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Encyclopedia > Mango
Mango
Immature Black Mango fruit
Immature Black Mango fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
Genus: Mangifera
L.
Species

More than 50 species; see listing Black mango. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... Genera See text Anacardiaceae is a family of flowering plants bearing fruits that are drupes. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ...

Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The Encyclopædia Britannica (2008) reports that the mango is "considered indigenous to eastern Asia, Myanmar (Burma), and Assam state of India". Cultivated in many tropical regions and distributed widely in the world, mango is one of the most popularly exploited fruits for food, juice, flavor, fragrance and color. Its leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings and religious ceremonies. The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Genera See text Anacardiaceae is a family of flowering plants bearing fruits that are drupes. ... For other uses, see Juice (disambiguation). ... This article is about flavor as a sensory impression. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology

The name mango is ultimately from the Kodagu mange, the Malayalam manga, or the Tamil mangai, and was loaned into Portuguese in the early 16th century, and from Portuguese passed into English. The ending in -o appears in English and is of unclear origin.[1] Location of the Kodagu district with respect to the other districts of Karnataka. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA: ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people, originating on the Indian subcontinent. ...


Species

There are many species of mango, including:

  • Mangifera acutigemma
  • Mangifera altissima
  • Mangifera andamanica
  • Mangifera applanata
  • Mangifera austro-indica
  • Mangifera austro-yunnanensis
  • Mangifera blommesteinii
  • Mangifera bullata
  • Mangifera caesia
  • Mangifera camptosperma
  • Mangifera campnospermoides
  • Mangifera casturi
  • Mangifera collina
  • Mangifera decandra'
  • Mangifera dewildei
  • Mangifera dongnaiensis
  • Mangifera flava
  • Mangifera foetida
  • Mangifera gedebe
  • Mangifera gracilipes
  • Mangifera griffithii
  • Mangifera hiemalis
  • Mangifera indica
  • Mangifera kemanga
  • Mangifera lalijiwa
  • Mangifera laurina
  • Mangifera longipes
  • Mangifera macrocarpa
  • Mangifera magnifica
  • Mangifera mekongensis
  • Mangifera minutifolia
  • Mangifera monandra
  • Mangifera nicobarica
  • Mangifera odorata
  • Mangifera orophila
  • Mangifera pajang
  • Mangifera paludosa
  • Mangifera parvifolia
  • Mangifera pedicellata
  • Mangifera pentandra
  • Mangifera persiciformis
  • Mangifera quadrifida
  • Mangifera rubropetala
  • Mangifera rufocostata
  • Mangifera siamensis
  • Mangifera similis
  • Mangifera sumbawaensis
  • Mangifera superba
  • Mangifera swintonioides
  • Mangifera sylvatica
  • Mangifera taipa
  • Mangifera torquenda
  • Mangifera transversalis
  • Mangifera zeylanica

Binomial name Blanco Mangifera altissima is a species of plant in the Anacardiaceae family. ... Binomial name Mangifera caesia Jack ex Wall. ... Binomial name Kosterm. ... Binomial name Lour. ... Binomial name Blume Mangifera macrocarpa is a species of plant in the Anacardiaceae family. ... Binomial name Griffith Mangifera odorata is a species of plant in the Anacardiaceae family. ... Binomial name Kosterm. ... Binomial name Hook. ... Binomial name Wu & Ming Mangifera persiciformis is a species of plant in the Anacardiaceae family. ... Binomial name Blume Mangifera similis is a species of plant in the Anacardiaceae family. ... Binomial name Roxb. ... Binomial name (Blume) Hook. ...

Description

Mango flowers
Mango flowers


Mango trees (Mangifera indica) reach 35-40 m in height, with a crown radius of 10 m. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15-35 cm long and 6-16 cm broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10-40 cm long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5-10 mm long, with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. After the flowers finish, the fruit takes from three to six months to ripen. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x800, 242 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mango Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (960x800, 242 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Mango Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about plant types. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... White-fruited Rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) corymb; note the branched structures holding the fruits. ... Binomial name Convallaria majalis Lily of the valley is a flowering plant of the Convallaria genus. ...


The ripe fruit is variable in size (right image) and color, such as yellow, orange, red or purple. Often red on the side facing the sun and yellow where shaded, a mango that is green usually indicates unripe fruit, but this depends on the cultivar. When ripe, the unpeeled fruit gives off a distinctive resinous sweet smell. In its center is a single flat oblong seed that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, depending on cultivar. Inside the seed coat 1-2 mm thick is a thin lining covering a single embryo, 4-7 cm long, 3-4 cm wide, 1 cm thick. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ...

A mango (left) that is much larger than a common one (right).
A mango (left) that is much larger than a common one (right).

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 584 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1081 × 1110 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Template:Information=Photo taken in Hong Kong File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 584 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1081 × 1110 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Template:Information=Photo taken in Hong Kong File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old...

Cultivation and uses

Mangoes have been cultivated in the Indian Subcontinent for thousands of years[2] and reached East Asia between the 5th-4th century BC. By the 10th century AD, they were transported to East Africa[2] and subsequently introduced to Brazil, West Indies and Mexico, where climate allows its appropriate growth.[2] Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... This article is about the geographical region. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


The origins of mango are thought to have been from a plant from Malaysia, India and Indonesia. It probably was grown in southeast Asia before the seventh century, although the only references found are from Cambodia. The 14th century Muslim traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.[3] Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... It has been suggested that Travelling route of Ibn Batuta be merged into this article or section. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ...


Mango is now widely cultivated as a fruit tree in frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates throughout the Indian subcontinent, North, South and Central America, the Caribbean, south and central Africa, Australia and Southeast Asia. It is easily cultivated yielding more than 1,000 cultivars, ranging from the "turpentine mango" (named for its strong taste of turpentine, which according to the Oxford Companion to Food some varieties actually contain) to the huevos de toro (literally "eggs of the bull", a euphemism for "bull's testicles", referring to the shape and size). Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... For the band, see Turpentine (band). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Although a popular fruit around the world, many mango farmers receive a low price for their produce. This has led to mangoes being available as a fair trade item in some countries. Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties, such as Nam Doc Mai, yield fruit in containers. For the product certification system ( ), see Fairtrade certification. ...

Mango tree with flowers
Mango tree with flowers

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1204, 1234 KB) Mango tree (Mangifera indica) with blossoms. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1204, 1234 KB) Mango tree (Mangifera indica) with blossoms. ...

Diseases

This article is a list of diseases of mangos (Mangifera indica). ...

Food

The fruit flesh of a ripe mango is very sweet, with a unique taste. The texture of the flesh varies markedly between different cultivars, some having a soft, pulpy texture similar to an over-ripe plum, while others having firmer flesh like a cantaloupe or avocado. In some cultivars, the flesh has a fibrous texture. Mangoes are juicy with a sweet taste and high water content making them refreshing to eat. Species See text. ... Trinomial name Cucumis melo cantalupensis Cucumis melo reticulatus Naudin. ... Binomial name Mill. ...

A pack of amchur (or mango powder)

Mangoes are widely used in chutney, which in the West is often very sweet, but in the Indian subcontinent is usually made with sour, unripe mangoes and hot chilis or limes. In India, ripe mango is often cut into thin layers, desiccated , folded, and then cut and sold as bars that are very chewy. These bars, known as amavat or halva in Hindi, are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in Colombia. In many parts of India, people eat squeezed mango juice (called Ras), the thickness of which depends on the type of mango, with variety of bread items and is part of the meal rather than a dessert. Many people like to eat unripe mangoes (which are extremely sour; much more than lemon) with salt, and in regions where food is hotter, with salt and chili. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article is about the condiment. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... The chile pepper, chili pepper, or chilli pepper, or simply chile, is the fruit of the plant Capsicum from the nightshade family, Solanaceae. ... Binomial name Citrus X aurantifolia {{{author}}} Limes cut in half Lime (Citrus X aurantifolia) is a citrus tree originating from the Malay Achipelago. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... Species About 100 species, see text. ...


In Kerala, ripe mango (also ripe jackfruit) is used as a vegetable in the preparation of a dish called mambazha kaalan.


The fruit is also widely used as a key ingredient in a variety of cereal products, in particular muesli and oat granola.


In the Philippines, unripe mango is eaten with bagoong. Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango are also popular, with those from Cebu exported worldwide. Guimaras island is also a major producer of a particularly delicious mango. Bagoong is shrimp paste, commonly eaten by Filipinos. ... For other uses, see Cebu (disambiguation). ... REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES Province of Guimaras Region: Western Visayas (Region VI) Capital: Jordan Founded: May 22, 1992 Population: 2000 census—141,450 (7th smallest) Density—234 per km² (33rd highest) Area: 604. ...

Freshly harvested mangoes and bananas at a fruit stand on the island of Maui, Hawaii
Freshly harvested mangoes and bananas at a fruit stand on the island of Maui, Hawaii

In Mexico, mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick or also as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3648 × 2736 pixel, file size: 4. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Maui (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Juice is the liquid naturally contained in plants. ... Blueberry Smoothie from Lollicup A smoothie is a blended, chilled, sweet beverage made from fresh fruit and fruit juices which is blended with crushed ice, frozen fruit, or frozen yogurt. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Two large jars of aguas frescas in a taqueria in Seattle, Washington,USA. On the left is a jar of jamaica and on the right is a jar of horchata. ... This article is about the baked good, for other uses see Pie (disambiguation). ... There are hundreds of varieties of hot sauce A hot sauce is any spicy condiment sauce. ...


Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. In Thailand and other South East Asian countries, sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut then served with sliced mango on top as a dessert. Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ...


In other parts of South-east Asia, mangoes are very popular pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Fish sauce is a condiment derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment. ...


Dried unripe mango used as a spice and is known as amchur (sometimes spelled amchoor) in India and ambi in Urdu. Amb is a Sindhi and aam is a Hindi/Urdu/Punjabi word for mango. Sindhi refers to an ethnic group of people originating in Sindh which is part of present day Pakistan. ... -1... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ...


Note: The sweet bell pepper (capsicum) was once known as mango in parts of the midwestern United States.[4] Species C. annuum (incl. ...


Nutrient and antioxidant properties

An excellent overall nutritional source, mango is rich in dietary fiber and carbohydrates[5]. It contains diverse essential vitamins and minerals, many of which are particularly high in content. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E comprise 25%, 76% and 9%, respectively, of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) in a 165 g serving. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B vitamins and essential nutrients such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are at good levels. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, polyphenols, and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... The α-tocopherol form of vitamin E. Main articles: tocopherol and tocotrienol Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of 8 related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties. ... The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Peel, also known as rind, is the outer protective layer of a fruit. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. ... A polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is a class of unsaturated fat that contains more than one double bond. ...


Usually discarded as waste, the edible mango peel has considerable potential as an antioxidant food source[6][7][8]. Antioxidants of the peel and pulp include numerous carotenoids[9], polyphenols[10][11] such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mango xanthone, mangiferin[12], any of which may counteract free radicals in various disease mechanisms as revealed in preliminary research[13][14]. Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest content for which was beta-carotene accounting for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango species[15]. Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Pulp can refer to: Soft shapeless substances in general. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ... Kaempferol is a natural flavonoid which has been isolated from Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit, and other plant sources. ... Chemical structure of gallic acid Gallic acid is an organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants. ... Caffeic acid, C9H8O4 is a naturally occurring phenolic compound, (formerly called a carbolic acid), which is found in many fruits, vegetables, and herbs, including coffee, although varying in amounts depending on the plant. ... Epicatechin (EC) Epigallocatechin (EGC) Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... Xanthone is a natural chemical compound and type of antioxidant found in fruits and vegetables. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Beta-carotene is a form of carotene with β-rings at both ends. ... In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ...


The mango triterpene, lupeol[16] is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers[17][18][19]. An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro[20] and on blood parameters of elderly humans[21]. Terpenes are a class of hydrocarbons, produced by many plants, particularly conifers. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. ... In vitro (Latin: within the glass) refers to the technique of performing a given experiment in a test tube, or, generally, in a controlled environment outside a living organism. ...


In the same plant family as poison sumac, mango's peel also contains the oil, urushiol, possibly eliciting a skin rash called urushiol-induced contact dermatitis. Binomial name Toxicodendron vernix Kuntze Poison Sumac (Toxicodendron vernix or Rhus vernix) is a woody shrub growing to 3 m tall. ... For information on urushiol poisoning, see Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis. ... Toxicodendron pubescens (Atlantic Poison-oak), one of a large number of species containing urushiol irritants. ...

Mango, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 70 kcal   270 kJ
Carbohydrates     17.00 g
- Sugars  14.8 g
- Dietary fiber  1.8 g  
Fat 0.27 g
Protein .51 g
Vitamin A equiv.  38 μg  4%
- β-carotene  445 μg  4%
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.058 mg   4%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.057 mg   4%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.584 mg   4%
Pantothenic acid (B5)  0.160 mg  3%
Vitamin B6  0.134 mg 10%
Folate (Vit. B9)  14 μg  4%
Vitamin C  27.7 mg 46%
Calcium  10 mg 1%
Iron  0.13 mg 1%
Magnesium  9 mg 2% 
Phosphorus  11 mg 2%
Potassium  156 mg   3%
Zinc  0.04 mg 0%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Nutrient data in the text are for a 165 g serving as presented by Nutritiondata.com whereas the table presents data for a 100 g serving. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... For the similarly spelled pyrimidine, see Thymine Thiamin or thiamine, also known as vitamin B1 and aneurine hydrochloride, is one of the B vitamins. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... Fe redirects here. ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ...

Production and consumption

A mango cut using the "hedgehog" method
A mango cut using the "hedgehog" method

Approximately 50% of all tropical fruits produced worldwide are mangoes. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates worldwide production of mangoes at more than 23 million tons in 2001.[22] With 10 million tons, India accounts for almost half of the world production, followed by China (3 million tons), Mexico (1.5 million tons) and Thailand (1.35 million tons). The aggregate production of 10 countries is responsible for roughly 80% of the entire world mango production. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2038 KB)A mango of mine cut into its hedgehog cut File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2038 KB)A mango of mine cut into its hedgehog cut File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Alphonso, Benishan or Benishaan (Banganpalli in Telugu and Tamil) and Kesar mango varieties are considered among the best mangoes in India. Commonly exported, the Alphonso cultivar is grown exclusively in the Konkan region of Maharashtra. Alphonso is named after Afonso De Albuquerque who reputedly brought the drupe on his journeys to Goa.[citation needed] The locals took to calling this Aphoos in Konkani and in Maharashtra the pronunciation got further corrupted to Hapoos. This variety then was taken to the Konkan region of Maharashtra and other parts of India. Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states in the south, Gujarat in western India, and Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in the north are major producers of mangoes harvested especially to make spicy mango pickles having regional differences in taste. Alphonso mangoes in a box surrounded by straw. ... Alfonso (or Afonso, Alphonso) may refer to any of the following; Kings of Portugal Afonso I of Portugal -- (1109-1185) the Conqueror (Afonso Henriques) Afonso II of Portugal -- (1185-1223) the Fat Afonso III of Portugal -- (1210-1279) Afonso IV of Portugal -- (1291-1357) Afonso V of Portugal -- (1432-1481... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Afonso de Albuquerque (or Afonso dAlbuquerque - disused) (pronounced ) (treated with a Don by some although his birth didnt grant him that treatment) (1453, Alhandra - Goa, December 16, 1515) was a Portuguese fidalgo, or nobleman, a naval general officer whose military and administrative activities conquered and established the Portuguese... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Konkani language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Konkani (DevanāgarÄ«: कोंकणी; Roman: Konknni; Kannada: ಕೊಂಕಣಿ; Malayalam: കൊങ്കണി; IAST: ) is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages spoken in the Konkan coast of India. ... Andhra redirects here. ... This article is about the Indian region. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ...


Generally, once ripe, mangoes have an orange-yellow or reddish peel and are juicy for eating while those intended for export are often picked while under-ripe with green peels. Although producing ethylene while ripening, unripened exported mangoes do not have the same juiciness or flavor as fresh fruit. Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ...

A woman selling mangoes in Venezuela
A woman selling mangoes in Venezuela
Native green mangoes from the Philippines
Native green mangoes from the Philippines

Mangoes are popular throughout Latin America. In Mexico, sliced mango is eaten with chili powder and/or salt. Street vendors sometimes sell whole mangoes on a stick, dipped in the chili-salt mixture. In Indonesia, green mango is sold by street vendors with sugar and salt and/or chili, or used in a sour salad called rujak or rojak in Malaysia and Singapore. Ayurveda considers ripe mango sweet and heating, balancing all three doshas (humors), while also providing energy. Powdered raw mango is sometimes a condiment in various cuisines. Image File history File linksMetadata Mango_maracay. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mango_maracay. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 581 KB) Summary Native green mango from the Philippines Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 581 KB) Summary Native green mango from the Philippines Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Chile Powder for sale in Bolivia Chili powder (also spelled chile powder) is a generic name for any powdered spice mix composed chiefly of chili peppers, most commonly either red peppers or cayenne peppers, which are both of the species Capsicum annuum. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Ayurveda (आयुर्वेद Sanskrit: ayu—life; veda—knowledge of) or ayurvedic medicine is a comprehensive system of medicine, more than 2,000 years old and based on a holistic approach rooted in Vedic culture. ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ...


Cultivars

Many hundreds of named mango cultivars exist. In mango orchards, several cultivars are often intermixed to improve cross-pollination. Worldwide, hundreds of mango cultivars exist. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ...


In Maharashtra, the most common cultivar is Alphonso known in Asia under its original name, Hapoos. Popular outside the Indian subcontinent, Alphonso is an important export product. , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... Alphonso mangoes in a box surrounded by straw. ...


Other popular cultivars include

Notably, cultivars excelling in one climate may fail to achieve elsewhere. The cultivar Julie, a Jamaican favorite, and Alphonso have not been successfully grown in Florida. This article is for the Indian state. ... , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA:  , translation: Northern Province), [often referred to as U.P.], located in central-south Asia and northern India, is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Worldwide, hundreds of mango cultivars exist. ... , Varanasi (Sanskrit: वाराणसी VārāṇasÄ«, IPA:  ), also known as Benares (Hindi: , Urdu: , IPA: ), or Kashi (Hindi: ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Designed for the lazier palate, the Banganapalli Mango has almost zero fibre, and an unspoilt obliquely oval specimen presents an unblemised golden yellow thin edible skin. ... Worldwide, hundreds of mango cultivars exist. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchim Bônggo IPA: ) is a state in eastern India. ... Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...


The current world market is dominated by the cultivar Tommy Atkins, a seedling of Haden which first fruited in 1940 in southern Florida, USA. Despite being initially rejected commercially by Florida researchers[citation needed], Tommy Atkins is now a favorite worldwide. For example, 80% of mangos in UK supermarkets are Tommy Atkins. Despite its fibrous flesh and fair taste, growers world-wide have embraced the cultivar for its exceptional production and disease resistance, the shelf-life of its fruit, their transportability as well as size and appealing color. Tommy Atkins is predominant in the USA as well, although other cultivars, such Kent, Keitt, the Haitian grown Madame Francis and the Mexican grown Champagne are widely available. Tommy Atkins is the most important Mango cultivar in global trade. ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ... This pack of diced pork says display until 7 May and use by 8 May Shelf life is that length of time that food, drink, medicine and other perishable items are given before they are considered unsuitable for sale or consumption. ...


In urban areas of southern Florida, small gardens, or lack thereof, have fueled the desire for dwarf mango trees. The Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden has promoted "condo mangos" which produce at a height below 2-2.5 m.[citation needed] In horticulture dwarfing is considered a desirable characteristic in modern orchards, where genetic dwarfs may be selected and propagated, or more often, scions are grafted on to dwarfing rootstocks. ... Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden is a superb, 33 ha (83 acre) botanic garden, with extensive collections of rare tropical plants including palms, cycads, flowering trees and vines, located in Coral Gables, Florida. ...


A list of additional leading cultivars can be found at the cultivar list in the external links below.


There is an Australian variety of mango known as R2E2, a name based on the orchard row location of the original plant.


See also

Recalcitrant seeds are seeds that do not survive drying and freezing during ex-situ conservation. ... Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ... Genera See text Anacardiaceae is a family of flowering plants bearing fruits that are drupes. ... For information on urushiol poisoning, see Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis. ... Contact dermatitis is a term for a skin reaction resulting from exposure to allergens or irritants. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary mango, n. 1
  2. ^ a b c Ensminger 1994: 1373
  3. ^ Watson, Andrew. Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world. Cambridge University Press. p.72-3
  4. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary Definition.
  5. ^ Nutrient profile for mango, Nutritiondata.com
  6. ^ Mango peel extract shows functional food potential
  7. ^ Rocha Ribeiro SM, Queiroz JH, Lopes Ribeiro de Queiroz ME, Campos FM, Pinheiro Sant'ana HM. Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007 Mar;62(1):13-7.[1]
  8. ^ Ajila CM, Prasada Rao UJ. Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Jan;46(1):303-9.[2]
  9. ^ Gouado I, Schweigert FJ, Ejoh RA, Tchouanguep MF, Camp JV. Systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes and papaya consumed in three forms (juice, fresh and dry slice). Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;61(10):1180-8.[3]
  10. ^ Mahattanatawee K, Manthey JA, Luzio G, Talcott ST, Goodner K, Baldwin EA. Total antioxidant activity and fiber content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 20;54(19):7355-63.[4]
  11. ^ Singh UP, Singh DP, Singh M, Maurya S, Srivastava JS, Singh RB, Singh SP. Characterization of phenolic compounds in some Indian mango cultivars. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 Mar;55(2):163-9.[5]
  12. ^ Andreu GL, Delgado R, Velho JA, Curti C, Vercesi AE. Mangiferin, a natural occurring glucosyl xanthone, increases susceptibility of rat liver mitochondria to calcium-induced permeability transition. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005 Jul 15;439(2):184-93.[6]
  13. ^ Percival SS, Talcott ST, Chin ST, Mallak AC, Lounds-Singleton A, Pettit-Moore J. Neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts. J Nutr. 2006 May;136(5):1300-4.[7]
  14. ^ Rodríguez J, Di Pierro D, Gioia M, Monaco S, Delgado R, Coletta M, Marini S. Effects of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L, and its active compound, mangiferin, on energy state and lipid peroxidation of red blood cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Sep;1760(9):1333-42.[8]
  15. ^ Chen JP, Tai CY, Chen BH. Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.). J Chromatogr A. 2004 Oct 29;1054(1-2):261-8. [9]
  16. ^ Chaturvedi PK, Bhui K, Shukla Y. Lupeol: connotations for chemoprevention. Cancer Lett. 2008 May 8;263(1):1-13. [10]
  17. ^ Prasad S, Kalra N, Singh M, Shukla Y. Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Asian J Androl. 2008 Mar;10(2):313-8.[11]
  18. ^ Nigam N, Prasad S, Shukla Y. Preventive effects of lupeol on DMBA induced DNA alkylation damage in mouse skin. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Nov;45(11):2331-5.[12]
  19. ^ Saleem M, Afaq F, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H. Lupeol modulates NF-kappaB and PI3K/Akt pathways and inhibits skin cancer in CD-1 mice. Oncogene. 2004 Jul 1;23(30):5203-14. [13]
  20. ^ Rodeiro I, Cancino L, González JE, Morffi J, Garrido G, González RM, Nuñez A, Delgado R. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang), a new natural product with antioxidant activity. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Oct;44(10):1707-13.[14]
  21. ^ Pardo-Andreu GL, Philip SJ, Riaño A, Sánchez C, Viada C, Núñez-Sellés AJ, Delgado R. Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) protection against serum oxidative stress in elderly humans. Arch Med Res. 2006 Jan;37(1):158-64.[15]
  22. ^ Jedele S, Hau AM, von Oppen M. An analysis of the world market for mangoes and its importance for developing countries. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, 2003[16]

The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

References

  • Ensminger, Audrey H.; Ensminger, Marion E. (1994). Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia. CRC Press, 1373. ISBN 0849389801. 
  • Ensminger, Audrey H.; et al. (1995). The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods & Nutrition. CRC Press, 651. ISBN 0849344557. 

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Mango (12753 words)
Most Indian mangos are monoembryonic; that is, the embryo usually produces a single sprout, a natural hybrid from accidental crossing, and the resulting fruit may be inferior, superior, or equal to that of the tree from which the seed came.
Non-fibrous mangos may be cut in half to the stone, the two halves twisted in opposite directions to free the stone which is then removed, and the halves served for eating as appetizers or dessert.
Mango kernel decoction and powder (not tannin-free) are used as vermifuges and as astringents in diarrhea, hemorrhages and bleeding hemorrhoids.
Mango Growing in the Florida Home Landscape (4812 words)
Mangos are picked by hand or by using a long picking pole which has at its distal end a canvas or nylon bag attached to a metal ring with a cutting blade; ladders are also used to reach fruit high in the tree canopy.
Mango Malformation: This disorder is caused by Fusarium mangiferae Britz, a fungus.
Roots of mature mango trees spread beyond the drip-line of the tree canopy and heavy fertilization of the lawn adjacent to mango trees is not recommended and may reduce fruiting and or fruit quality.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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