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Encyclopedia > Manga
Anime and Manga Portal
The kanji for "manga" from Seasonal Passersby (Shiki no Yukikai), 1798, by Santō Kyōden and Kitao Shigemasa.

Manga (in kanji 漫画; in hiragana まんが; in katakana マンガ?) listen  is the Japanese word for comics (sometimes called komikku コミック) and print cartoons.[1][2][3] In their modern form, manga date from shortly after World War II[4] but have a long, complex history in earlier Japanese art.[5][6][7] Manga can refer to: Manga, the Japanese word for comic book La Manga, a place in the Mar Menor, Murcia, Spain The Portuguese word for the mango fruit Manga Entertainment, an American and British distributor of anime (but not of manga). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 715 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (917 × 769 pixel, file size: 154 KB, MIME type: image/png) A variant of the image Image:Wikipe-tan. ... Cover of the Komon gawa (小紋訝話; Elegant chats on fabric design), 1790 Santō Kyōden , September 13, 1761 Edo–October 27, 1816) was a poet, writer and artist in the Edo period. ... A Shigemasa, non-geisha, painting Kitao Shigemasa (1739-1820) was a Japanese ukiyo-e arist from Edo. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Katakana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet. ... Image File history File links Manga. ... Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Bronze statue of Amida Buddha at Kotokuin in Kamakura (1252 A.D.) Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture in wood and bronze, ink painting on silk and paper, and a myriad of other types of works of art. ...


In Japan, manga are widely read by people of all ages,[2] so that a broad range of subjects and topics occur in manga, including action-adventure, romance, sports and games, historical drama, comedy, science fiction and fantasy, mystery, horror, sexuality, and business and commerce, among others.[2] Since the 1950s, manga have steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry,[4][8] representing a 481 billion yen market in Japan in 2006[9] (approximately $4.4 billion dollars).[10] Manga have also become increasingly popular worldwide.[11][12] In 2006, the United States manga market was $175–200 million.[13] Manga are typically printed in black-and-white,[14] although some full-color manga exist (e.g. Colorful manga, not the anime series).[15] In Japan, manga are usually serialized in telephone book-size manga magazines, often containing many stories each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue.[2][7] If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in paperback books called tankōbon.[2][7] A manga artist (mangaka in Japanese) typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company.[4] If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run,[16] although sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films[17] (e.g. Star Wars).[18] Yen redirects here. ... $ redirects here. ... Black-and-white or black and white) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ... Colorful ) is a sixteen-episode anime directed by Ryutaro Nakamura and based on the manga by Torajirou Kishi. ... Tankōbon ) is the Japanese term for a compilation volume of a particular series (such as a manga or a novel series, magazine articles, essays, craft patterns, etc. ... Mangaka ) is the Japanese word for a comic artist. ... Animé redirects here. ... In film and video, live action refers to works that are acted out by flesh-and-blood actors, as opposed to animation. ... The cover of the 2004 DVD widescreen release of the revamped original Star Wars Trilogy. ...


Manga as a term outside of Japan refers specifically to comics originally published in Japan.[19] However, manga and manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in South Korea ("manhwa")[20][21] and in the People's Republic of China, including Hong Kong ("manhua").[22] In France, "la nouvelle manga" is a form of bande dessinée drawn in styles influenced by Japanese manga.[23] In the U.S., manga-like comics are called Amerimanga, world manga, or original English-language manga (OEL manga).[24] Manhwa is the general Korean term for comics and print cartoons (common usage also includes animated cartoons). ... Manhua (Traditional Chinese: 漫畫; Simplified Chinese: 漫画; Pinyin: ) is a general term for comics produced in China, often including Chinese translations of Japanese manga. ... An example of Nouvelle Manga by Frédéric Boilet and Kan Takahama La Nouvelle Manga is an artistic movement combining French comics with Japanese manga. ... Original English-language manga or OEL manga are comic books or graphic novels whose language of original publication is English and which are created by comic artists and writers influenced by Japanese anime and manga. ...

Contents

Etymology

Manga, literally translated, means "whimsical pictures". The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook "Shiji no yukikai" (1798), and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's "Manga hyakujo" (1814) and the celebrated Hokusai manga containing assorted drawings from the sketchbook of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai.[25] The first user of the word "manga" as its modern usage is Rakuten Kitazawa.[26] Shortcut: WP:LI Welcome to the Wikipedia image gallery. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Cover of the Komon gawa (小紋訝話; Elegant chats on fabric design), 1790 Santō Kyōden , September 13, 1761 Edo–October 27, 1816) was a poet, writer and artist in the Edo period. ... View of Mount Fuji from Numazu, part of the Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō series by Hiroshige, published 1850 Ukiyo-e ), pictures of the floating world, is a genre of Japanese woodblock prints (or woodcuts) and paintings produced between the 17th and the 20th centuries, featuring motifs of... Katsushika Hokusai, (葛飾北斎), (1760—1849[1]), was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period . ... Rakuten Kitazawa , 20 July 1876 in ÅŒmiya, Saitama, Japan - 25 August 1955) was the pen name of Kitazawa Yasuji ), who was a mangaka and Nihonga artist. ...


History and characteristics

Main article: History of manga
Osamu Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique as seen in Shin Takarajima (New Treasure Island).

Historians and writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. Their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-War, Meiji, and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art. The History of manga begins in the 19th Century. ... Tezuka redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ...


The first view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation of Japan (1945–1952), and stresses that manga was strongly shaped by U.S. cultural influences, including U.S. comics brought to Japan by the GIs and by images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney).[4][7] Alternately, other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt,[7][8] Kinko Ito,[27] and Adam L. Kern[28][29] stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga. Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... Disney redirects here. ... Frederik L. Schodt is an American writer, translator and interpreter, notable in manga and anime fandom for his translations of works such as Osamu Tezukas Phoenix, Riyoko Ikedas The Rose of Versailles, Keiji Nakazawas Barefoot Gen, and others. ...


In the modern manga originates in the Occupation (1945–1952) and post-Occupation years (1952–early 1960s), when a previously militaristic and ultranationalist Japan was rebuilding its political and economic infrastructure.[7][30] There was an explosion of artistic creativity in this period[7] from manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka (Astro Boy) and Machiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san) Tezuka redirects here. ... This article is about the 1950s manga and 1960s anime. ... Machiko Hasegawa (長谷川町子 Hasegawa Machiko) (January 30, 1920 – May 27, 1992) was one of the first female manga artists. ... Sazae-san (サザエさん) is a Japanese comic strip created by Machiko Hasegawa. ...

A kami-shibai story teller from Sazae-san by Machiko Hasegawa. Sazae is the woman with her hair in a bun.

Astro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere,[31][32] and Sazae-san is still running today. Tezuka and Hasegawa were both stylistic innovators. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique (right), the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots.[7] This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists.[7] Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga.[2][33][34] Between 1950 and 1969, increasingly large audiences for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls.[7][35] Machiko Hasegawa (長谷川町子 Hasegawa Machiko) (January 30, 1920 – May 27, 1992) was one of the first female manga artists. ... Page from long running shōjo manga Glass Mask by Suzue Miuchi, demonstrating archetypal shōjo art conventions Shōjo or shoujo ) is a term used in English to refer to manga and anime aimed at a female audience between the ages of 13 and 18. ... Bleach , a well-known example of Shōnen manga This article is about the shōnen style of anime and manga. ...


In 1969, a group of female manga artists later called the Year 24 Group (also known as Magnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut (year 24 comes from the Japanese name for 1949, when many of these artists were born).[36][37] The group included Hagio Moto, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi[2] and they marked the first major entry of women artists into manga.[2][7] Thereafter, shōjo manga would be drawn primarily by women artists for an audience of girls and young women.[7][35][38] In the following decades (1975-present), shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres.[39] Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese, redisu レディース, redikomi レディコミ, and josei 女性).[2][8] Year 24 group (nijuyon-nen gumi/24年組) is a female manga artist group that innovated shōjo manga (girls manga). ... Moto Hagio ) is a female mangaka born on May 12, 1949 in Omuta City, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, though she currently lives in Saitama Prefecture. ... Riyoko Ikeda (æ± ç”° 理代子 Ikeda Riyoko, born 1947) is a Japanese mangaka. ... Keiko Takemiya (竹宮 惠子) (born 1950) is a female manga artist. ... Ryoko Yamagishi , born 1947 in Hokkaidō) is a female mangaka. ...


In modern shōjo manga romance, love is a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization.[40] With the superheroines, shōjo manga saw releases such as Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon (Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn: "Pretty Girl Soldier Sailor Moon"), which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats.[41][42] The superheroine subgenre also extensively developed the notion of teams (sentai) of girls working together.[43][clarify] Naoko Takeuchi (武内直子 Takeuchi Naoko), born March 15, 1967, is a manga artist who lives in Tokyo, Japan. ... For the title character, see Sailor Moon (character) and for the first story arc, see Dark Kingdom arc. ... Sentai is a Japanese word which roughly translates to task force. It is often use to refer to a specific type of fictional story, which stars a specially organized group of heroes; good examples of Sentai is the various Super Sentai live-action Japanese television programs which the American Power...


Manga for male readers can be characterized by the age of its intended audience: boys up to 18 years old (shōnen manga) and young men 18- to 30-years old (seinen manga),[44] as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality.[45] The Japanese use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen"—青年 for "youth, young man" and 成年 for "adult, majority"—the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin ("adult," 成人) manga.[46][47] Shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga share many features in common. Seinen not to be confused with adult )) is a subset of manga that is generally targeted at an 18–30 year old male audience, but the audience can be much older with some comics aimed at businessmen well into their 40s. ...


Boys and young men were among the earliest readers of manga after World War II.[48] From the 1950s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots and space travel, and heroic action-adventure.[49] Popular themes include science fiction, technology, sports,[48] and supernatural settings. Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man generally did not become as popular.[48] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Spider-Man swinging around his hometown, New York City. ...


The role of girls and women in manga for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls (bishōjo)[50] such as Belldandy from Oh My Goddess!,[51] stories where the hero is surrounded by such girls and women, as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team,[52] or groups of heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo)[53] The bishōjo style of drawing uses large, limpid eyes for increased cuteness, as in the character of NyÅ« from Elfen Lied. ... For the Norse mythology deity, see Verdandi. ... Oh My Goddess! was first published in 1988-09-25 as a spinoff from the manga Youre Under Arrest (逮捕しちゃうぞ, Taiho Shichauzo); Fujishima had added a four-panel gag strip to Youre Under Arrest in which the main characters prayed to a goddess. ... Serialized in Shonen Champion Original run 2000 – 2006 No. ...


With the relaxation of censorship in Japan after the early 1990s, a wide variety of explicitly drawn sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers that correspondingly occur in English translations.[47] These depictions range from mild partial nudity through implied and explicit sexual intercourse through bondage and sadomasochism (SM), zoophilia (bestiality), incest, and rape.[54] It has been suggested that Duration of sexual intercourse be merged into this article or section. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... This article is about zoophilia, the emotional and (optionally) sexual attraction of humans to animals. ... Incest is defined as sexual relations between closely related persons (often within the immediate family) such that it is either illegal or socially taboo. ...


Gekiga is a style of drawing is emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent, and focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions.[55][56] Gekiga such as Sampei Shirato's 1959-1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō) arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working class political activism[55][57][58] and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga.[59][60] Gekiga (劇画) is Japanese for dramatic pictures. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Publications

In Japan, manga constitutes a 406.7 billion yen (3.707 billion USD) publication industry for 2007.[61] On average many volumes of manga are printed annually.[clarify] The manga industry expanded worldwide.[clarify] Distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages.


When a series has been running for a while, the stories are usually collected together and printed in dedicated book-sized volumes, called tankōbon. These are the equivalent of U.S. trade paperbacks or graphic novels. These volumes use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive. Recently, "deluxe" versions have also been printed as readers have got older and the need for something special grew. Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen (about $1 U.S. dollar) each to compete with the used book market. A trade paperback can refer to any book that is bound with a heavy paper cover that is generally cheaper than the hardcover but more expensive than the regular paperback version. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ...


Manga are primarily classified by the age and gender of the target audience.[8] In particular, books and magazines sold to boys (shōnen) and girls (shōjo) have distinctive cover art and are placed on different shelves in most bookstores. Due to cross-readership, consumer response is not limited by demographics. For example, male readers subscribing to a series intended for girls and so on.


Japan also has manga cafés, or manga kissa (kissa is an abbreviation of kissaten). At a manga kissa, people drink coffee and read manga, and sometimes stay there overnight. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A cup of coffee Coffee as a drink, usually served hot, is prepared from the roasted seeds (beans) of the coffee plant. ...


There has been an increase in the amount of publications of original webmanga. It is internationally drawn by enthusiasts of all levels of experience, and is intended for online viewing. It can be ordered in graphic novel form if available in print. Web comics are comics that are available on the web. ...


The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese.[62]


Magazines

See also: List of manga magazines

Manga magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue. Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine Newtype features single chapters within their monthly periodicals. These manga magazines, or "anthology magazines", as they are also known (colloquially "phone books"), are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages long. Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma (equivalent to comic strips). Manga series can run for many years if they are successful. Manga artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their name out. If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued. This is a listing, by country of publication and target audience, of manga magazines. ... For the magazine Newtype, see Newtype (magazine). ... In the American comic book industry, the term one-shot is used to denote a pilot comic or a stand-alone story created to last as one issue. ... Yonkoma manga (4コマ漫画, four cell manga), or 4-koma for short, is a Japanese comic strip format which consists of gags within four cells. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ...


Dōjinshi

Main article: Dōjinshi

Dōjinshi are produced by small amateur publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market in a similar fashion to small-press independently published comic books in the United States. Comiket, the largest comic book convention in the world with over 510,000 gathering in 3 days, is devoted to dōjinshi. While they are many times original stories, many are parodies of or include fictional characters from popular manga and anime series. Some dōjinshi continue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction. In 2007, dōjinshi sold for 27.73 billion yen (245 million USD).[61] Dōjinshi ) are self-published Japanese or English works, usually manga or novels. ... The Dun Emer Press in 1903 with Elizabeth Yeats working the hand press Small press is a term often used to describe publishers who typically specialize in genre fiction, or limited edition books or magazines. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Metro Toronto Convention Centre, late 2004. ... A fictional character is any person, persona, identity, or entity whose existence originates from a work of fiction. ... Fan fiction (also spelled fanfiction and commonly abbreviated to fanfic) is fiction written by people who enjoy a film, novel, television show or other media work, using the characters and situations developed in it and developing new plots in which to use these characters. ...


International markets

The influence of manga on international cartooning has grown considerably in the last two decades.[63][64] Influence refers to effects on comics markets outside of Japan and to aesthetic effects on comics artists internationally.

The reading direction in a traditional manga.

Traditionally, manga are written from top to bottom and right to left, as this is the traditional reading pattern of the Japanese written language. Some publishers of translated manga keep this format, but other publishers flip the pages horizontally, changing the reading direction to left to right, so as not to confuse foreign audiences or traditional comics consumers. This practice is known as "flipping". For the most part, the criticisms suggest that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator (for example, if a person wears a shirt that reads "MAY" on it, and gets flipped, then the word is altered to "YAM"). Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asymmetrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with gas pedal on the left and the brake on the right. An excerpt from Cold Food Observance (寒食帖) by Song Dynasty scholar Su Shi (蘇軾). The calligraphy is read in columns from right to left. ...


United States

Manga were introduced only gradually into U.S. markets, first in association with anime and then independently.[12] Some U.S. fans were aware of manga in the 1970s and early 1980s.[65] However, anime was initially more accessible than manga to U.S. fans,[66] many of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain, subtitle and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate, reproduce, and distribute tankōbon-style manga books.[12][67][68] One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the U.S. was Keiji Nakazawa's Barefoot Gen, an autobiographical story of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics (1980-1983).[69][70] More manga were translated between the mid-1980s and 1990s, including Golgo 13 in 1986, Lone Wolf and Cub from First Comics in 1987, and Kamui, Area 88, and Mai the Psychic Girl, also in 1987 and all from Viz Media-Eclipse Comics.[71][72] Others soon followed, including Akira from Marvel Comics-Epic Comics and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics in 1988, and later Iczer-1 (Antarctic Press, 1994)[73] and Ippongi Bang's F-111 Bandit (Antarctic Press, 1995).[74] For more information on fans of football (soccer), see Football (soccer) culture. ... He was born in Hiroshima, and was in the city when it was destroyed by a nuclear weapon in 1945. ... Barefoot Gen ) is a manga novel written and illustrated by Keiji Nakazawa. ... Serialized in Big Comic Original run January 1, 1969 – Ongoing No. ... Serialized in Action Original run September 1970 – April 1976 No. ... First Comics was an American publisher of comic books. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Serialized in Big Comic Spirits Original run 1979 – 1986 No. ... Mai, the Psychic Girl is a manga written by Kazuya Kudo and illustrated by Ryoichi Ikegami. ... Viz Media, LLC, headquartered in San Francisco, California, is a major American anime, manga and Japanese entertainment company formed by the merger of Viz, LLC, and ShoPro Entertainment. ... Eclipse Comics was an American comic book publisher, one of several influential indendent publishers during the 1980s. ... For the eponymous film, see Akira (film) Demographic Seinen Serialized in Young Magazine Original run 20 December 1982 – 25 June 1990 Volumes 6[1] Akira ) is a cyberpunk serial manga by Katsuhiro Otomo ). An identically titled anime film adaptation was released in 1988. ... This article is about the comic book company. ... Epic Comics was a creator-owned imprint of Marvel Comics started in 1982, lasting through the mid-1990s, and being briefly revived on a small scale in the mid-2000s. ... For other uses, see Appleseed. ... Antarctic Press, a San Antonio-based company, publishes comics in a style they call American Manga. Founded by Ben Dunn in 1984, their earliest titles were Mangazine and Extremely Silly Comics. ... Ippongi Bang is a multi-media manga artist, born Jan. ...


In the 1980s to the mid-1990s, Japanese animation, like Akira, Dragon Ball, Stand Alone Complex, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and Pokémon, dominated the fan experience and the market compared to manga.[68][75][76] Matters changed when translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus in 1986. Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and translator of many Japanese manga, including Masamune Shirow's Appleseed and Kōsuke Fujishima's Oh My Goddess!, for Dark Horse and Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan.[77][78] Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a U.S. market initiative with their U.S. subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan's catalogue and translation skills.[72] This article is about the 1988 animated film. ... Dragon Ball ) is an anime that was produced in the late 1980s, being an adaptation of the first sixteen volumes of the Dragon Ball manga written and illustrated by Akira Toriyama and published in Japan in the Weekly Shonen Jump manga anthology comic. ... Batou and a Tachikoma Ghost in the Shell: Stand Alone Complex is also titled Kōkaku Kidōtai: Stand Alone Complex (ManMachine Interface: STAND ALONE COMPLEX) in Japan, and is often refered to by its acronym GitS:SAC. GitS:SAC is a Japanese anime TV series set in the Ghost in the... Original run October 4, 1995 – March 27, 1996 Episodes 26 Manga Author Yoshiyuki Sadamoto Publisher Kadokawa Shoten Serialized in Shōnen Ace Original run February 1995 – present Volumes 11 Movies Evangelion: Death and Rebirth (1997) The End of Evangelion (1997) Revival of Evangelion (1998) Rebuild of Evangelion (2007–2008) Neon... Pokémon (abbreviated from Pocket Monsters ) in Japan) is a Japanese anime series, which has since been adapted for the North American and Eurpoean television market. ... Studio Proteus was a Japanese manga import and translation company, founded in 1986 by Toren Smith and based in San Francisco. ... Masamune Shirow ) is a manga artist of international renown, born Masanori Ota (太田 まさのりOta Masanori) on November 23, 1961. ... Kosuke Fujishima Kōsuke Fujishima , born July 7, 1964) is a Japanese manga artist. ... Oh My Goddess! was first published in 1988-09-25 as a spinoff from the manga Youre Under Arrest (逮捕しちゃうぞ, Taiho Shichauzo); Fujishima had added a four-panel gag strip to Youre Under Arrest in which the main characters prayed to a goddess. ... This article describes dark horse candidates. ... Eros Comix. ... Headquarters of Shogakukan in Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan Shogakukan ) is a Japanese publisher of dictionaries, literature, manga, nonfiction, childrens DVDs, and other media in Japan. ...

A young boy reading a Black Cat manga in a U.S. bookstore

The U.S. manga market took an upturn with mid-1990s anime and manga versions of Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell, translated by Frederik L. Schodt and Toren Smith and becoming very popular among fans.[79] Another success of the mid-1990s was Sailor Moon.[80][81] By 1995–1998, the Sailor Moon manga had been exported to over 23 countries, including China, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, most of Europe and North America.[82] In 1998, Mixx Entertainment-TokyoPop issued U.S. manga book versions of Sailor Moon and CLAMP's Magic Knight Rayearth.[83] In 1996, Mixx Entertainment founded TokyoPop to publish manga in trade paperbacks and, like Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics.[76][84] Demographic Shōnen Serialized in Weekly Shōnen Jump Original run 2000 – 2004 Volumes 20[1] TV anime Director Shin Itagaki Studio Gonzo Licensor Funimation MVM Films Madman Entertainment Kaze Network Animax, TBS Original run 6 October 2005 – 30 March 2006 Episodes 24[2] Light novel: Black Cat: Hoshi no... For other uses, see Ghost in the Shell (manga) (disambiguation). ... Frederik L. Schodt is an American writer, translator and interpreter, notable in manga and anime fandom for his translations of works such as Osamu Tezukas Phoenix, Riyoko Ikedas The Rose of Versailles, Keiji Nakazawas Barefoot Gen, and others. ... For the title character, see Sailor Moon (character) and for the first story arc, see Dark Kingdom arc. ... The first cover of the Sailor Moon manga, February 1992. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... For the music movie, see Tokyo Pop. ... Clamp (or CLAMP) is an all-female Japanese mangaka group. ... “MKR” redirects here. ...


In the following years, manga became increasingly popular, and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues.[85] As of December 2007, at least 15 U.S. manga publishers have released 1300 to 1400 titles.[86] Simultaneously, mainstream U.S. media began to discuss manga, with articles in the New York Times,[87] Time magazine,[88] the Wall Street Journal,[89] and Wired magazine.[63] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... TIME redirects here. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Wired is a full-color monthly American magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ...


Europe

The influence of manga on European cartooning is somewhat different than U.S. experience. Manga was opened to the European market during the 1970s when Italy and France broadcasted anime.[90] French art has borrowed from Japan since the 19th century (Japonisme),[91] and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning.[23][92] In France, imported manga has easily been assimilated into high art traditions. For example, Volumes 6 and 7 of Yu Aida's Gunslinger Girl center on a cyborg girl, a former ballet dancer named Petruchka. The Asuka edition of volume 7 contains an essay about the ballet Petruchka by Russian composer Igor Stravinsky and first performed in Paris in 1911.[93] However, Francophone readership of manga is not limited to an artistic elite. Instead, beginning in the mid-1990s,[94] manga has proven very popular to a wide readership, accounting for about one-third of comics sales in France since 2004.[94][95][96] According to the Japan External Trade Organization, sales of manga reached $212.6 million within France and Germany alone in 2006.[90] European publishers marketing manga translated into French include Glénat, Asuka,[97] Casterman,[98] Kana,[99] and Pika,[100] among others.[94][101] European publishers also translate manga into German,[102][103] Italian,[104][105] Spanish,[106] and Dutch,[107] and other languages.[108] Manga publishers based in the United Kingdom include Orionbooks/Gollancz[109] and Titan Books.[110] U.S. manga publishers have a strong marketing presence in the UK, e.g., the Tanoshimi line from Random House.[111] Van Gogh - Portrait of Pere Tanguy Example of ukiyo-e influence in Western art Japonism (also in French Japonisme and Japonaiserie) is called the influence of Japanese art on Western, primarily French, artists. ... Tintin, one of the most famous Belgian comics Franco-Belgian comics are comics or comic books written in Belgium and France. ... Yutaka Aida (Aida Yu, name shortened to Yu Aida in the publications of Gunslinger Girl) is a Japanese manga author and artist, born on November 8, 1977. ... Serialized in Dengeki Daioh Original run November 2002 – Present No. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Random House is a publishing division of the German media conglomerate Bertelsmann based in New York City. ...


Localized manga

A number of U.S. artists have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga. An early example was Vernon Grant, who drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the late 1960s-early 1970s.[112] Others include Frank Miller's mid-1980s Ronin,[113] Adam Warren and Toren Smith's 1988 The Dirty Pair,[114] Ben Dunn's 1993 Ninja High School,[115][116] Stan Sakai's 1984 Usagi Yojimbo,[117] and Manga Shi 2000 from Crusade Comics (1997).[118][119] Poster for exhibition of Vernon Grants art. ... This article is about Frank Miller, the comic book writer and artist. ... Adam Warren, a self Portrait Adam Warren is an American comic book illustrator and writer who is most famous for his adaptation of the The Dirty Pair into comic book form. ... Dirty Pair (ダーティペア) is a humorous science fiction anime and manga franchise based on the light novel series by Haruka Takachiho. ... He is a fat retarded otaku-motherfucker. ... NHS isn`t a manga. ... Stan Sakai (born 1953) is a third-generation American of Japanese descent. ... Usagi Yojimbo lit. ...


By the 21st Century, several U.S. manga publishers began to produce work by U.S. artists under the broad marketing label of manga.[120] In 2002, I.C. Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of business, launched a series of manga by U.S. artists called Amerimanga.[121] Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga.[122] Simultaneously, TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga (OEL manga) later renamed Global Manga.[123][124] TokyoPop is currently the largest U.S. publisher of original English language manga.[125][126][127] Studio Ironcat was a small publishing company based in Fredericksburg, Virginia, dedicated to publication of manga and later, Amerimanga. ... Amerimanga, (also Ameri-manga or AmeriManga,) is a comic influenced by Japanese anime and manga, created by an American, Canadian, European or Asian comic artist outside of Japan. ... Amerimanga, (also Ameri-manga, AmeriManga, Western Manga, or World Manga) is a comic influenced by Japanese anime and manga, created by an American, Canadian, European or Asian comic artist. ... Original English-language manga or OEL manga are comic books or graphic novels whose language of original publication is English and which are created by comic artists and writers influenced by Japanese anime and manga. ...


Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga, like Frédéric Boilet's la nouvelle manga.[128] Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists.[129][130] A Francophone Canadian example is the Montréal, Québec based artists' group MUSEBasement, which draws manga-style artwork.[131] Frédéric Boilet (born January 16, 1960, in Épinal, France) is a French cartoonist and a mangaka. ... An example of Nouvelle Manga by Frédéric Boilet and Kan Takahama La Nouvelle Manga is an artistic movement combining French comics with Japanese manga. ...


Awards

The Japanese manga industry has a large number of awards, most sponsored by publishers with the winning prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher. Examples of these awards include the Akatsuka Award for humorous manga, the Dengeki Comic Grand Prix for one-shot manga, the Kodansha Manga Award (multiple genre awards), the Seiun Award for best science fiction comic of the year, the Shogakukan Manga Award (multiple genres), the Tezuka Award for best new serial manga, and the Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize (multiple genres). The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs also awards the International Manga Award annually since May 2007.[132] There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Kodansha Manga Award is an annual award for serialized manga published in the previous year. ... The Seiun Award is a famous Japanese science fiction award. ... The Shogakukan Manga Award is one of Japans major manga awards sponsored by Shogakukan Publishing. ... The Tezuka Award (since 1971) is a semi-annual manga award offered by the Japanese publisher Shueisha (集英社), under the auspices of its Weekly Shonen Jump magazine. ... Osamu Tezuka Cultural Prizes Named after Osamu Tezuka, the Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize ) is a comic book prize awarded to manga artists or their works that follow the Osamu Tezuka manga approach founded and sponsored by Asahi Shimbun. ... The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan (外務省; gaimu-sho) is one of the ministries of the Japanese government. ... International Manga Award is an award established to encourage non-Japanese mangaka in 2007. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Animé redirects here. ... Dōjinshi ) are self-published Japanese or English works, usually manga or novels. ... Hentai )   is a Japanese word that can be used to mean metamorphosis or abnormality. In Japan hentai has a negative connotation, and is commonly used to mean sexually perverted. In the West the term is used as slang for sexually explicit or pornographic comics and animation, particularly Japanese anime, manga... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An example of Nouvelle Manga by Frédéric Boilet and Kan Takahama La Nouvelle Manga is an artistic movement combining French comics with Japanese manga. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of films based on manga. ... This article lists distributors of manga in various markets worldwide. ... This is a listing, by country of publication and target audience, of manga magazines. ... Mangaka ) is the Japanese word for a comic artist. ... The Japanese comic book style of manga has developed its own visual language or iconography for expressing emotion and other internal character state. ... Manga has been translated into many different languages in different countries including Brazil, Korea, China, Taiwan, France, Germany, Italy, and many more. ... Manhua (Traditional Chinese: 漫畫; Simplified Chinese: 漫画; Pinyin: ) is a general term for comics produced in China, often including Chinese translations of Japanese manga. ... Manhwa is the general Korean term for comics and print cartoons (common usage also includes animated cartoons). ... Location of Nerima-ku in Tokyo. ... Example of a picture drawn in Shi-Painter PBBS redirects here. ... Omake (お負け but often written オマケ) means extra or bonus in Japanese. ... Original English-language manga or OEL manga are comic books or graphic novels whose language of original publication is English and which are created by comic artists and writers influenced by Japanese anime and manga. ... Otaku ) is a derisive Japanese term used to refer to people with obsessive interests in manga, anime or hentai. ... Scanlation (sometimes scanslation) is a term used for manga comics which have been scanned and translated by fans from its native language (usually Japanese or Korean) to another language, commonly English, French or Spanish. ...

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  108. ^ For example, Danish: http://www.mangismo.com/dk/default.asp?page=serier Accessed 2007-12-19.
  109. ^ Orionbooks, UK manga marketer: orionbooks.com Accessed 2007-12-19.
  110. ^ Auden, Sandy (2007-03-28). New Manga range from Titan Books launching in April. The UK SF Book News Network. Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
  111. ^ Tanoshimi UK: http://www.randomhouse.co.uk/tanoshimi/catalogue.htm Accessed 2007-12-19.
  112. ^ Stewart, Bhob. "Screaming Metal," The Comics Journal, no. 94, October, 1984.
  113. ^ Ronin by Miller: http://www.grovel.org.uk/ronin/ Accessed 2007-12-19.
  114. ^ Dirty Pair. Anime News Network. Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
  115. ^ Dunn: Ben Dunn's Fan-Tastic Website Accessed 2007-12-19.
  116. ^ Dunn: http://www.atomicavenue.com/atomic/TitleDetail.aspx?TitleID=177 Accessed 2007-12-19.
  117. ^ Usagi Yojimbo: http://www.usagiyojimbo.com/ Accessed 2007-12-19.
  118. ^ Mishkin, Orfalas, and Asencio 1997 "Manga Shi 2000." Rego Park, NY: Crusade Comics. The artists are not further identified.
  119. ^ MangaShi: http://www.crusadefinearts.com/news/20051130definitiveshi.php. The artwork is attributed to William Tucci. Accessed 2007-12-19.
  120. ^ Tai, Elizabeth. September 23, 2007. "Manga outside Japan." thestar.com Accessed 2007-12-19.
  121. ^ I.C. Entertainment (formerly Ironcat) to launch anthology of Manga by American artists. Anime News Network (2002-11-11). Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
  122. ^ Anime News Network. May 10, 2006. "Correction: World Manga". animenewsnetwork.com. Seven Seas claimed to have coined the term in 2004; Forbes, Jake. (No date). "What is World Manga?" http://www.gomanga.com/news/features_gomanga_002.php Accessed 2007-12-19.
  123. ^ Anime News Network. May 5, 2006. "Tokyopop To Move Away from OEL and World Manga Labels." animenewsnetwork. Accessed 2007-12-19.
  124. ^ Gravett, Paul. 2006. "ORIGINAL MANGA: MANGA NOT 'MADE IN JAPAN'.". Accessed 2007-12-19.
  125. ^ ICv2. September 7, 2007. Interview with Tokyopop's Mike Kiley, http://www.icv2.com/articles/home/11249.html (part1), http://www.icv2.com/articles/home/11250.html (part2), http://www.icv2.com/articles/home/11251.html (part3). Accessed 2007-12-19.
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  129. ^ Boilet, Frédéric. 2001. "Yukiko's Spinach." Castalla-Alicante, Spain: Ponent Mon. ISBN 84-933-0934-6.
  130. ^ Boilet, Frédéric and Kan Takahama. 2004. "Mariko Parade." Castalla-Alicante, Spain: Ponent Mon. ISBN 84-933409-1-X.
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  132. ^ International award: Anime News Network and MOFA: First International MANGA Award Accessed 2007-12-19.

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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