the Parque Nacional la Restinga. Puerto Cruz beach. ...

Mangrove near the town of Cienaga, Magdalena in the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta swampy marshes.
Mangrove near the town of Cienaga, Magdalena in the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta swampy marshes.

Colombia also possesses large mangrove forests on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1011 × 758 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1011 × 758 pixel, file size: 3. ... Location in the Department of Magdalena. ... Motto: Liderazgo, Seguridad y Transparencia (Spanish: Leadership, Security and Transparency) Anthem: Himno del Magdalena The Department of Magdalena shown in red Established July 25, 1824 Region Caribbean Region Capital Santa Marta Number of Municipalities 31 Governor - Governors Political Party Trino Luna Correa Colombian Liberal Party Area Total  - Land  - Water... In this satellite image, the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta is the greenish area at top, bordered by the Caribbean Sea on the left. ...

A mangrove of the genus Sonneratia, showing abundant pneumatophores, growing on the landward margin of the reef flat on Yap.

Download high resolution version (900x692, 339 KB)Mangrove (Sonneratia ?alba) trees and pneumatophores on the coast of Yap. ... Download high resolution version (900x692, 339 KB)Mangrove (Sonneratia ?alba) trees and pneumatophores on the coast of Yap. ... Aerial roots are roots that are aboveground. ... YAP (which stands for Yet Another Previewer or Yet Another Prolog) is the acronym used for two document previewing applications and one Prolog compiler. ...


Mangroves occur on the south coast of Asia, throughout the Indian subcontinent, in all the southeast Asian countries, and on islands in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, South China Sea and the Pacific. The mangal is particularly prevalent in the deltas of large Asian rivers. Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ...

The Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world, located in the Ganges delta in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. There are major mangals in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat.[14] Other significant mangals include the Bhitarkanika Mangroves and Godavari-Krishna mangroves. Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Ganga redirects here. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... Gulf of Kutch on the left. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... The Bhitarkanika Mangroves are a mangrove wetland in Indias Orissa state. ... The Godavari-Krishna mangroves are a Mangrove ecoregion of Indias southeastern or Coromandel Coast. ...

The Pichavaram Mangrove Forest near Chidambaram, South India is the second largest mangrove forest in the world. It is home to a large variety of birds—local resident, migratory resident and the pure migratory birds—and is separated from the Bay of Bengal by a lovely beach. It is one of those rare mangrove forests which has actually increased by 90% between 1986 and 2002.[citation needed] , This article is about the town in Cuddalore district. ...

There are large areas of mangroves in Oman near Muscat, in particular at Shinas, Qurm Park and Mahout Island. In Arabic, mangrove trees are known as qurm, thus the mangrove area in Oman is known as Qurm Park.

Iranian mangrove forests occur between 25°11′N to 27°52′N. These forests exist in the north part of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, along three Maritime Provinces in the south of Iran. These provinces respectively from southwest to southeast of Iran, include Bushehr, Hormozgan and Sistan & Balouchestan. Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Bushehr or Bushire (بوشهر), pop. ... Qeshm Island is a protected UNESCO biosphere reserve, seen here on a stormy day in The Persian Gulf. ...

In Vietnam, mangrove forests grow along the southern coast, including two forests: the Can Gio Mangrove Forest biosphere reserve and the U Minh mangrove forest in the Sea and Coastal Region of Kien Giang, Ca Mau and Bac Lieu province. Can Gio Biosphere Reserve is a wetland located 40 km South-east of Ho Chi Minh City. ... A biosphere reserve is an international conservation designation given by UNESCO under its Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB). ... Kiên Giang   is a southern province of Vietnam known for fishing and rice farming. ... Ca Mau is a city in Vietnam. ... Bac Lieu (in Vietnamese, Bạc Liêu) is a Province of Vietnam. ...


In Australasia, mangroves occur around much of New Guinea, Sulawesi and the surrounding islands. Australia has mangle primarily on the northern and eastern coasts of the continent. It has approximately 11,500 km² of mangroves with occurrences as far south as Corner Inlet in Victoria (37°45′S) and Barker Inlet in Adelaide, South Australia.[15] New Zealand also has mangrove forests extending to around 38°S (similar to Australia's southernmost mangrove incidence): the furthest geographical extent on the west coast is Raglan Harbour (37°48′S); on the east coast, Ohiwa Harbour (near Opotiki) is the furthest south that mangroves are found (38°00′S).[16] Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Sulawesi (formerly more commonly known as Celebes, IPA: a Portuguese-originated form of the name) is one of the four larger Sunda Islands of Indonesia and is situated between Borneo and the Maluku Islands. ... VIC redirects here. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Raglan is a seaside town and surrounding district associated with Whaingaroa Harbour (also known as Raglan Harbour) on the west coast of the Waikato region in New Zealands North Island. ... Opotiki is a town in the eastern Bay of Plenty in the North Island of New Zealand. ...

Pacific islands

Twenty-five species of mangrove are found on various Pacific islands, with extensive mangals on some islands. Mangals on Guam, Palau, Kosrae and Yap have been badly affected by development.[17] Mangroves are not native to Hawaii, but the Red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, and Oriental mangrove, Bruguiera sexangula, have been introduced and are now naturalized.[18] Both species are classified as "Pest Plants of Hawaiian Native Ecosystems" by the University of Hawaii Botany Department.[19] Map of Kosrae State Kosrae (pronounced in English), also known as Kusaie, is an island in Micronesia. ... YAP (which stands for Yet Another Previewer or Yet Another Prolog) is the acronym used for two document previewing applications and one Prolog compiler. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Binomial name Rhizophora mangle L. Rhizophora mangle, known as the red mangrove, is distributed in estuarine ecosystems throughout the tropics. ... In biology, naturalisation is the process when foreign or cultivated plants have spread into the wild, where they multiply by natural regeneration. ... This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ...

Growing mangroves

Red Mangroves are the most commonly grown of all species, used particularly in Marine Aquariums in a sump to reduce proteins and other minerals in the water. People also may grow them just for their unusual appearance, either in Aquariums, or as ornamental plants, such as in Japan. In Hawaii, these plants are considered pests, while in Florida they are heavily protected. This article is about sumps in general. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Aquarium is also the name of the Russian band, which is also spelled Akvarium A 335,000 gallon (1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


The United Nations Environment Program has estimated that a quarter of the destruction of mangrove forests stems from shrimp farming.[20] Klaus Töpfer, UNEP Exec. ... Shrimp growout pond on a farm in South Korea. ...

Grassroots efforts to save mangroves from development are becoming more popular as the benefits of mangroves are becoming more widely known. In the Bahamas, for example, active efforts to save mangroves are occurring on the islands of Bimini and Great Guana Cay. [--168. ... Bimini Island from space, June 1998 Map of the Bahamas with the Biminis positioned center left (click to enlarge). ... Great Guana Cay and surrounding islands. ...

In popular media

  • The mangrove is used as a symbol in Annie Dillard's essay Sojourner due to its significance as a self-sustaining biome.
  • The manga series One Piece has a forest of giant mangroves forming the Shabondy Archipelago, notable for creating a resin combined with the oxygen breathed out of the trees to create large bubbles used and manipulated by the local population for everything from transport to hotels.

Annie Dillard (born 30 April 1945 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American author, best known for her narrative nonfiction. ... One piece redirects here. ...


  1. ^ a b Hogarth, Peter J. (1999). The Biology of Mangroves Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  2. ^ a b c Mangal (Mangrove). World Vegetation. Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden, University of California at Los Angeles
  3. ^ a b Mazda, Y.; Kobashi, D. and Okada, S. (2005) "Tidal-Scale Hydrodynamics within Mangrove Swamps" Wetlands Ecology and Management 13(6): pp. 647-655
  4. ^ a b Danielsen, F. et al. (2005) "The Asian tsunami: a protective role for coastal vegetation" Science 310: p. 643.
  5. ^ a b Massel, S. R.; Furukawa, K.and Brinkman R. M. (1999) "Surface wave propagation in mangrove forests" Fluid Dynamics Research 24(4): pp.219-249
  6. ^ Mazda, Yoshihiro et al. (1997) "Drag force due to vegetation in mangrove swamps" Mangroves and Salt Marshes 1: pp.193-199
  7. ^ Baird, Andrew (26 December 2006) "False Hopes and Natural Disasters" New York Times editorial
  8. ^ Dahdouh-Guebas, F. et al. (2005) "How effective were mangroves as a defence against the recent tsunami?" Current Biology 15(12): pp. 443-447
  9. ^ Encarta Encyclopedia 2005. Article — Seashore, by Heidi Nepf.
  10. ^ Skov, Martin W. and Hartnoll, Richard G. (March 2002). Paradoxical selective feeding on a low-nutrient diet: why do mangrove crabs eat leaves? Oecologia 131(1): pp. 1-7.
  11. ^ UN Report on mangrove diversity.
  12. ^ Calfo, Anthony (2006). Mangroves for the Marine Aquarium.
  13. ^ O'Neill.T (2007). "Curse of the Black Gold". National Geographic: 88 to 117. 
  14. ^ Mangroves of India - URL retrieved November 26, 2006
  15. ^ Zann, Leon P. [1995]. "Mangrove ecosystems in Australia: structure, function and status", State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia. Australian Government, Dept of Environment and Heritage. ISBN 0-642-17399-0. Retrieved on 2006-11-25. 
  16. ^ Mangroves and Seagrasses - Treasures of the Sea
  17. ^ Hawaii and the Pacific Islands
  18. ^ Allen, James A. and Krauss, Ken W. (2006) "Influence of Propagule Flotation Longevity and Light Availability on Establishment of Introduced Mangrove Species in Hawai'i". Pacific Science 60:3, July 2006. Abstract at [1] - URL retrieved November 28, 2006.
  19. ^ Hawaiian Alien Plant Studies - URL retrieved November 28, 2006.
  20. ^ Botkin, D. and E. Keller (2003) Enrivonmental Science: Earth as a living planet (p.2) John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-38914-5

Encarta is a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation. ... Oecologia is an international peer-reviewed English language journal that publishes original research into topics related to ecology. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia A tide pool on Gabriola Island, British Columbia showing ochre sea stars A body of water is any significant accumulation of water such as an ocean, a... An Atlantic coastal salt marsh in Connecticut. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ...


  • Saenger, Peter (2002). Mangrove Ecology, Silviculture, and Conservation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. ISBN 1-4020-0686-1.
  • Hogarth, Peter J. (1999). The Biology of Mangroves. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-850222-2.
  • Thanikaimoni, Ganapathi (1986). Mangrove Palynology UNDP/UNESCO and the French Institute of Pondicherry, ISSN 0073-8336 (E).
  • Tomlinson, Philip B. (1986). The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-25567-8.
  • Teas, H. J. (1983). Biology and Ecology of Mangroves. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague. ISBN 90-6193-948-8.
  • Plaziat, J.C., et al. (2001). "History and biogeography of the mangrove ecosystem, based on a critical reassessment of the paleontological record". Wetlands Ecology and Management 9 (3): pp. 161-179.
  • Sato, Gordon, et al. Growing Mangroves With The Potential For Relieving Regional Poverty And Hunger WETLANDS, Vol. 25, No. 3 - September 2005
  • Jayatissa, L. P., Dahdouh-Guebas, F. & Koedam, N. (2002). "A review of the floral composition and distribution of mangroves in Sri Lanka". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 138: 29-43.
  • Warne, K. (February 2007). "Forests of the Tide". National Geographic pp. 132-151
  • Aaron M. Ellison (2000) Mangrove Restoration: Do We Know Enough?

Restoration Ecology 8 (3), 219–229 doi: 10.1046/j.1526-100x.2000.80033.x Ganapathi Thanikaimoni (January 1, 1938 – September 6, 1986), often referred to as Thani was widely known for his manifold contributions to the science of palynology. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Map of Pondicherry Region, Union Territory of Pondicherry, India Pondicherry (Tamil:புதுவை,Hindi: पॉण्डिचेरी) is a Union Territory of India. ...

  • Agrawala, Shardul; Hagestad; Marca; Koshy, Kayathu; Ota, Tomoko; Prasad, Biman; Risbey, James; Smith, Joel; Van Aalst, Maarten. 2003. Development and Climate Change in Fiji: Focus on Coastal Mangroves. Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, Cedex 16, France.
  • Barbier, E.B., Sathirathai, S., 2001. Valuing Mangrove Conservation in Southern Thailand. Contemproary Economic Policy. 19 (2) 109-122.
  • Bosire, J.O., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Jayatissa, L.P., Koedam, N., Lo Seen, D., Nitto, Di D. 2005. How Effective were Mangroves as a Defense Against the Recent Tsunami? Current Biology Vol. 15 R443-R447.
  • Bowen, Jennifer L., Valiela, Ivan, York, Joanna K. 2001. Mangrove Forests: One of the World’s Threatened Major Tropical Environments. Bio Science 51:10, 807-815.
  • Jin-Eong, Ong. 2004. The Ecology of Mangrove Conservation and Management. Hydrobiologia. 295:1-3, 343-351.
  • Glenn, C. R. 2006. "Earth's Endangered Creatures" (Online). Accessed 4/28/2008 at http://earthsendangered.com.
  • Lewis, Roy R. III. 2004. Ecological Engineering for Successful Management and Restoration of Mangrove Forest. Ecological Engineering. 24:4, 403-418.
  • Lucien-Brun H. 1997. Evolution of world shrimp production: Fisheries and aquaculture. World Aquaculture. 28:21–33.
  • Twilley, R. R., V.H. Rivera-Monroy, E. Medina, A. Nyman, J. Foret, T. Mallach, and L. Botero. 2000. Patterns of forest development in mangroves along the San Juan River estuary, Venezuela. Forest Ecology and Management.

External links

  • Tsunami protection.
  • The story of the UNESCO Mangrove Programme.
  • Science and Management of Mangroves in the South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand.
  • WWF article about the mangrove biome.
  • East African Mangroves, a website managed by the Universities of Brussels (Belgium) and Florence (Italy).
  • Kenyan Mangroves.
  • Large mangrove website.
  • Borneo Mangroves.
  • Sundarbans Tiger Project Research and Conservation of tigers in the largest remaining mangrove forest in the world.
  • Coastal wetland and shoreline change mapping of Pichavaram, south east coast of India using satellite data.
  • Status of Indian Mangroves: Pollution Status of Pichavaram Mangrove, Southeast Coast of India.
  • Mangrove Action Project. Advocacy group devoted to the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of mangroves and related coastal ecosystems. Spun off from Earth Island Institute in March 2007.
  • Global Mangrove database and Information System (GLOMIS).
  • (Italian) Information and photo of Red Mangrove in aquarium - Rhizophora mangle.
  • Mangroves of Rodrigues Island.
  • Mangroves of Singapore.
  • mangrove.org - Mangrove Afforestation, Habitat Creation, Replenishment, Shoreline Stabilization.
The Earth Island Institute was founded in 1982 by environmentalist David Brower. ... A biome is a climatically and geographically defined area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Trinidad and Tobago dry forest on Chacachacare showing the dry-season deciduous nature of the vegetation The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests are a biome located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. ... Temperate mixed forest in Yunnan, southwest China. ... Pine forests are an example of a temperate coniferous forests Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ... A Mediterranean forest. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands are a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes. ... A restored Illinois grassland ecosystem at Morton Arboretum. ... Flooded grasslands and savannas are a biome, generally located at subtropical and tropical latitudes, where flooding is very frequent. ... Montane grasslands and shrublands is a biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. ... In isolation, Hawaiis Silverswords have adapted to xeric microclimates within volcanic craters, trapping and channeling dew and protecting leaves with reflective hairs. ... For other uses, see Tundra (disambiguation). ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ... The Afrotropic Ecozone is Africa south of the Sahara Desert. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... The Australasia Ecozone The Australasian ecozone – is an ecological region that is coincident, but not synonymous (by some definitions), with the geographic region of Australasia. ... The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ... Oceania is the smallest of the worlds terrestrial ecozones, and unique in not including any continental land mass. ... The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones dividing the Earth surface (see map). ...

  Results from FactBites:
Mangrove Solutions (481 words)
Mangrove restoration is an essential tool in the campaign to protect, restore, and increase nearshore habitats.
Restoring our lost and degraded mangroves to their natural state is essential to ensure the health of the world's ecosystems.
The roots of the Red Mangrove look like legs walking into the water which is why it is sometimes called the 'Walking Mangrove.' Red Mangroves are commonly grown by nurseries and their habitat value is well documented and appreciated by environmentalists.
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Mangrove branches are rookeries, or nesting areas, for beautiful coastal birds such as brown pelicans and roseate spoonbills.
This mangrove, in particular, appears to be standing or walking on the surface of the water.
Mangroves are common as far north as Cedar Key on the Gulf coast and Cape Canaveral on the Atlantic coast.
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